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^ ' /" ^ 



MITCHELL'S 



iNCIENT GEOGRAPHY, 



DE8IONED FOR 



ACADEMIES, SCHOOLS, AND FAMILIES 



A SYSTEM OF 

CLASSICAL AND SACEED GEOGRAPHY, 

EMBELLISHED WITH • 

ENGRAVINGS Gp'mAREABLE EVENTS, VIEWS OP ANCIENT CITIES, 

AND 

VARIOUS INTERESTING ANTIQUE REMAINS. 

TOGETHER WITH AN 

ANCIENT ATLAS, 

CONTAINING MAPS ILLUSTRATING THE WORK. 

• •. ' 

* * , ' • ^ , , '>■•• -« ' • ■■■* * *••*. 

, • ■. . - - " . - ' . ' . - ; . - . ^ . • 



» -i ■ • t . ' 






•* n • 



• « /• « « t « 



BY S. AUGUSTUS MITCHELL. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT & CO. 

1849. 



440846 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by 

S. AUGUSTUS MITCHELL, 

in the clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of 

Pennsylvania. 



• • * 



• • * 



• « ♦ • 



• « 



*♦ I 

• • • 






• • • 



PRINTED BY SMITH & PETERS, 

Fnokliu BuUdiop, Sixth SUeet b«tow Arcb, Pbitedelpbia. 



PREFACE. 



^a patronage besloired on Mitchell's PniiuRrGEoanuHT and 
ScaODL GEDanAFHy sad Atlas, determined the PublisherB of those woiks, 
(oniB time aince, to complete the Series of which thej form the iotrodnctor; 
uid Becondary dicisions, by the publication of d. Bioei Scaooi. GeoaRAFUr 
and Atlas, comprehending i. BUmmttty of Modem nnd Ancient Gaographj. 

The following; work conetitutee the Ancient or second division of (he pub- 
lication proposed, and wilt be Ibnnd to correspond, in style itod general 
mode of arrangement, with those portions of the series already issued. It 
erobracfls two distinct aeotjona ; one consisting ofCiaBsical, and the other of 
Sacred Geography; together witli on Atlas, specially compiled to agree with 
»nd elucidate the Text. The chief object aimed at, in its composition, has 
been to arrange, in a progressiva and distinct manner, a concise account 
of (he countries and nations of antiquity, such as may readily bo imdor- 
stood by the more advanced pnpils in our schools and acodcmios, and also 
by private students. The book and the maps are adapted to each other, and 
are designed to be used in conneolion throughout. Questiona, to be in- 
BWered &om t)ie Text and the Atlas, havs been iuBorted, on the plan of those 
(o bo found in the other books of tliH series ; but teachers need not restrict 
themBolvGB to the questions given, and may dispense with them or not, at 
their discretion. 

To perosH the Sacred Scriptares or any portion of early history iatclli. 
eeotly, some knowledge of ancient geography is an indispensable requisite. 
Without such knowledge, indeed, the perosal of history is comparatively 
wortiiless. Every inquiring student, therofore, in readine of Jerusalem, 
Tyre, Rome, or Athena, woold wiah to ascertain lite situation of those re- 
namiod cities, and alBo to give locationa to the mountains, rivers,and lakes 
described by ancient authors ; as well as to understand the relative positions 
of the countries noted in early times, and the modem political divisions 
which occupy the same regiona of the earth. To such individuals, a well, 
digested system of ancient geography, with maps epecially compiled (o 
,1. . ...... I. .__. _.:ii i-..._-_i. .iju Jesired information, as well as alibrd a 



i system ol ancient j 

le the teit, will furnis 

, of profitable and pleasing i; 



The treatise on Sacred (^ography, being confined to a description of 
the Holy Land, and tlie other countries mentioned in the Old and New 
Testaments, is of less extent than the one which precedes it ; in aovcral 
instances, also, the dascrlptioni of various countries given in the Erst division 
have been repeated in the lasL This is rendered in some moafuro neces. 
sary, by the ftct that the regions described by the Hebrew writers were 
viened under different circumstances, and, tor the moat part, at an earlior 
period of lime than by tho Greeks and Remans; and that the names of 
countries, rivers, cities, &c. are seldom found to coincide, in (ho sla[cments 
of the Scriptural and those of clasaical authors. 



▼1 PREFACE. 

incidents, connected with the subject-matter, as will senre to render the local 
details more interesting ; and it is believed that an examination of the various 
quotations from Holy Writ will suggest to pupils a frequent reference, for 
furtlier elucidation, to that sacred volume. 

A correct knowledge of the region so long inhabited by the descendants 
of Abraham, and consecrated by the residence of the Saviour of men, is one 
of the most interesting objects of geographical research, and has excited 
the attention of various learned individuals in recent, as well as in former 
times; whilst a comparison of the ancient and modern condition of many 
countries in the East, exhibits such evidence of the truth of Divine revelation, 
as largely to strengthen the faith of the believer. It will be seen that the 
present state of Nineveh, Babylon, and Thebes, as well as of other capitals 
once renowned, abundantly confirms the predictions of the ancient pro- 
phets of Israel. 

Perhaps few studies are so deserving of attention, as that of the geography, 
history, and constitution of the ancient and chosen people of God. From 
them have proceeded those purer ideas of religion, which distinguish the 
Christian above the other nations of the earth. The philosophers of Greece 
and Rome were the ^instructors of the ancient and modern world, in art, 
science, and literature ; but the poets and prophets of Israel have enriched 
other nations with that knowledge which refers to God, salvation, and eter- 
nal life. 

The Maps of the Ancient Atlas have been carefully executed ; and some 
pains have been taken in their compilation, after arranging the political 
divisions according to the most approved authorities, to avoid crowding 
them with the names of obscure and unimportant places, and ratlierto select 
the cities, towns, &.c. distinguished as the scene of some well-known event, 
or the birth-place of some noted individual. Especially, have the words 
been engraved in a clear and distinct letter, so that they may be read with 
facility. 

Attached to the Atla^is an Index, alphabetically arranged, designed as a 
table of reference to the names in the Maps, by which pupils and others 
may fmd without difficulty on which Map the country, city, river, &c. 
sought for is represented, as also the corresponding modern name, where 
such exists. 

In the Chronological Table, placed at the end of the book, the dates of all 
the noted events, as well as of the births or deaths of distinguished characters 
mentioned in the text, may be found. To this Table various Questions are 
appended, calculated to impress more strongly upon the mind the more 
important dates and circumstances. It is not expected that teachers will 
require pupils to commit to memory all the dates, &c. that are attached to 
this table ; but whether it be adopted or not as a subject of regular study, it 
will probably, in either case, be found convenient and useful as a matter of 
reference. 



Philadelphia, January, 1845. 



CONTENTS. 



CLASSICAL 

I. iNTftODUCTioN — Early Mari- 
time DiECDVerios, &,c . 9 

i. Figure of Iha Earth, Slc.. . 11 

1. TliH Worldi Asia 12 

1. Asia, Minor 14 

>. MfsiK, Lydia, Caria 15 

5. Greek Colonies — .^loliii, Io- 
nia and Dorie; Ljciii ■ - • IS 
J. Bithyaia, Paphlngonitt, Pon. 

lus 20 

i, Famplijlia, Pieidia, Cili- 

ci» 93 

). Phrygla, Cappadocia, Gala- 

tia 24 

1. Byrii 36 

1. Palmytii) Cyprua 29 

I. Phdiaicia 31 

i. Arabia 34 

L AmiDnia, MEsopolDiiiia ... 36 

i. Assyria 39 

i. Babylonia or Chuldsa .... 41) 
r, Colchis, Iberia, Albania, 

Bdia 43 

t. Peraia 44 

ana, Carmania, Gedro- 

Eia, Aria or Ariana ...... 51 

I. Pstthin, Hyrcania, BacUia- 

na, Sogdiana 46 

Ltic Sarmatia, Scytliia, 

rica 4n 

!. India, Sinarum Rcgin .... 53 

I. Africa, .^tbiapia 56 

~ rptaa or Egypt 59 



GEOGRAPHY. 

25. Egypt, eantinued 

26. Mauritania, Nomidia 

37. Africa Proper, Libya 

33. Libya Intarior, Ethiopia or 

Ethiopia Interior ....-,. 

29. Europe 

30. Tliraco 01 Thracia, MaGsdo- 

31. Greece or Hallaa 

33. Greece, eantinvBd — Tbes. 

33. Epirus, Heliai or Greece 

Proper, Acarnan i a, ^toli a, 

34. Phocis, Doris, Bceotia, Me- 

35. Attica 

36. The PeloponncBua, Achaia, 

Sicyooia, Coriathia ! 

37. Argolis, Laeonia ! 

38. Elia, Messenia, Areadia... ! 

39. Tlie Greek Islands 1 

40. The Greek lelunds, ctmti- 

miid 11 

41. lUlia or Italy, GalUa Cisal- 

42. Gallia Ciaalpina, contiaaed. II 

43. Italy Proper, Etmria, Urn. 

brio, Sabini II 

44. Picenum, Saomium, Cam- 

pa-Ji 1 

45. Lalium 1 

4G. Latiuni, eoniinutd 1 



J 



r- 


^^^H 




Tiii ^^^^ 




L» nc 


U— !*«•,' 




47. Msgu Grtecia — Apulis, 


54 Helvetia, Vindellcia, Rha. 




CilibrU, Lucmio, Btut- 


tia. Noricum, Paonoria, 




tU 123 


Illyricuni or Illyria 138 




48. Ilaliui laUndi 130 


55. MiEsia, Dacia, Sarmalig, 




49. Hiipuii> 125 


Hyperborean Regions . , , , 140 




50. G.nl or G.Uii 198 


56. The Bnrbarooa Nations 




51. BriUsh I<l^d. 130 


which destroyed the Ro- 




53. Caledonia, Hibemi. 133 

53. ScundiniLTi., Germ>. 






57, The Barbarous Natons lon- 




ni> 135 


tinuid 145 




SACRED GEOGRAPHY. | 




l« ftp 








the Towns noted in Now 




2. SetllomentoflheEiLrthalter 


Testament times 176 




the Flood 149 


14. Judea and Pora^a, with the 




3. Origin of tho Israelites, &.c 151 


Towns noted in New Tas. 




4. JouroepcgsoFlhc IsracliCcB 


tameM Times 178 




through the Wildern™.. 154 


15. Land of the Philistines, 




5. The Land of Canaan, Ac. . 156 


Tyre and Sidon, Syria, 






PadmAram 181 




7. Physical Geography of Pa- 






lestine, Position, Eilcnt, 


Ammon,Mi>ab,Edom,Mi. 




Monntaina IGl 


dian,theLandoflIr,&c,. 184 




e. Physical Geography of Pa- 


17.' Egypt, Ethiopia, <tc 187 




ksline, eonli na td— Rivers, 


18. The East, Shinor or Baby- 




Labefl,&e 1G4 


lon, Asshur or Assyria .. , 190 




9. Physical Geography of Pa- 


19. Elom, Media, Tarshish and 




leaOne, conHnued— Plaiiw 


Ophir,&c. m 




and Valleys, Qimate, 


20. Asia, the Seven Churches, 




AgricnltnrE, &0. 1G7 


&0. 195 




10. The Twelve Tribes, with the 


ai. Greece, Italy, ic 197 




Towns noted in Old Tes- 


29. Geography illoslrating our 




tament times 1G9 


Saviour's Ministry 200 




11. The Twelve Tribes, eonii. 






nu'd m 


Saviour's Ministry, eon- 




la. The Tribo of Judah, with 


linaej aoa 




tliQ Tonraa noted in Old 






TeBlamcnt times 174 


First Settlement of the 




13. Galileo and Samaria, with 


Church 204 




Chkonouhi SOT 


1 


_ Chhonolooical Toli aOS 



AHCIENT GEOGEAPHY. 



N 



L Tin 



introduction. 
Hbarly maritime discoveries, &b. 

1, Ancient Geography is a description of the earth and its 
mhabitants, emending from the time of the earliest credible 
accounts that have reached us, to the downfall of the Roman Esor 
iiire. Il comprises Classical and Sacred Geography. The former 
13 derived from the writings of the Greeks and Romans, or Clas- 
sical authors ; and the latter from (he scriptores of the Old and 
New Teataraenla. 

3. The most noted of the ancient nations with whose writings 
the modems are acquainted, are the Jews, the Greeks, and the 
Bomaoa; these nations flourished at different periods of time, and 
iheir knowledge of the earth was various. 

3. The early Jie.ws or Israelites knew little beyond the land of 
Egypt, and the regions that lie between the Mediterranean Sea 
and the banks of the Euphrates. The Phcenicians or Tyrians 
and Sidonians, from the extent of their voyages, excelled the Jews 
m their knowledge of the earth, and they were the first navigators 
who carried maritime discovery to any considerable exteiLt, 

4. As early as the year 1000 B.C. these people had explored 
the whole of'^ the Mediterranean, as well as the Black Sea, and 
had settled colonies on their shores ; afterwards they sailed through 
the straits of Hercules, and extended their voyages along the west- 
em coast of both Europe imd Africa; and a parly of them in the 
service of Pharaoh-Nccho,lung of Egypt, is said to have circum- 
navigated the last-mentioned (Evision of the earth. 

5. The Carthaginians, a people descended from the Phcenicians, 
were also famous for maritime entei^rise. Hanno, one of their 
naval commanders, established colonies on the west coast of Africa 
beyond the pillars of Hercules, and sailed as for south, it is 

QuBSTioM 1. What it ancienl geography 7 What doea JC compriM, tc. 7 
a. WhalUsaidof llie moat noted otieicnl notions? 3. Ofllie early Jowg7 
The Ph<Eiiidan8,&c.7 4. What is related of these [Koplc 7 5. Of tJu 

(8) 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

ihouffht, as the coast of Guinea.* Hamirco, another Carthaginian, 
sailed northward to Britain. 

6. By the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Greeks 
became familiar with the northern parts of India, and the adjacent 
regions ; and Near'chus,the admiral of Alexander, by his voyage 
from the river Indus to the Euphrates, first opened to the view of 
his countrymen the shores of the Indian Ocean. 

7. Nearly about the same time, Pyth'eas, a Massih'an Greek, 
sailed from Ga'des to Thu'le, the most northern country known to 
the ancients, and supposed to have been either Iceland or Norway. 
The Ru'beas promontory, the farthest point he reached, is probably 
the North Cape of Europe. The Thu'le of the Romans, the Main- 
land of Shetland, was not discovered until long after Pyth'eas, by 
Agric'ola, a Roman governor of Britain. 

8. The Romans, during the progress of theii conquests, explored 
the various countries subjected to their power ; and in the time of 
Caesar, a general survey of the Empire was commenced, which 
required twenty-five years for its completion. This great work, 
though not executed with the precision of modem science, was the 
most extensive of the kind ever undertaken, and furnished to the 
geographers of that time, a mass of information far exceeding that 
of any previous period. 

9. The oldest geographical records are in the Bible ; these aTe 
confined principally to a description of the land of Israel, and the 
adjacent regions, and to the divisions of Canaan among the twelve 
tribes. Next in antiquity, are the Greek poems of Homer and 
Hes'iod, the works of Herod'otus, Aristotle, Eratos'thenes, Strabo, 
and some others. 

10. The earliest regular geographies extant, are those of Strabo 
and Pomponius Mela ; the former is written in Greek, and the 
other in Latin. These works were succeeded by that of Ptolemy 
of Alexandria, the most extensive geography of ancient times, 
and also the first in which places are described according to their 
latitude and longitude. This treatise, until the time of Columbus, 
a period of more than 1300 years, was considered the highest 
authority in all matters connected with the description of the earth. 

Carthaginians ? Of Hanno ? Of Hamilco 7 6. With what did the Greeks 
become acquainted by the conquests of Alexander ? What is said of Near- 
chus ? 7. Of Pytheas ? 8. Of the Romans ? What occurred in the time 
of Csesar ? 9. What is said of the oldest geographical records ? The next 
in antiquity? 10. The earliest regular geographies? What succeeded 
these works ? How long was it considered the highest authority ? 

• The extent of Hanno's voyage has been the subject of much learned 
discussion : its terminating point, according to the opinion o^ three different 
individuals, may be seen in Map No. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. 



FIGURE OF THE EARTH, &c. 

I. The Eincients were, for the most part, ignorant of the real 
I Bgnire of the earth ; and supposed it to be a vast plain, surrounded 
k by an ocean of unknown extent. Beneath the eardi were the fabled 
ft regions of Elyaium or Paradise, and Tar'tania, or the place of 
I 'punishment for the wicked. Above the whole, rose the great arch 
I' of the heavens, which was supposed to rest on the summits of the 
[.'-liighcst mountains. 

. The Sun, Moon.and Stars, were imagined to rise from, and 
J set beneath, the waves of the Sea ; and it was said that those who 
. Hved in the remote west, could hear at evening, the noise made 
li by the Sim dipping into the ocean, as if that luminary had been 
IS of heated metal. 

3. Being ignorant of America, as well as of one half the easi- 
jni continent, the ancients generally imagined the world to be 
emaller than it really is; a few geographeis however, aware 
that the countries then known coverea but a small part of the 
earth's surface, supposed that other regions might exist, separated 
from the rest by a great extent of ocean. 

4. Accordingly several authors, both Greek and Roman, have 
described a large island called Atlantis, which lay far to the west 
in the Atlantic Ocean. Beyond it was a continent of still greater 
extent. This island was said to have been at len^li submerged in 
the sea, and nothing further was ever known of it, or the adjaceni 
region. From this account it is supposed that the ancients had 
some knowledge of the western continent, and the subject ha' 
given rise to various learned discussions. 

5. The maps of the ancients are very erroneous in their repre- 
sentations, even of several well-known countries : thus, Ptolemy 
exhibits Italy as lying for the most part due east and west, and the 
" extending nearly north and south. By some, the 

vas supposed to connect with the northern ocean, 
n shape like a triangle, and Sweden and Norway to 
be a group of islands. 

6. For want of a proper mode of making astronomical observa- 
tions, the latitudes and longitudes of places calculated in oncieni 
(imes, iwre generally inaccurate. Ptolemy in hia maps exhibits 

Q. 1. What did the ancients suppoaa the earth to beT What resions 
wore beneath the earth I What rose abnve the whole ? 2. What in aaiil of 
the San, Moon, and Stars? 3. Of what were the ancicntB ignorant 7 Wbal 
did they iraagiDE Ihe world to be 7 Wbal did some googmplierB eoneei™ ' 
What have rame authors doacribed T 5. What ia said of the maps of the 
Is) fi. or their latitudes and longitudes 7 What cirora da Ptole. 



Pyrenees a 
Caspian Sea v 
Britain to be ii 



12 CLASSICAL GEOGKAPHT. 

an error of 16" of longitude between Marseilles and Antioch; 
and 40° in placing ihe mouths of the Ganges; and in many other 
instances liis east and west distances are exaggerated. 

7. The maps now called ancient, are more strictly modem ; the 
natural features of the earth being represented on them, aa known 
at the present dav ; to these, the ancient names have been affixed 
by D'Anville and other learned men ; and in consequence they 
present an approximation much nearer the truth than those of the 
Greeks and Romans. 

8. In this process, it has been found difficult to determine always 
the precise parts of the globe referred to by ancient writers ; and 
hence there are various contested points in ancient geography, 
among which the position of the countries called Ser'ica, Sina'rum 
Begio, Agyzim'ba and Ultima Thu'le, in classical ; and Tarshjsh 
and Ophir in sacred geography, are not yet ascertained. 

9. The ideas of the ancients respecting the inhabitants of distant 
regions were often fancifu! and erroneous ; among such were the 
fables related of the Pygmies, a race of diminutive men, who were 
supposed to reside in various remote parts of the cartli ; and also 
of the Blemmyes, a people without heads, and whose eyes and 
mouths were in their breasts. 

10. Other fabulous races were, the Cimmerians, who were 
said to live in utter darkness ; the Cyclops, with but one eye, 
which was placed in the middle of their foreheads; the Cynoce- 
phah, a nation with heads resembling those of dogs ; the Hyper- 
boreans, who were exempt from disease, decay, and even death ; 
and the Amazons, a nation of female warriors, who destroyed their 
male, but preserved alive their female children. 



I THE WORLD, ETC. 

1. The world, as known in the days of Ptolemy, extended from 
the Atlantic coasts of Europe and Africa, to the shores of Cochin 
China. On the west, it stretched from the banks of the Niger 
northward to Sweden and Nonvay ; and on the east, from the In- 
dian Ocean northward to the Altay mountains. 

3. This area was included within a space averaging 120° of lon- 
gitude, and 45° of '.jitilude, being about one half the land surface 

my's maps exhibit? 7. What is iaid of (he maps now called ancient' 8. 
What is fdund difficult to dclcrnime 7 Name tho contcBled points. 9. Be. 
late the ideas of Iha ancients reapeotliig iJie inhabitants of distant regions. 
What otlier fabulous races ivere there I 

Q. 1. Describa Iho world as known b the days of Ptolemy. 9. What 
— •"• ■•-'- area eompriacT 3. What is said of tlie three groat division*? 




ASIA. 13 

of the eastern continent, and extending around the globe a third 
part of lis circumference. 

3. As early as the time of Herod'olus, the three great divisions 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa or Libya, were recognised, and with 
nearly the present lines of separation. The river Nile was for a 
time considered to divide Asia from Africa, but at length the bound- 
ary of the Ked Sea and the Isthmus of Suez was adopted. 



ASIA. 

4. The Greeks divided Asia into Upper and Lower Asia : the 
latter comprised only that pan of Asia Minor which lay westward 
of the river Halys. The Romans separated it into Hither Asia, 
or Asia this side the Taurus ; and Farther Asia, or Asia beyond the 
Taurus. Hither Asia was also called Asia Proconsula'ris, because 
it was governed by a Proconsul. 

5. The Dome of Asia was first applied to a small district in Lydia. 
on the coast of the .^ge'an Sea ; and was derived, according to the 
Lydians, from Aaius, one of their early kings ; but, according to 
the Greeks, from Asia, one of ibe Ocean' ides, or marine goddesses. 

6. The .^olians, lonians, and Dorians, settled at an earlyperiod 
in the Lydian districts of Asia ; and being said by their Greek 
countrymen to have emigrated to Asia, tne name was in time 
graduaUy extended to the whole region now hearing that name. 

7. Asia, muth of the grant contrttl rideo of mountains, has Ijeen from to. 
mote times a populous region. It w&a Uie lirat scat of ciTilixatian, and of 
tliOBS great monarchies, which, absorbing into one vait empira a number of 
contiguous BlatuE, openiy nJmed at universal dominion. Ofthese empires, th<e 
Assyrian was the earliest and most enduring. It was established on the 
banks of the Euphrates, 4DDD years ago ; and was succeeded by the Babylo- 
□ian, the Persian, and the Parthian empires ; and in subsequent times, by 
those of the Caliptis, of Gengis Khan, and of Tamerlane. 

8. The aacieuts were but partially acquainted with Asia. Tliey were 
ignorant of at least ona.holf of it, as known at present The Greeks had 
a knawledge of its western and central districts, as far as the Indus, and 
probably lor somo distance beyond [hat river. Afterwords, the Romans be- 
came ^niliai, to some extent, with Hindoostan, Thibet, and Anam ; and thej 
were acquainted, by report, wilhSer'ioa and the country of the Sinffi, regions 
which they imagined were placed at the farthest eitramity of tho earth. 

9. The Euphrates and Tigris, the Rha, the Oius, the laiar'tcs, the Indus,- 
the Ganges, and the great streams of India, beyond the latter river, as well 
IS theBautisus.orHoangHo of China, were probably known toPtdemy; but 

le remaining rivers of Asia he was no doubt wholly ignorant 

tide Asia? The Romans? 5. What is 

6. Tho ^oliatis, &c.T 7. What is said of 

^o of mountains ? Of llie Assyrian Empire i 

What degree of knowledge did the ancients pas- 




CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

10. Til* Tduius, CiD'caniB, Oron'Ics, Firopami'iiu, Inui'iu, Eiao'di, Hy- 
perborean or Ripbcun, uid CKloiocarru, were tile sbisf Asiatic rsugea of 
niouoUiriB known id ancient timei ; llic Emo'di, now the Jlimmaleh moun- 
tains, sro tbo highest on Ihe globe, but tlie Grccli nnd Roman geograpbtta 
were ignorant of that &ct. 

11. The chief ancient diiisions of Asia were, Asia Minor, Syrin, Arabia, 
Armenia, Assyria, Babylonia, Medis, Persb, Arin, Gtdrosia, Scjlbia, India, 
Ser'ica, and Sinn'nioi fta'gio, or country of the tiinEC. 

Mnp No. 1. — Point out the divisioos montioned in the text The rivers. 
Their respective lengths. The mountains. Their height*. The^r'nii 
Sea. Euiiiie Sea. Palus or Lake Mteolis. Erylhrean Sea. Gulf of tlie 
Ganges. Magnum Bitius or Great Bay. Fertnulicus Gulf. Taprobana 
Island. labadii Island. Maniole Islands. Bons Fortunic Islands. Daden 
Island. AngustiiD Dirae. Avalitfa Gulf What are the modern names of 
ill the Ibregoing rivers, mounlaiiM, &c. I* 



ASIA MINOR. 

1. Asia Minor is a large peninsula, which forms the most 
western diTision of Asia. It comprises that portion of the conti- 
nent that is bounded on the north, south,and west by the Euxinc, 
Mediterranean and .^ge'an Seas, and on the oast by the Euphtates 
river. Anato'lia, or Nalo'Ua, which signifies the East, is me mo- 
dem name of Asia Minor. 

3. The term Asia Minor was not adopted until about the com- 
mencement of the fourth century of our era, and was at first used 
to designate the western districts only ; but in process of time it 
came to be apphed to t!ie whole region now known by that name. 

3. Few eountricB present sueh a diversity of soil and climate. The western 
provinces ivere remarkatile for their genial temperature and their fertility ; 
while the mountamaus distrielB were in general sterile and but thinly inhabit- 
ed, and some parts of Lydia, PbrygiaiatidGalatia,were almost deserted, from 
the barrennesB of the soil, which bore numerous traces of volcanic action. 

4, The inhabitants formed many different nations, whose boimd- 
aries and divisions varied with their pohtical revolutions. About 700 
B. C. Ckesus, the celebrated Lydian king, conquered a large portion 
of Asia Minor; and it afterwaim formed successively an important 
division of the empires of Cyrus, of Alexander, and of Rome. Dur- 
ing the middle ages it belonged to the Saracens, afterwards to the 
Turks, and for several centuries past has formed the finest portion 
of their empire. 

sees of Asia 7 The Greeks 7 The Romans 7 3. Meation the rivers. The 
mountains. 10. The chief ancient divisions. 

QufsnoNB.— I. Describe Asia Minor, What did it comprise? 2. When 
was the term adopted. Sic 7 3. What is said of tlie soil and climate ? 
MountainoQB districts, itc, 7 4 Of the inhabitants 7 Crcesus, &c. 7 Of 

• The pupil Hill conwil (lit Inilfl of enrreipoiidiug sndtal and mfflletn nuides. 



J 



ASIA MINOR. 15 

5. Cmlization commenced at an early age in Asia Minor ; iia 
commerce was extensive and flourishing ; it contained many opu- 
lent cities, whose temples, palaces, and other public huildings, 
were among the most splendid ever reared, 

6. At nn earlj period the Phceniciims founded aotonieaan the southern 
BhorBB of tliis region, while in a Inter age the Greeks cslablLshcd Ihonuelvea 
on the coMtB of the ^e'ati Sea. The Unguago and literature of Ore latter 
were eitensivol? cultivated, and the fame of their philosophers, posts, and 
artists, hae descended to our own limes. 

7. The principal divisions were, Mys'ia, Lyd'ia and Ca'ria, in the 
west ; BitluTi'ia, PaphJagonia and Pon'tus, in the north ; Lyc'ia, Pi- 
sid'ia and Poraphyl'ia, and Cihc'ia, in the south ; and Phryg'ia, Ga- 
la'tia and Cappaao'cia, in the interior. 

8. The chief tnuuntoiuB were theTau'rua and Anti-Taa'ros, which retain 
with UB tiieir ancient names; Mount Ccagus was the residence of tlie fabled 
chimera ; Ida. wa^ noted as Uie niountaia where ParJa adjudged to Venus 
the priiB of beauty ; Sip'flus as the residence of Ni'obe ; Tmo'iuB was funous 
for ill vinej arda ; and Cyto'rns for its boxwood. 'Several mountaina here, 
besides others in Greece and Cyprus, bore the name of Olympus. 

9. Tl;e largest rivers were the Ha'tys, the Sanga'rius and tha Msui'deri 
the latter was remarkalile for its windings, hence the word meander. The 
Hcrmus, and its tributary tlie Facto'lus, were fiitnoua for the gold contained 
in their sands ; the Grant' cua, the Eurym'cdon and llie ScylaX, Ibrtlte battles 
fought on their banks ; and Uie Thermo'don as the stream on wliich tlie 
warlike Amnions once Tcsidcd. Phryg'ia and Pisid'ia contained a aoiDber of 
smalt salt lakes, wluch still exist atid furnish large quantities of salt. 

10. The islands which lie along the western coast, were settled at an 
early period by emigrants from Greece, and are usually described witli that 
eoantry. The largest were Lesbos, Cliiea, Samos, Cos, and Rhodes. In the 
prosperous limes of Greece, these islands were populous, well cultivated, 
and noted for their ci 



b 



Map No. S, — What sea bounds Aiiia Minor on the north ? E. On the 
south 7 M. On the west? M. What rivers on the east? E.G. What 
straits lUid sea separate it iirom Thrace? H. B. P. What group of islandu 
lie on the aouth-west T S, What island lies south 7 C. Which promontory 
or cape extends fiirthest nortli ? A. Which farthest south! A. Farthest 
west? L. Point out theTaurus and the other mountains mentioned in the text 
The rivers. Tlie ialands. 'What countries lie cast and Bouth-ea« of Asia 
Minor! A. M. S. Mention the heights of mountains. Lengths of rivers, &c. 



MYSTA. 

1. Mvs'i*. was the westenunost division of Asia Minor. Tiie 
country on the Propontis was once a part of Phrygia, and was 

what Empires did it afterwards fonu a division 7 5. What is said of civili- 
-atioo? Commerce! Of the Phteniciaua ondGreeksT 7. Name tlie prin- 
■ipol divisions. Name the chief mountains. The largest rivers. What 
"d Phrygia and Piaidia contain 7 10. What is Baid of the islands 7 




F 



16 



CLASSICAL GEOOflAFHY. 



called PliTj-gia Minor. At on rarly period the Mys'ians were a 
brave and n-arlike people ; but they became in lime so degenerate 
that " Mysorum Ullimus" was a term proverbially used to denote a 
cowardly and mean-spirited peraon. The kingdom of Tro'aa, or 
Troy, and part of the Greek colony of ^olia, were included in 
Mys'ia. 

2. Troy, or Il'ium, was the principal city of Tro'aa. During the 
reign of Priam, its last king, a Greelt army of 100,000 men imder 
A^memnon, captured and destroyed it after a siege of ten yeais, 
1184, B.C. This siege, one of the most memorable of ancient 
times, has been imraortalined both by Homer and VirsnI. 




AcbilJH iiBfpDg tha dead body orBeclDr Bround the walli of Tror- 

3. During its progress, Achilles, the bravest of the Greeks, slew Hector, i 
noted Trojan chict; in singlo combat. The dead tmdj of the latter vni 
batbaroUBlj dragged by the victor around the walla of the city. TYoy stood 
between the livera Sim'ois and Scaman'der, not &r irom their junctJoD ; in 
the vicinity were Mount Ida and the Sigte'ura Promontory or Cape, Neat the 
latter many contests look place between the Greeks and Trojans. Subsa. 
quentjy New U'ium was built nearer the sea, but it never rose to distinction. 

i. In the sonthem part of Mjs'ia nae the cily of Per'gamus, onee the 
capital of a kingdom of the Bame name. It naa celebrated for its great 
library, and as the birth-place of Galen, the noted physician. Abj'doa was 
farooos for the bridge of boats built by Xcries across the Hellespont; it 
was the residence of Lcandor, the lover of Hern, who lived in Scstos, on the 
opposite shoro. The former often swam the HeUespont to visit his mia< 
tress, and returned the same night 

S. Thebe, or Thebee, Lamp'sacus, Milolop'olis and Cyi'icus, were all places 
of note. The latter sustained a memorable siege by Mithrida'tes, which was 
at last raised by Lucullua. In the vicinity was the river Grani'cus, where 

Q. I. What was Mysia T What is said of the countrr on Ihc Propontis? 
Of the Mysians ? What were included in Mysia ? S. What is said of 
T>oy? 3. What occurred during the siege? Describe (he ailnatim of 
Troy,4:c.7 4. What is said of Pergimns? Abydos? 5, Thebes? Lamp- 



re the moden 
marble of the iBliQdProc 
is derived. Adramyttiu 
Ihe Aclsoflhe Apaallea 



lA MINOR. 17 

if tliH Parsians. Dnr'dnnun 

_ ont; nnd from the celobrated 

is,M«'mora,lhe modern name of the Proponlia 

and Alexandria Trnaa, ere mentioned In 

ks Ihere termed Troas onlj. 



6. Lydia, called more aacienlly Ma&nia, lay south of Mys'ia; 
it was once an important kingdom, and its power under Cnesus, 
tlie proverbiaUy rich king, extended over more than haif of Asia 
Minor, His court was an aaylimi of learning; and .^^op among 
others lived under his patronage, 

7. The Lydians were the first people who coined money; they 
were at one time the most wealthy, and also became the most 
luxurious and efleminate nation in Asia. The Greek colony of 
louia was included partly in Lydia, and partly in Caria, 

8. Sardis, the ancient cnpilol of Lydia, was lamous for the nnmerous 
eiegsa it BUatAiiied, daring one of which it was talien by Cyrus. Tbia city, 
Thyati'ra; and PbiladEtphia, were seals of three of the seven cbnrchex 
of Asia. Magnesia ad Sip'ylom.ttltbe font of Mount 8ip'yliiB,virBS noted for 
the defeat of Anli'oobQH [ha Great by Scipio. Metrop'ohs and Arnm'ala were 
loWDB in Lydia. At Magnesia, on the Meander, hence called Magnesia ad 
Meandnim, Tbemis'tacles died. At Thyiiibra, Cnssus waa defeated by 
Cyrus. 



I 9, Caria lay southward of Lydia ; it was a fruitful country, 
. and abounded particularly in figs. The inhabitants were consi- 
dered barbarous and despicable by the Greeks, and the name of 
Carian was synonymous with that of slave. Doris and part of 
Ionia were included in Caria. 




10, Holicamas'sus was 
time at tho head of the 
tnausolatim built by Artci 
from whieh all splendid 
accDunied one of the aevc 



I isra 



important city in Caria, and was for a 
ague. It was famous lor (lie nplendiJ 
9n of Caria, for her husband Mauso'lus. 
e afterwards called Mausole'a. It was 
of the world. Here Herodotus, Diony. 

lOQi.icl DardamuB. &0.7 Adramyttiura 7 6. Describe Lydia. Whal 
■aidoftheLydinnsJ 7, Sardia and tlio otiior cities ? 8. Describe Caria. 
:iu inhabitanls, 10. What is said of Ijic Halicarnasaus? Of the towns t 



J 



16 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

sius Halicnmas'sus, and Hcracli'tus, were born. Boodroom, a small Tarkish 
town, stands on the site of Halicamns'sus ; various ruins of the ancient city 
are still to be seen. Antioch, Aphrodis'ias, Mylas'sa, Stratonice'a and Imbrus 
were Carian towns. 



Map No. 2. — What strait separates M jsia from Thrace ? H. What sea 
lies on the north? P. What rivers are in Mysia? C. G. JE. H. What 
mountains ? I. What islands lie west ? L. T. When did the sieg^e of 
Troy occur? Of Cyzicus? The battle on the Granicus? What river 
divides Lydia and Caria? M. What other rivers are in Lydia? H. P. C. 
What mountains ? S. T. M. What islands lie on the coast ? P. C. L S. 
What islands lie west and soutli of Caria ? P. C. A. A. C. N. C. R. 

Map No. 3. — Point out Sig^sBum Promontory or Cape. Troy. New 
Ilium. The Scamander River. The Simois River. Mount Ida. Mount 
Gargara. Tenedos Island. 

6 



GREEK COLONIES. 

1. -^oLiA, Ionia and Doris were Greek colonies in Mysia, Lydia 
and Caria, whose settlement was commenced about 60 years after 
the destruction of Troy. The inhabitants became in time, espe- 
cially the lonians, distmguished for elegance of taste, and love of 
the arts and sciences, and were the teachers and examples of the 
European Greeks. 

2. Homer, the greatest of poets, was an Ionian ; he was bom, according 
to tradition, near Smyrna; six other cities, however, contested with that 
place the honour of having given him birth. ApeFles and Parrha'sius, cele- 
brated painters ; Tha'les and Pythag'oras, famous philosophers ; and Hip- 
poc'rates, a noted physician, were also lonians. ^ 

JEOLIA. 

3. -^olia was the earliest colony ; it formed a confederation at 
first of twelve cities; but, Smyrna having been treacherously 
wrested from it by the lonisms, the number was in the time of 
Herod'otus reduced to eleven. 

4. Mityle'ne, in Lesbos, was the head of the confederacy; the latter was 
one of the finest islands in the ^ge'an Sea ; it was famous for its wine and 
the beauty of its women ; it was also the birth-place of Sappho and Pit'tacus. 
CumoB, Pit'ane, Phocs'a and Else'a, were noted .^lian cities on the conti- 
nent. 

IONIA* 

5. Ionia comprised twelve confederate cities, of which Ephesus, 
Smjnma and Mile'tus, were the most renowned. TTie first con- 

Q. 1. What is said of ^olia, Ionia, and Doris ? Of their settlement ? 
What did the inhabitants become ? 2. What is said of Homer ? Apelles, 
&c.? 3. Of iEolia? 4. Mitylene and other towns? 5. Of Ionia? 6. 



ASIA MINOR. 19 

lained. ihe celebrated temple of Diana, which occupied 200 years 
in building. 




Supposed site or MUctua. 

6. Smyrna waa one of tbe richest cities or Aeiii Minor, and is tlie only 
one of tbem tliat ia now Sourisliing and important Milc'tus was reckonnd 
neit to Tyro and Ciurtlmge for its titenaive carnmerCB, and numeroua colo- 
nlBB, wliich amounlod, according to aomc, to 80 in nnmber. Tliere Tlia'les, 
Anaximun'dcr and Cadmus, tlic hietorian, were born. Tho ruin of tliis 
splendid city is now so compielc, tlint its very site can hardly be recogniBod. 

7. Er-ytlirs was the rcBidonce of one of tho Sibyls, Claiom'ena was the 
birth-plaie of Anaiag'oras, Samos of Pytbii|['oraa, andTo'ot ofAnae'reon. 
Col'ophoD vaa &mous lor tlie valoar of its cavalry, which usually decided tbe 
bottle in fasonr of tbe side on wliich it rougbl; hence the proverb "Colo- 
phonera addero," to put a finish to anything. At the foot of Mount Myc'ole, 
a great victory was gained by the CieelEa over the Fi^rsiaus, on Ihe uune 
day that tlw arm; of Xerics was doftated at I'lalie'a in BiEo'tia. 



9. The Dorian confederacy consisted at first of sis, and after- 
wards (Halicamasaua haying been excluded) of five cities, and was 
therefore afterwards called the Pentap'olis, or the fire cities. The 
confederate cities were Cnidus, Cos,Canii'ra, lal'ysus and Lindas, 
The three last were on ihe Island of Rhodes. 

9. Cnidoa contoioed a temple of the Cnidian Venus, which was fimoui 
lor a beautiful marble statue of the goddess by Fraiit'eles. It was the birth- 
place of Eudox'us and Agathar'cidea, Theopompua and some otlier noted 
mon. Rhodes, tlio capital of the island of Bhodefl, was renowned for ita 
coromeice, and also fbi the brazen statue of Apollo, called the Colossua, 
which was 100 feet high, and bestrode the ealrance of the harbour. The 
republic of Rhodes was in early times on important naval power, and planted 
colonics in Sicil;, Italy and Spain. Cos, on the island of the same name, 
contained a noted temple dedicated to Escuiapiue. Apel'lea and Hippoo'ratei 



10. Lycia took its name from Lycus, the son of Pandion. who 
settled thtre. It was the smallest province of Asia Minor; but it 
was at the same time, in proportion to iis esieat, one of the richest and 



i 



20 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

most populous. It was noted for its fine cedar trees, which 
almost equalled those of Lebanon. 

11. The inhabitants were skilful archers, and were at one time 
distinguished for their sobriety and love of justice ; but, about the 
end of the Roman Republic, many individuals became pirates. 
On the coast is Mount Chmax, or the ladder ; it is so steep to- 
wards the sea, that the soldiers of Alexander, in passing it, in their 
march into PamphyHa, waded more than half a day waist-deep 
in water. 

12. Xantlius is distinguished for its obstinate resistance against Brutus ; 
the latter set fire to the city ; but the inhabitants, rather than submit to the 
Romans, rushed into the names, and only 150 were rescued. Pat'ara was 
famous for its oracle ; here Apollo is said to have resided one-half the year, 
and tlie other half at Delphi. Telmis'sus was noted for its soothsayen. 
Myra, Lim'yra and Phosc'lis were important towns. The latter was at one 
time a haunt of pirates ; it was taken by Scrvilius Isauricus. 

Map No. 2. — Point out the ^olian to^ms mentioned in the text. The 
Ionian. The Dorian. On what river is Elsa ? C. Smyrna ? M. Ephesus ? 
C. Near what river is Mycalc Mountain ? M. In what year was the battle 
fought there ? What mountains divide Lycia and Pamphylia 7 S. What 
mountains in the south-east ? C. In the south-west 7 C. In the interior 7 A. 
What islands near the coast 7 C. C. What Cape 7 S. What Gulf? 6. 



BITHYN'IA. 

1. Bithyn'ia was an extensive province which lay on the Pro- 
pontis and the Euxine sea. It was settled at an early period by 
two Thracian tribes, the Thyni and the Bithy'ni. The kingdom 
which they established underwent various changes of fortune, and 
was at length bequeathed by Nicomedius, its last king, to the 
Romans, B. C. 75. 

2. Nicome'dia, once the capital of Bithyn'ia, was a large and handsome 
city ; it was for a time the residence of the Roman emperors Dioclctism and 
Constantine. Nicsa, or Nice, once also the capital of Bithyn'ia, was noted 
ds the seat of the first general council of the church, held A. D. 325, which 
drew up the Nicene Creed. It was the birth-place of Hippar'chus the 
astronomer. 

3. Heracle'a, called Heracle'a Pon'tica, from its situation on the Pon^ 
tus Euxi'nus, was a Greek colony, famous for its ships, its libraries and its 
rich temples. Chalce'don was called, by way of derision, the city of tlie 

Rhodes. The Republic, &c. 10. Describe Lycia. 11. What were the 
inhabitants, &c. 7 What is said of Mount Climax 7 12. For what is Xan- 
thus distinguished 7 Mention the other towns. 

Q. 1. Describe Bithynia. Its settlements. The kingdom, &c 
2. What is said of Nicomedia 7 Nicoea? 3. Hersclea 7 4. Prusa? Li- 



ASIA MINOR. 



4. At Froaa ad Olympnm, so called becunne il bCuiiI st tha Iha base of 
Mount 0IympU9, Hannibal, the celebrated CiLCthiiginiaii gencisl, poiaoned 
himself to avoid falling' ioto tbe hiuidB of tbo Romaiui ; snd at Libja'sB he 
was butied. At Chrjaop'olia, the Emperor Licin'iuH was finally defeated by 
CoQgtantino the Great, in a naval engagement, "ncini, Eithjoium, Prusa ad 
Hfp'pimD, Ae'tacua, Uiep'snum, Cius, and Ajiame'a were impoitonl towns. 



5. Paphlagonia, the most uoTthcm division of Asia Minor, was 
noted for the numbers of its horses and cattle ; the mules were 
famous as early as the days of tlomer, and the sheep furnished 
wool of the finest <juahty. Under the ByzEintine emperors, the 
eastern parts of tlus recjon and the western of Pontus were 
formed into a district called He I'eno- Pontus, in honour of the 
mother of the Emperor Constantine, 

6. Sino'pc, originally a Milesian colony, was an important city, with an 
Bilansive commerce. It potiaesscd at one time a considerable teiritoiy, and 
plonlBii a nmnber of coloaiea aloog the coaet. Tlio Tunny-fiaheries m the 
vicinity afforded a lucrative braiicli of trade. Sino'pe was the birth.placs 
of Mithcida'tes the deal, and also of Diog'enes, tbe Cynic philoBopher. 

7. Fompeiop'otia was founded by Pompey in honour of a victory gained 
aver Mitliridatea the Great, At Armene part of the Ten Thousand landed, on 
their voyage from Coty'ora. The ioliabitants of this place are said to have 
built a wall around tbeir city to keep out the cold, wliicli circumstance ^ave 
rise to a proverb used to denote egregious folly, Amas'tris^Cyto'rum andTi- 
me'na were towns of note on the coast. Autoniop'olis and Sora were in the 

8. Pontus, so named because it lay on. the Pontus Euii'nus, or 
Euiine Sea, was once a part of Cappadocia ; but became after- 
wards a separate kingdom, which existed for 200 years. Under 
Mithridotes VI., sumamed the Great, Pontus attained power and 
distinction, and carried on a long and fierce struggle with the 
Romans, but was at last annexed to their empire. 

9. The eastorn districlB were barrao and rugged, but the wCBlcm wore 
rich and fruitful. Tha latter abounded in produce of every kind, and 
furnished the fineet flocks and lierds. Mines of iron and salt were numer- 
ous. FoutUB comprised three provinces, viz., Fonlua Galat'icue, Peulus Fole- 
moni'acus, and Fontus Cappadocius. 

10. The chief cities were Amaso'a, the birth-place of Strabo, Uie Greek 
geographer i Coma'oa Fon'tioa, which contained the celebrated temples of 

byssaT Chrysopolia? The ofher towns? 5, Deacribe Paphlagonia, 
What district was formed under the Byzantine Emperors 7 6. Wliat is said 
ofSmopel 7. Fompeiopolisl Armene? The other towns ? 8. What is 
Pontus 1 What was it once J What did Pontus attain under Mithridatea 
VL T 9. What ia said of the eastern and western distriota ? 10. Describe 



22 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Bcllo'na and Venus ; Thcmiscj'ra, fabled as the residence at one time of the 
Amazons ; Ccr'asus, from whence the cherry was first taken to Rome, and 
thence propagratcd over Europe ; Trape'zus, the first friendly city reached 
by the Ten Thousand on their famous retreat ; and Cotylora, where part of 
their number embarked for Arme'ne. Not Air firom Trapo'zus is Mount 
Teches, from the summit of which they first saw the Euxine Sea. 

11. At Zc'la, Lucullus gained a victory over Mithridatcs ; afterwards Cesar 
gained one over Phar'naces, which he announced to tlie Roman senate in hia 
celebrated letter containing only three words — Veni^Vidi^Vici ; I came, Itaw, 
I conquered. Ami'sus, Polemo'nium, Trip'olis, (En'oc, Eupato'ria, Phaze'mon, 
Gaziu'ra, Berlsa and Neo-Csesare'a were towns in Pontus. 



Map No. 2» — ^What strait separates Bithynia and Thrace? T. What 
rivers and mountains separate Bithynia firom Paphlagonia 7 P. O. What 
mountains from Galatia ? O. What islands lie on the coast? C. T. T. What 
lakes in the interior 7 A.A. What rivers flow into tlie Euxine Sea 7 S.H.BP. 
What mountains lie between Paphlagonia and Galatia? O. When did Pom- 
pey gain his victory over Mithridates ? What river separatea Paphlagonia 
fi'om Pontus ? H. What rivers in Pontus flow into the Euxine Sea 7 L T. 
S. C. T. O. Point out the towns mentioned in the text that are in Bithynia, 
Paphlagonia, and Pontus. In what year were battles fought at Zela? 



8 



PAMPHYLIA AND PISIDIA. 

1 . Pamphylia and Pisidia were two districts, which were usually 
reckoned as one province ; the first extended along the sea-coast, 
and the other lay in the interior ; the latter was a rugged and 
elevated region, inhabited by a bold and spirited race of moun- 
taineers, who resisted for x;enturies all attempts to subdue them. 

2. Perga was the chief town of Pamphylia ; it contained a magnificent 
temple of Diana. Atta'lia, Olbia and Side were towns on the coast ; Aspen- 
dus was on the Eurym'edon river ; near this place the Persians were defeated 
by Cimon, the Athenian general, first in a naval engagement, and then on 
the land ; both in the same day. Selgs, Antiochi'a or Antioch in Pisidia, 
so called to distinguish it firom other towns of the same name, and Baris, 
were important towns. 

3. Isaura Vetus was the ancient capital of Isauria, a district which lay 
partly in Pisidia and partly in Cilicia ; the inhabitants were fierce and rapa- 
cious robbers. The Roman general Publius Servilius obtained the surname 
of Isau'ricus for having conquered them during the Mithridatic war. 

4. A new city, Isaura Nova, was built after the destruction of the ancient 
one, a short distance from the site it occupied. It was here that the pirate 
Trebelli&nus proclaimed himself Emperor of Rome, A. D. 264, but was 
soon afterwards defeated and slain. 

the chief cities. 11. What occurred at Zela, &c. 7 Mention the other 
towns in Pontus. 

Q. 1. Describe Pamphylia and Pisidia. 2. What is said of Perga 7 Att&. 
lia 7 What occurred on the river Eurymedon 7 3. What is said of Isaura 
Vetns, &c.? Of Publius Servilius 7 4. Of the new city 7 What occurred 



ASIA MINOR. 



. Cilicia comprised two divKions, viz., Cilicia Trache'a, or 
I 'ihe rugged, from being mounlaioous ; and Cilicia Campe^tris, 
Xj^be level. On Lhe northern frontier of tke latter there is a nar- 
r*ow pass in the Taurus mountains, called by the ancients Pyl* 
HCihciiB, through which the armies of Cyrus die younger and Alex- 
j.linder the Great marched in their progress to the East ; the Pyte 
l^yriffi ^vas a similar pass which led into Syria, 

6. The Cilicians were for a longj)eriod a maritimB people ; 
ley furnished numerous fleets to the Persian monarcha, and many 
f them became noted pirates. In the latter days of the Roman 
fcpubhc tl ese marauders kept the neighbouring coasts in a state 
. alarm they were, however, finally subdued by 
Pompey 




CleopiilcB HBlUdE on tin Cjdnn 
I 7. Tnrna, tbo capital of Cilicia, was the birtb-place of SL Punt, nn£ > 



ieil of learning a 

' ii, which ill 

Krtroteni ; it voi [hcrtfoi 

in a slulc of perspiruti 

voyage when o ' 



IS almost lu rival Athens and AJeximiiria. 
s past tiie city, was noted for tlic coldcesa of its 
aoarly fatal to Alexander on his bathing in it when 
. On thie stream, Cleopa'tra made tiie celebrated 
attend tlio summona of Antony, which is so 



gorgeously deaca'ibed by authors. 

8. At I>9ua, Ale!tander defiiated Dari'nB, and gained his second great vic- 
tory over the Persians ; more than Sve centuries ofletward!, this place was 
Dgain the scene of a fierce contest, which occurred between the riral Boman 
iOmperors, Seve'ms and Niger. At Anchi'ute, Sardanapa'lua, the last of the 
Assyrian Kidob, is supposed to have been interred. TTiis monnteh is said 
to have huilt Anchi'ale and Taraue in one day. Cor'ycus was noted fcr its 
laperior sajfrun. 

5. Describe Cilicia. lis divisions. The Pyls Cilicia, &.c, 6. What 
re the Cilicions, &c. ! 7. What ia said of Tarsus? The Cydnus river 7 
it occurred at Ibbtis? At Anchiale, &c,! 9. What is sold ofCoraoesium 
tDd the other towns 7 




J4 CLASSICAL OEOGRAFET. 

9. CorDco'eiuni wie a rsmaua Birong'-hold of the Ciliciui pintei; it WttS 
laken by Pompey B.C. GT. AlScli'nus, the emperor Trajan (iied. Anema'- 
riuiu wm the soulhernmoat town in Atia. Minor. Soli, or Pooipeiop'olif, 
wu at flret a Greek colony; the inlmbitanls of which lost the puritj oftbeii 
native tongue ; hence aa incorrect cxpreaaion is termcrj a Bolccism. Thia, 
however, is by some derived fiooi Soli in the island of Cvptus. Among the 
other towns were Laer'les, Sclcu'cia Trachea, Arain'oc, PhiUdelphia, Antio- 
chi'aadCragum, Homon'ada, Ad'ana, Mopauea'tia', Mallos and Geimmio'lB. 

itfap JVd. a.— WhntGolfeouthofPamphylia? P. What niountaina intho 
interiorlT. What rivera ? C. E. What Lake inPisidia? C Atwhattimc 
were two baltles fought on the Emrjmedon? Point out the towns mentioned 
m the text What sea bounda Cilicia on tlie Boulh7 C. What Gulf m Iho 
MUlh-east? I. What mountains in the north? T. On tho east} A. 
Name the chief rivers. C. L. C. S.P. Point out the Pylee Cilicia and Syrie 
Pjlte. Point out the chief towns. At what time were the balllee fought 
for which issue ia noted 7 How manv ycnra elapsed between (he firat and 
last I 



PHRYGIA. 

1. Phrygia was one of the largest provinces of Asia Minor. It 
once comprised Greater and Lesser Phrygia, as well aa a large 
part of Galatia ; Lesser Phrygia lay along the Propontis, and was 
attached to Mysia. The Katakekau'mene, or burnt country, was 
a parched and barren region thai lay partly in Phrygia and partly 
in Lydia. It was subject to volcanic action, and had been more 
than once desolated by earthquakes. Lycao'nia, a rugged district in 
the south-east, abotmded in sheep. 

2. The Phrygians were among the first settlers of Asia Minor. 
They were civihzed at an early period, were skilful in mining and 
agriculture, and were noted for their dancing, music, and needle- 

3. Gordlus, one of their early kings, is said to havo tied the knot which 
Aleiander tried to unloose. Midas, another king, received of Bacchus the 
power to turn every thing he touched into gold ; but, finding thai his very 
tood was converted to the precious metal, and that he wsa starving in the 
m'ds o' w a] b he p y d d h g tL 




Haee-CourH or Sladtum ai 



B defeated and atain, 

Q, 1. Doscriba Phrygia. What did it once compriael Wliat is said 
of the Katakekauntene I Of Lycaonia! 3. Of the Phrygians ? 3. Of 



ASIA MINOR. 2S 

Hierap'olifl were lomeuolod hoi hatha. IjioilieB'a was the >ea[ of one of tho 
seven churclies of Aain ; it wns once a epiendid city, but ia now in ruias. 
To Ihe people of Coloa' ace, Si. Fmil wrote one of hia ejijsllca. Near Sjn'nadii, 
the Upia Sjnnad'icua, a beautiful kind of white marble, with red spots, was 
procun»l; slabs and cohinins of it were frequently triuisported aa lur aa 
Rome. Ancj'ra Phn'giie, Apune'& Cibo'tis, I'aodlce'a Combusta, Cib'yra, 
Ico'Dium, Derba andLfstra, were all towaa of note; the laat two wDre visited 
by 81. Paul. 

■ 6. Cappadocia was the largest division of Asia Minor, and was 
at one time an important kingdom. Armenia Minor and Pontus 
were both attached to it, but the ialler became afterwards inde- 
pendent. Calao'nia was a district in the souih-eaatem part of the 
province. It was noted for the abundance of ils minerals, as weli 
as for its fine breed of horses. 

6. The inhabitants were faithless and destitute of moral recti- 
tude. They were one of the three nations of bad chafacter in- 
cluded in the old Greek proverb, " Tria kappa kakista ;" beware 
of the three k's, i. e., Kappadocia, KiUcia and Krele. The peo- 
ple of the districts contiguous to Pontus and Galatia were called 
Leuco-Syri {White SjTians,) because they resembled the inhabit- 
ants of Syria, and spoke their language ; nut were of hghter com- 
plesiou. 

T. Maz'acujths ancient capital of Cappadocia, was called CEBsace'ab; tlic 
Romana, with the addition of ad Argm'um lo dedicate ita position at tho 
base of Mount Argis'ua. Thia mountain was represented to be the highest 
ia Asia Minor; from its sumniil, both Ibo Euxino and Mediterranean eeaa 
mieht (it was said] be seen. Coiiia'na CappaduciiB was faiocd for it^ temple 
of Diana, which was plundered of ila wealth b/ Antony. 

8. Archela'Ia was a Roman colon; ; Melite'ne and Sat'alEi were the chief 
towns b Armeiua Minor. Cabi'ra and Nicop'olia wore noted for the battles 
fought there between Mitlirida'les and the Romane. Nazian'iua and Nfasa 
were the birth-places rcapectively of the Iwo Grcgories, noted fathers of tho 
ChHstian Choroh in the fourth century. T/ana, Podau'dus, Sola'bria, Ca- 
dy'na and Cybia'tra, were lowna in Cappadocia. 



I 9. Galatia was one of the interior provmces of Asia Minor ; and 
■■was once included partly in Phrygia and partly in Cappadocia. It 
was settled by, and received its name from, those Gauls who, under 
ihe command of Brennus, invaded and were driven from Greece, 
278 B. C. They comprised three tribes ; the Tectos'ages, the To- 
listoboi'i, and the Trocmi. Though independent of each other, these 
tribes were usually united in a confederacy for mutual defence. 

Gordius? OfMidas! 4. What occurred at Ipans T Mention what ia said 
of tho other towns. 5. Describe Cappadocia. Cataonia, i,o. 6. The in- 
habitants. 7. What is saidof MmaoaT Mt. Arq;iHua ? S. Archalais and 
Ihc other towns I 9. Describe Galatia. Its settlement, lie. Wh^t tribes 




i1b( Ills C( 



10, Arcy'ra.lhe cliicf townortlie TeoWsgea, WMremaikible forapecn- 
liar bleed of goate, nnd is celebmled to the present day for its fiilirics mnde 
from (heir long and aiJkj hnir. At Gordium, Alexander the Gnat cut the 
fitinouB GordioD knot with hia iworil when lie found tliat he was unahlo liurljto 
unloose it. According to ancient prediction, whoever untied tiiia knot 
was to become master of A>ia. 

11. Pessi'nuB, the capita! of tho ToliGtoboi'i. wdb celebrated for the wnr. 
ship of Cjb'ale, the mother of tho gods. Tiviuni was the capital of the 
Trocmi. Gangra was the residence of King Deiot'oms, tho friend of Ci- 
cero, in favour of wboni he delivered an oration in the eenala. Amu'rtum, 
RoBologi'acum, Eecob'riga and Gorma, were importojit (owns. AtDadasta'no 
the emperor Jorion was unexpectedl/ found dead in his bed. 

Map No. 2.— What rivers hove their riaa in Phrygia? T. H. M, What 
mountains arc there 7 P. D. What hills! L. Lako f T. Point out tlie 
chief towns. When was the battle of Ipaus fought ! Point out the Kata- 
kaukcmene. Ljcaonia, The chief rivers in Cappadocia. H. S. M. The 
principal mountains. T. A. A. What diatrictg in the aouth? C. In the 
east? A. What people in the north? L. Point out the chief towns. 
When were battles fDUfht at Cabira and Nicopolis? What mountains He 
between Gaiatia and Phrygia? A. What mountains west of theHalvs? 
f M. What lake in the centre 7 Point out the chief towns. Tho tribes. 

I 10 



I. Stria estends north and south along' the easternmost c 
of the Mediterranean Sea, and eastward from ita sBores to 
Euphrates river and Arabia Deserta. By the Greeks, it was i 



I. 



.t did the GTccka consider 




SYRIA. 27 

laidered to include Palestine and Plwenicia ; but tlie Jews alivaya 
■ legacded those countries as distinct and independent." 

2. The chief divisiona in ancient times were Syria Proper arid 
e-Syria, (Syria in llie vale, from being situated among the val- 

Jfeya of the Lib anus.) In the north was rtie district of Comage'no, 
wnich was goyemed by its own kings until the time of Vespasian. 

3. A considerable part of the cqudItj is occapied b; the Sjri&a deserti 
which ia a continuatian of, and is Bimilui in every respect (o, tbe great deaert 
of Arabia. The prindpal moiujtaing ore the Am&'nua, Ca'aioB, ajid Lib'anaa 
ani! Anli-LiVanns : the two last are coiled Lebanon in Scripture ; tlieir mim. 
mita iiTB capped with perpetuaJ snow. They wcro long noted for their epian. 
did forEsta of cedar trees, of which only a few small groves remain. The 
principal rivers are the Euphratea, the Orontes, and the Leoulee. 




4. Among' the amaller rivers, the Eleu'thenis was noted in early times 
D. monatroos dragon reported to inhabit its banks, within whose jaws 
there was room enough for a mounted horseman. The waters of the Sab'. 
Iiiitum were said (o cease Sowiog on the Sabbath-day ; hence its ni 
Those of the Ado'nia were in the rainy season tinged with the ocherous 
atancGS from the mountains; whence the tiibutoiia tradition that the j 
Sowed with blood at the anniversary of the death of Ado'nia, who was killed 
by a wild boor on its banks. 

5. The Syrians belonged lo a widely extended race, which 
included the people of Assyria, Armenia, Babylonia, Cappadocia 
and Mesopotamia; all of whom were originally the same in 
language and marmera. The name ia supposed to have been 
abndged from Assyria, or derived from Sur, the early appellation 

cludel S. Name the chief divisions. 3. What is aaid of thoSyrian desert? 
Of the principal mountains? What is said of Libanus and AJiti.Libanua ? 
Of the principal rivers ? 4, The Eleutheras ? Tho Snbfaatum ? The Ado- 
nis! 5. What is said of tho Syrians 7 Of the name, itc? 6. Of Syria? 

■ The description of Palestine U reaarvEd ihr Sacred Geography. 



w 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



of Tyre. The terms Syria and Assyria ore sufficienlly defined 
in geography, hut an; olien indiscriitiinalely used in hislorj-. 

fi. Syria was attached nt an early period lo ihc Assj'riaii empire, 
and afterwards la that of Persia, to which power it lemiuiied sub- 
ject until the coaquest tiy Alexander the Great. On the division 
of that monarch's empire, Syria fell to the share of Seleucus Nica'- 
I /» *"'' ""^ '*'' ^ generals. 

ti (j", 1- Seleucua lueunicil tlie tide of kinf; aT Sjria, End BubJGCled to Ilia BWaj 

- a •nthECDUnlriiM&oaitlie^gfl'aDSciLtoliidiiiandlhcIniiir'lca. Tliia princo 

'J' J, mcoaraged letters, and reBtoTL-d to AtheDB the booka and maniuaaDls of ut 

that had been carried off by Xer««, He wm the father and IwQeraotor of 

hii people, and was eminent for hit cuurage, prudence and homanitf. 

8. The Seleu'cidie, or BucccBsort of &eleu'cus, ffovemed the contilr; fbr 
more than 200 years, when tJie last sovereign, Anti'ochus Aiiial'i<:aB, vraB de- 
throned by Fompcy : Syria then become a Ramon protiiice, and remained 
until it was conquered by the Suaeena, A. D. CIS, 



N 




9. Among: the most noted cilies of Syria wae An'tioch, or Antiochi'a, aur. 
named ad Oron'tem, ftom the Oroii'tes river on which it stood, Thi> place, 
far extent, beauty, and papulation, was at one time esteemed the third city 
ID the world, and was called the Queen of the EasL It ia now a poor and 
ill tuilt Turklah town of 11,000 or 12,000 inhabilanta. Near to Anlioch 
was tlie celebrated grove called Daphne, wbere Venue was worshipped with 
great licentioUBnesa. 

10. Chal'ybon wu aituated on the river Chalcls, the lish of which were 
held sacred by tlie Syrinna, who would allow no one to destroy them. Pin- 
denis'sus wsa besieged and CDptored by Cicero, B. C. S\, when he was pro- 
consul of Cilicia. Samoe'ata was the capital of Comage'ne ; here the poel 
Lucian was born. At Sochas, Dari'ua lay for some lime with his army, pie- 
Tioua to the battle of laeus. 

11. Hlcrap'olia was celebrated for a temple of Venus, which was ao rich, 
lLatCrassaii,when he plundered it in his Parthian cipedition, occupied several 
days in weighing the treasure. At Zeugma was a noted bridge of boata 
over the Euphratea, and here the Roman armiea generally croaaed the river. 

7. Seleooua ? What did thia prince do 7 What is his character 7 8, What 
is said of the Seleueidoj 7 9. Deacrihe .4ntioeh. 10. Chalybon, &JJ. 
11. Hieropolis, &c 12. Emesa, ic 13, Daroascaa, HeUopolis. 



PALMYRA. 26 

Apame'a, on the Oron'les, was, in Ihe time of Selau'cus, a great military 
depot, where 500 war-clephanta were kept 

ja, Em'esa was famous for ita tainplc of the Sun ; Heliogob'alue, one of its 
priesta, was mads emperor of Rome by the Roman Boldicry, wlien imly 14 
years of age. Zeno'bia was defeated at thia place by Aure'liaii, A. D, 373. Al 
Thap'sacus was a noted ford oier the Euplira'tes, where three great armies 
croBsed at diQ'erent times, vii. ; that of Cyius iJie younger, B. C. 601 ; that 
of Darius, B.C. 333; and that of Alexander the Great, EC. 33t. 

13. Damos'cuB, called the Eye of (he East, was the capital of CiEla-Syr'ia. 
DH well as of the kingdom of Damag'cus ; it is still an important city, and 
is aitualed in a detightfiil and ftrlile territory. ThaTntks and Araba bolieve 
it to have been the original Faradiso, and thai it has not its equal ou earth. 
Here Deme'triua Niea'tor was defeated by Alesander Zebi'na. Heliop'olis, 
Sev Ba'albeo', is famooi for a splendid temple of the Sun, the ruins of 

■" * idshow its Ibriaer mapfnificence. 

' Hap JVo. S.— What sea bounds Syr'ia on the west? What river on the 
MBtJ What country in the north 7 A.M. On the south 7 A. P. On the 
norlh-oaatl M. On the south-easl ? A. D. What country ertends along 
the coast ftom Mount Camel to AyudasT F. What inland sea in the 
south T What river Howb into it T What Country extends along the Jar. 
dan? What district south of Falealine? 1. Wbnt desert between the 
Oron'tes and the Enphra'toa rivera ? What islands on the coast ? M. A. 
Map d/ JVorWtrn and Ctntral Sy/io.— What district lies in the North ; 
C. iDlheaoulh? as. East! P. What country west of CibIc Syr'ia? P. 
What rivers flow into the Mediterranean Seal Into lakes ? What moun- 
tains between Syr'ia and Asia Minor 7 Between the Oron'tes river and the 
Mediterranean Sea! C. East of Pboinic'iu! Point out the cities men- 
tioned in the leit. When went battled fought at Antioch ? EmeaaT Da- 



W 



PALMrRA. 



1. Palhy'ra vms once a aplendtd city, and fonned, for a short 
time, the capitnl of an important state. It woa situated in ihe 
PBlmyre'ne, a district and oasis in the centre of the Syrian desert, 
and rather more thnn midway between the Mediterranean Sea 
and the Euphra'tes river. 

2. Tad'mor in the wilderness, mentioned in Holy Writ as hav- 
ing been founded by Solomon, and Palm/ra, are the same ; and 
both names are derived from the palm trees with which the cily 
was GUTTOimded. Thottgh for a long time in ruins, the remains 
of its splendid temples and palaces still command admiration. 

3. This city was from a remote period a great emporium of 
commerce between eastern and western Asia. It was an impor- 
'bmt place at the lime whenTra'jan subjected the whole province 




30 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

to his power. It then became allied to Rome as a free Stale, and 
was greatly favoured by A'drian and ihe Antoni'nes. 

4. In the reign of Gallio'nuB, the Koman aenata coofbrred on Odcna'tiu, 
king of Falmy'rii, u a reward Ibr bia Berricea to the empire, the conimfLnd 
of the enatemprovincea, which, owing in a great measure, it ia believed, to the 
akitl and prudence of his queen Zotio'bia, he defended with talent and aucceu. 

5. On the death of her husband, Zcuo'biii, under the title of queen of the 
East, aiBUtncd the lavereigntj of Ihc provinces which he had governed. 
Aure'liafi, when he became emperor, conaidorod Zono'bia aa an uaurper; he 
Ihereforo declared war against her, twice deftatod her armies, dapttiTM Pal- 
mf'ra, and look her prisoner. To preserve her Hfe, aho uneenctaualy laid 
the blune of (lie war, it is aaid, on hei learned secretary Longi'nua, who 
was in consequence put to death. 

6. Tlio conquered queen waa taken to Rome, and led through the city in 
a triuniphal ptoceaaion, fettered nith ehaina of gold. A rexidenco waa 
then aasigncd to her atTi'bui, in the vicinitj of Some, and her children 
were treated with great respect bj tbc emperor. Zena'bia ia dcacrtbed aa an 
accompliahed and high-minded princeaa ; she epoke several laogDages, and 
was well veraed in the leaimtng of that period. ^ 



I 
I 




Rules of Film) 

T. Patmy'ra gradually declined aSlei its capture by Aurelian, and wil$ 
■nbaequenliy taken by the Saracens ; it then remained forgotten and unknown 
nntil about the middle of the ISth century, when it waa discovered by two 
Eogliah truvcllera. There still exist a great number of beautiful columns, 
rpina of temples and palaces, all admirably wrought of marble ; while the 
ground is everywhere strewn with the wrecks of tlie aplcDdid structures of 
the ancient city. The neighbouring Araba now call it Tad'mor, ita ancient 
Hebrew name. 



. Cy'prus is the lareest island in the Mediterranean Sea, ercepl 
Sicily and Sardinia. It was famous for the variety and abundance 
of its products, and its delightful climate. Wine, oil, wheat, and 

the time of Tra'jan ? 4. In the reign of Gallie'nua 7 What ia said of 
Zeno'biiT 5. What took place on tlie death of her husband T How did 
Aurelian treat her when he became emperor 7 6. What occorred when she 
was taken to Home 7 Where did ahs reside 7 Describe Zeoo'bia. T. What 
Ja tai'd of Palmy'ra? When waa it diacovcred, &c.l What still exists 7 
■What do the Arabs call it ? a Dcacri be Cy'prus. For what was it ft moua J 



PHCENICIA. 31 

honey, were and are still its chief staples. The range of Mount 
Olym'pus extends through the whole length of the island. 

9. The Women were models of beauty. The whole island was sacred to 
Venus ; hence she was called Cyp'ria, or the Cyp'rian goddess. The people 
were sensual and dissipated, yet literature and the arts flourished to some 
extent. 

10. The first inhabitants of Cy'prus are unknown; the Phoenic'lans at an 
early period established colonies in the island ; aflerwards it was succes- 
sively conquered by the Egyptians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Ptol'emies, 
and the Romans. Afler the division of the Roman territories, Cy'prus con- 
tinued subject to the Eastern empire, and was ruled by its own governors 
of royal blood ; of whom Comnenus I. made himself independent, and his 
family sat upon the throne till A. D. 1191, when Richard Coeur de Lion 
rewarded the family of Lusignan with the sceptre. 

11. Sal'amis, the most important town in Cy'prus, was destroyed by an 
earthquake in the time of Constantino ; but was rebuilt by his order, and 
called, after him, Constan'tia. Cit'ium was the birth-place of Zeno and 
Apollonius ; there Ci'mon, the celebrated Athenian general, died. 

12. Pa'phos is said to have been founded on the spot where Venus landed 
when she rose from the sea. The splendid temple in which she was wor- 
shipped contained 100 altars, which smoked daily with a profusion of fran- 
kincense ; and though exposed to the open air, they were never, it is said, 
wetted by the rain. SoKoe, or So'li, was an Atheniar colony ; the term sole- 
cism is by some derived from this place, but by others from So'li in Cilicia. 
Cerin'ia was an early Phoenic'ian colony ; Am'athus and Cu'rium were both 
noted towns. 



Map No, 5. — Point out Palmyra. What river lies east of it 7 E. What 
river west ? O. What town lies west ? What town lies east ? What 
important city northwest ? What southeast 7 Which is the nearest town 
on the Euphrates 7 

Map No. 2. — What is the length of Cyprus from east to west 7 What is 
its extent from north to south m miles 7 In stadia 7 How many miles is 
Cyprus from the nearest part of Syria 7 Of Asia Minor 7 Of Crete 7 Of 
Rhodes 7 What is the name of its northern cape or promontorium 7 Its 
southern 7 Eastern 7 Western 7 



12 



PHCENICIA. 

1. Phcenic'ia, the country of the Sido'nians and Tyr'ians, or 
Phoenic'ians, consisted of a narrow strip of territory, which lay 
between Mount Lib'anus and the Mediterranean Sea ; and ex- 
tended along the coast of Syr'ia from Mount Carmel to the Island 
of Ar'adus. 



What were its chief staples ? What range extends through its land 7 
9. What is said of the women 7 Of the people? 10. The first inhabitants, 
&C.7 What occurred afler the division of the Roman territories? 11. 
What is said of Salamis 7 Citium 7 12. Paphos 7 Soloe or Soli ? And 
the other towns 7 



r 



'"? 



82 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

3. The Phcenic'iana were sellled on ihe coast of Paltistine lonj 
iiefore the arrival of the Israelites. The maritime position tu* 
their country, anil its abundance o( timber, led them at on ettrly 
period to ship-building, then lo narigation and commercial pur- 
suits. They also practised various arts, and exceUed in useful 
and beautiful manufactures, so that fabrics of a superior quality 
received the epithet Sido'nian, from Si'don the oldest city. 

3. They were the first who used ruddo™ and soils, aniJ steered their ahips 
at night by the stnri. They invented arithmetic, and, according lo the 
Greeks, the letters of the alphabet originsted with Cadmus, >. PhiBnic'iui. 
These people also diacovcrcd tho mode of making glass ; and their fajnom 
purpla dya, derived from a apcciea of shell firet found on Ibcir coasts, wu 
lugbly prised and produced them great wealth. 

4. Their commerce was eitended far and wide by the establishment of 
colonies in various quarters, of which Carthage, Utica, and Gidcs, were 
the most important The latter, noiv Cadix,on the soothcm ooist of Spain, 
was their principal settlement beyond the straits of Hercules, or Gibmltar. 

5. The FhcBnic'ians obtained gold and silver from Spain, tin fi-om Britain, 
amber from the Baltic, and brass and iron from the shores of the Black 
Sea; they traded overland with various interior oounlries of Asia and AiKca, 
and it ia believed tliey sailed to India by the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. 

6. Phmiiic'ia formed a confederation of cities, of which, in their 
roost flourishing period, from the year 1000 lo 600 E. C, Tyre 
was the ruling power. Tyre and Si'don were each governed by 
their own kings, of whom the best known are Hi'ram, the friend 
of David and Solomon, and Pygraa'lion, the brother of Di'do. The 
language of the Phcenic'ians was similar lo the Hebrew. In their 
religious woTship, the horrid rite of human sacrifice was practised. 




of the earliest places 

Q. 1. Describe PhtEnicia. S. Previous to what event were the Phcmioiani 

■ellled on tho const of Palestine! What is said of the country, ic, J 

What did the Pkcnicians practise? 3. What vere they the first to use T 

Wnal did they invent, &c. 7 What did they discover 7 4. What is said 

'- ■ - -ce7 Their most imporlanl colonics 7 The princij^ set- 

the Straits of Hercules 7 5. What did they obtain from 

Jritain 7 From the Baltic 1 Prom the Black Sea 7 What 

i^rland trade 7 6. What did Phtenicis form 1 What is 

oftlieking:s7 7. Dt^cribc Sidoru 



tlement beyar 
Spain 7 Fron 




PHCENICIA 



33 



ill [lie world that CKirlBil on an eitenBivs commerce. It was captured by 
Artaier'xcB O'chus, king of Perain. During the siege, t)ie inbubitantB, in 
despair, set lire to Uicir hoiiaes, and 40,000 of tliem perished in the flamn. 
K'don DCFcr rccorered its fonnei runk. In the time of the Cruaades. it waa 
a place of some note. It is now called Saide, and is a (own of 5000 or 
eOttO inhabitants. A few huge stones, the remains of the gigantic mole, 
are the only remnants of ths old city. 

8. Tyre was baUt by the Sido'nions, and became the rival of Si'djn, aa 
well S9 the chief cily of Phmnic'ia. It rose to be the graateat commercial 
emporium of antiquity bclbre the time of Carthago. It waa tbundod on 
the main-land, but aAer its dcatrnction by Nebuehadnei'zar, King of Baby- 
lon, a second city waa built on a small rocky island, half a mile from the 
shore ; but the latter never Bl:(ained the importance of the first Tyre. The 
old city WHS rebuilt and wee called Palm Tyre. In the days of Fliny, th« 
two cities were estimated to be 19 miles ui circuit 

9, Alexander the Great, 331 B. C, took Tyre after a siege of eight 
monlha, during which lime his army constructed a mole, or causeway, lo 
tlie island, and waa thus enabled to conquer the place, t^re recovered 
from iU eecand capture, attained once more cons'iderable dittinction, and 
was made a free city by the Romans. During the Crusades it waa the 
principal port and rendezvous of the Crusaders ; since that period it baa 
gradually declined until now nothing is left but TUina, amon^ which stands 
the small fishing village of Sour. 




10. Ar'adiu, on ■ small island of the same name, was an important and 
wealthy city; the houaeH, according to Strabo, were higher and contained 
more storiea than those of Rome. This island in now a mere rock, covered 
with llio remains of its departed grandeur. Trip'olis waa built by the 
people of Tyro, Si'don and Ar'adus, as a place of general asBomUy for 
their deputies; it formed three towns, each enelosod by its own walls. 

11. Byti'lus waa celebrated ftr the worship of Ado'nis. Bory'luB became 
a Roman colony under tlie name of Felix Julia ; its schools for the studj 
of jurisprudence and the fine arts, were noted. Sarep'ta was distinguished 

? What is said of the second dtv T 
: subsequent condition of Tjre I lO. 
11. Bj-blus and the other tawna. 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



Eura'pi lo Crc'tc. Ae'cFio, or Ptolnini 
■uiUined. Near it wu the UlUit Hti 
{1*H iru difcoreied. 



IB snld to have carried away 
EDowncd rpr the sir gea it hu 
a, wlieie the mode of making 



Map of Sanktm and CnOral Syria. — Point out the principal rivm 
of Fhaaiiciit. E.S.A.L. What mountiLinB lio eaat of PtKEnicial L. A. L. 
Whut divjiion of Sf ria la^ cant of Tyre and Sidon 7 a Name tfaa towns 
on the coast, beginning with Tyro. Whut inland lies at tlie narlbem eji- 
treniitjof Fh(£Qici&I A. What town hij csal of Aiadua f A. 



ARA'BIA. 

1. ARA'BIA is remarkable for preserving Its name and boimdaiies 
unchanged for thoueandB of yeara. 'Hie ancient geographew 
described it as containing; three great divisions, via : Arabia Pettm'a 
(the rocky), Arabia Febx (the fruitful, or happy), and Arabia De- 
Eeita (the desert, or barren): but this arrangement is more fanciiii] 
than real, and has never conesponded with the actual political 
divisions of the coimtry at any period. 




3. The grenter part of Ara'bia hna tilways been inhabited by nomadic 
plondering tribep, whom the Greeks called Ar'abea Sceni'Ue. The inhabit- 
luils of the eoast, on Ihe other hand, wise diBercnt in their habits, nod 



Q. 1. For whsl i« Arabia remarkable 7 How aia me aneicni geograpn 
it 7 What is btid of tliii arrungemaiil I 2, Whol le soid of ' 



,. ^, - „ -. „ — nt geographeri 

du9cribeit7 What is btid of Diii arrangemaiil I 2, Whol le soid of the 
clilof put of Arubin I Of the Inliabilants la the coast, &.□. 7 The cars- 



iplicd the nations on the chorea of 
ucta of the east, and so unchange- 
able is Ibe aspect of clx-ilizaljau in thut part of Asia, tliat the caravans then 
employed, scarcely diffEted in any partioulaa: from thoiC which now traverse 
the deuert. 

3. Arn'bia Felrai'a compriaed the north-wBatem part of Aia'bia. Mount 
fii'noi. Mount Ho'reb and Mouut Hor, were the principal mountains. The 
NabaUiffi'i, one of the principal tribes, were t)ie E'doniiteB of Scripture. 
Iduma'a was a part of Uicir territory ; Fet'ra, tlieir capital, is remarkable 
for the singularity of its situation. It has been, for centuries, destitute of 
inhabitants, and ils very site was unknown for a thoasand yoaie, but noa 

4. This place is about half vmj between the Red Sea and PareslJne ; it 
comprises a small circular basin, enclosed on all sides by rocks 500 or 600 
feet high, to which there is but ono narrow entrance. The inner &ce of 

' this barrier is excavalcd into temples, tombs and other alructurea, most of 
which are entire ; while the interior area, that was occupied by the city, is a 
mere mass of ruins. Fof m si^iRts a rock, and gave name to Ara'bia Fetne'a. 

6. Ara'bia Felir lay along the shores o£ the Arabian Gulf and the 
Erylfarae'nn Sea. It has long been &mous as the land of incense, 
spices and perfumes ; hut it is now believed that the rich products 
in which its merchants traded were, for the most part, obtained 
from India and Africa. 

G. The dib-triet of Bahs'i, or Sbelia, was renowned for the enterprise and 
wealth of its iiihabitonls. Guld and silver were so abundant, that common 
utensils were made of those metols ; and the temples and houses were often 
prajtisely ornamented with the same costly materials. Maria'ba, a noted 
commercial city, was the capital. 

7. Ara'bia Deserta comprised the interior of (he country. It 
consisted, as its name imports, of sandy deserts, destitute of water 
in many places for an extent of several days' journey; but in 
others, as in the region now called Nedjed, or the covintry of the 
Wahabees, it is known to contain some fertile and populous districts. 

8. TheSacali'lffi, or Saohali'tffl, dwelt eastward of the Sa'bfflj they traded 
chiefly in frankincense. Ara'bia Felix, Oma'num and Mos'cha, were im- 
portant sea-ports on the shores of the Arahian Sea, as were also Eiiongabcr, 
iEla'ua, Leuce-come, Jamnio, Sadia-Regia and Ocalis, on those of the Red 
Sea ; at the latter port, ships that were destined for India took in their lost 
■applies of water for tha toyage, 

9. At Ger'ra, or Ger'rha, on the Fersian Gulf, the walls and lowers are 
raid to have been confitraetad of cock-sali The island of Da'den, or Ty'los 
(now Babcein), was, in ancient times, as it is at the present day, the chief 
seat of the pearl-fishery. lathrippa and Mncor'aba, now Medina, and Mecca, 
have botli been noted cities since the days of Mahomet. 

10. Arabia was never conquered by any foreign nation ; Aleiander the 

rans of the present age ? 3. What did Arabia Petrasa comprise, &.c. 
What IB said of the Nabathmi 7 Of Fetra I 4 Describe its eituation, &e. 
What does Fetrs'a eignily? 5. Menlinn Ibe situation of Arabia Felix. 
For what has it been Ion; famous, &.e. 7 G. What is said of the district 
of Sabrei, or Sheba I 7. Describe Arabia Deserta. 8. What is said of the 
w Sachalitie I Mention the towns. D. What is said of Gerra? 




r 



36 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



Great, and lubiequcnt]; the Roinsn*, In Ihe lime of Augnsliu, mode 
five inroads into the jnlcrior-, but, for vaiil orwatcT,wtie obliged loi 
their itep*. The chief part of Ara'bii Pelrs'it wu conquertd by TVajan, 
A. D. 107. A Roman legion wai, for a lime, Malioned at Bostra, where Ihs 
Emperor Philip, samamcd Arabua, «u born. 

II. During the 7th centurj, Ani'bii acquired, under the swar of Maho. 
met and the Calipha, a. nen and formidable chaiadcr ; vast lemtorics wen 
conc|iiered, and an empire wai eetabliahed equalling in power and exlenl 
the greatcBt Etalei of anliqoiiy. Thongb lor a time averse to polite letter^ 
the Arabi or Saroceni became, during' tbe ninth century, the most civiliiad 
and learned people in the world. Their vsHt empire no longer eiista, but 
the influence oftJipir iDstitutiona Continues lo he fell; and llie langoage, lite- 
rature and religion of Arabia, ii atill revered over large portiona of the Eaat- 

^rabia on the weit 7 On the east 7 
t separated Arabia from Ethiopia 7 
A. D. What fulf on the «outh-weal ? A. What towns bv on the Arabian 
Gulf? Onlhe Erj'lhriBBnSea? The Persian Gutf7 In the interior f 

Map No. 5.— Where ia Arabia Petrffiat Mount Sinai 7 Mount Horeb? 
Meant Ilnr 7 Idumca 7 Deacrt of Paran 7 Petia 7 Ezioogaber, or Bere- 
nice 7 £kna7 Leuce^ome 7 

ARME-NIA. 

1. Arme'nia is an interior region, and lies to the south-east of 
the Eujtine Sea. It is an elevated country, and is trnveraed by 
lofty mountains, nearly ull whose summila are covered with snow ; 
hence the climate is coot, and the winteis are often seveie. 




The Island of Daden J lalhrippa, &.c. 7 10. What is staled of Arabia? Of 
AJerander the Great? The Romans, Slc. 7 11. What oecured during the 
peveoth century ? What is said of the Arabs, or Sorncens 7 
Q. 1, Describe Armenia. 9. What is enid of Momit Ararat7 Of the 



ARMENIA. 37 



EUmmit tho ark is enppoacd to have rented, and rrom itx base Noah anil 
his sons set forth lo teplcnisli the earth. The Euplim'tea, Ti'gris, and 
Arai'os rivers Uke Ihejr rise in this region. TJie Arsia'sa and Lychni'tii, 
no« the Van, and the Er'ivan, are the ptincipal lakes. The wnt«r of the 
first is bracliiuh, and nnfit lor use. 

3. The Arme'niana were originalljr the same people as the Syri- 
ans ; they are one of the oldest nations in the world, and have 
mointaitied themselves as a distinct race, with a limited den^e of 
cultivation, fiom the lime of the Assyrian empire. The Greeks 
and Homana had but an indifferent opinion of these people ; they 
believed them to be destitute of patriotism, and indifferent lo 
liberty or political freedom. 

4. Tlieogh sometimca under the rule of ita native princes, Arme'nia was 
■■jbjected hy turns to tiie Assyr'ianB, the Medea, tho Persians, the Greeka, 
and the Syr'ions. On tho overthrow of Anll'ochua the Great by Scip'io, 187 
E C., the country woa divided into Aimo'nia Major and Minor ; the latter 
lay nest of the Euphrates river. After many contests with the PartbiaDs, 
Tra'jan, about 106 A. D., annexed Arnicnia Major to the Roman empire 
Subsequently it became iadcpendcnt, and waa governed hy ita own kinga 
until tlie time of the Saracen lavasioa ; since that period it has often 
diangcd maelera. It is now divided between the Turks, PerBian8,aiid Rus 

5. Artai'ata, Am'ida and Tigranocer'la, were tlie chief town? in Arme'- 
nia; the first named was once tlie capital. Am'ida, now Diar'bekir, woa 
strongly fortified, and llie walla built by tho Romans still serve to protect 
the town. Tigranoccr'ta was founded by Tigra'oes, King of Arme'nia; it 
waa B beaulifiil and wealthy city, and was peopled eliiellj hy Greeks, fbrci 
bij cairiod thither from Asia Minor. In its vicinity Lucul'lns defeated Ti- 
gra'nes, wheu tlie city surrendered lo tlie Romans. Vast riches fell intu the 
handa of tho captors. Naxuu'na, Attemi'tu, Ai'zen, ArE^amaij'ala and Thei>- 
dosiop'tjia wore towns in Arme'nia. 

MESOPOTATVIIA. 

6. Mesopota'm!* lay between the Euphrates and Tigris, and 
derived its name, which signifies between the rivers, from that cir- 
cumstance. The modem inhabitants call it Al Jezira, tlie island. 
It was once regarded as a part of Syria, and one of its scripture 
names is A'ram NaJiara'im, or Syria of the rivers. 

7. The northern part of the country comprised the districts of 
Osroe'ne and Mygdo'nia. This division was rich in grain, fruit 
and pasturage, and was often called Mesopota'mia Felix. The 
southern division was flat and sandy ; its inhabitants were chiefly 

Euphrates liiver, See. ? The .trsisaa Lake, &o.I 3. What is said of the 
ArmcnianaT What opinion bad the Greeiis and Romans of these pcopleT 
4. To what power waa Armenia suhjeoted? When waa it divided, *,e.? 
What occurred in the time of Trajan 7 Snbscquently, &.C ! 5. What is 
■aid of Artaiala, ic.T What is aaid of Tigranocerta T What occured 
in Its vicinity 7 Name the other towns. B. Describe Mesopotamia. How 
waa it once regarded ' 7. What Is said of the northern part of the coontry I 



38 CLA88ICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

wandering Arabs. The ostrich and the wild ass were once found 
here, but those animals have long since disappeared. 

8. From remote times, Mesopota'mia nearly always constituted a portiaD 
of the adjacent great empires. The Romans seized it during the Mithii- 
dat'ic war, and Tra'jan formed it into a Roman province. It was often the 
scene of warlike operations between the Romans and the Porthians ; after- 
wards between the former and the new Persians. It finally fell into the 
power of the latter, and then successively into that of the Saracens and the 
Turks. 

9. Edes'sa, Circe'sium and Nis'ibis were the most important towns in 
Mesopota'mia ; the last named was long a noted fortress, and when ceded by 
the Romans to the Persians, the former attempted in vain to recover it. At 
Rcsaina, the Persians were defeated by Gordian. Batns, or BatniB Sem'gi, 
was noted for a great annual fair, held for the sale of Indian commodities. 

10. Car'rhsB, the Haran of scripture, was the place whence Abraham de- 
parted for Canaan. In its vicinity, Cras'sus the triumvir was defeated and 
taken prisoner by the Parthians, who put him to death by pouring, in deri- 
sion of his avarice, melted gold down his throat. Ur was the first residence 
of Abraham ; in the time of the Romans it was an important citadd in 
which the army of Julian took refuge after his defeat. 

11. Singa'ra, CflB'ne, Bir'tha and Apamo'a were important towns. At 
Singa'ra, Sapor gave the Romans a signal defeat Hatrah was an impr^- 
nable fortress situated in a fertile oasis, surrounded by a desert : it resisted 
the attacks of both Tra'jan and Seve'rus. On the Euphrates, below the 
junction of the Chabo'ras, was the tomb of the younger Gordian. 

Map No, 5. — ^What countries bounded Armenia on the north 7 C. L On 
the south ? On the west ? What rivers rise in Armenia ? E. T. A. What 
mountains formed part of the southern boundary ? What mountains tra- 
versed the interior? Which is the principal mountain 7 Which are the 
principal lakes 7 Point out the towns mentioned in the text 

What river bounds Mesopotamia on the east 7 On the west 7 What 
mountains on the north 7 What river flows into the Euphrates 7 What 
towns lay on the Euphrates 7 On the Tigris 7 What towns between thooe 
rivers 7 When were battles fought near UarrhoB, at Resaina, and Singara 7 



15 



ASSYRIA. 

1. Assyr'ia was one of the first settled countries in the world. 
It became also the seat of one of the earliest established monar- 
chies, and hence it was intimately connected with the origin of 
government, arts, and civilization. 

2. It lay between Armenia, Mesopota'mia, Me'dia, and Per'sia, 

The southern division 7 8. What was Mesopotamia from remote times ? 
What is said of the Romans 7 Of what was it often the scene 7 What 
occurred finally 7 9. Describe Edessa, &c. Resaina, &c. 10. Carrhss. 
What took place in its vicinity 7 What is said of Ur7 11. Singara and 
tlie other towns 7 

Q. 1. What was Assyria 7 What did it become 7 2. Describe its sitna- 



and extended along ihe left bank of the Ti'gris river. Eastward 
rose the Za'gros Mountains, which formed its boundaty in that 
direction. In the north were the Cardu'chi, a people fierce and 
barbarous, Uke theii descendants, the modem Koords, and firom 
vrhom this country is now called Koordielan'. 

3. It was tlie originnl oonntrj of the AsByriaoB, but their empire rose in 
time to such impodance as to include Meeopotu'niia, Babylon, or Chsldie'u, 
Armema, Media, Aaia Minor, nnd Cul'diia. The inhabitanlB of AsEyrin, as 
nell ai those of Che tliree first named territories, belonged to one race, and 
were similar to the Syrians ; the; all spoke dialects of tha aamo tongue, and 
their manners and customs were originall; alike. 

i. The Assyrian government, like that of all other eaEtem monarchiOE, 
Wa£ thoroogbly despotic. The king^s will was the law, and no code existed 
to restrict his jndgmeQla. Ho was the head of the religious as well as the 
political power of tbe state, and cLxinied divine worship as if lie had been 
a deity. His palace was crowded with as many wives and concubines as 
he oliose to collect, who were placed under the onarge of eunuclis, an unfor- 
tunate race first brought into use in Assyria. 

5. The accounts lliat have reached ua of the origin and growth of the 
Assyrian empire, are obscure and discrepant. According to scripture, it 
Waa founded either by Assh'urorbyNini'rod; but, according to the classioai 
writers, Ni'nus or Be'Ius, the son of Nini'rod, established l£c empire, aboDt 
the year S059 B. C. He is tlie first great warrior and eonqueror an record, 
and established his power over a large portion of western and southern 
Asia. His queen and soccessor, Somir'amiB, continued his career of vic- 
tory, and extended the bounds of the empire as Ikr as Etbio'pia and Lib'yo. 

e. The Assyrian munarchy flourished for a period of 1240 years. Sar. 
daoapalns, tbe last sovereign, neglected the duties of governnieut, hved 
entirely, it is said, among liis women and eunuchs, and dressed and painted 
himself like thera. Arba'ces, governor of Media, and Bd'csis, governor of 
Babylon, despising the efieminaey of their sovereign, conspired against and 
besieged him in lus capital ; when, finding tiiat ho could no longer resist 
their power, Sardanapa'lus set fire to his ^ace and perished in tlie fiainea. 

7. A second -Assyrian empire was now iiirmcd, and soon became a pow- 
erfiil state. The Medes and Babylonians again yielded to its supremacy ; 
but about the year 700, B. C, the first under Cyax'ares, and the other under 
Nabopolas'sar, rose a second time, besieged and tflok Ni'nua and utleily 
destroyed it. Assyria was now reduced to the rank of a Median province, 
and Babylon in a short time became a powcrfiil kingdom. Cyrus, 559 years 
B.C., having attained the sovereignty of Media and Persia, ooii<iucrcd 
Babylon, which, with Assyria, he annexed to his vast empire. 

B. The city of Ni'nua (the Nin'eveh of scripture) lay on the pstern bank 
of the Ti'gris. It was one of the great capitals of antiquity, and is described, 
bj soma writers, to have Ijcen 48, and by others 60 miles in eircumferunoe. 

tion. What is said of the Carduchil 3. Of the A^yriaiu and their em. 
pire7 Of the inhabitants of Assyria? 4. What was the character of the 
Aisyrian government? What is said of the king 1 Whotwashe? What 
did la claim ? 5. What ia said of the origin, Sec, of the Assyrian empire ? 
Of its founders! What is the character of Belua 1 What is aaid of Semi. 
rojBis? 6. How hmg did the Assyrian empire flourish! Describe Sar. 
danapaluB. Describe the oonspiraey fbmied against him. 7. What is 
■aid of the second Assyrian empire '! Of Cyaiares and Nabopulassar ! Of 
Assyria? Babylon? Cyms? 8. Describe Nuius. 9. Wbatopiniondid ill 



4 



■40 CLASSICAL GEOGEAPHY 

lt« wdUb were built of brick, 100 feet high, tud ao wide that three chariola 
';outd run nbreut oa their nuamit i ajid they were fiinher lecured bj 1500 

9. The iDbabitanta coiuidered the cit/ to be impregnable ; they relied on 
dQ old predictiuD, tb&t it could never be taken oatil the river bucime its 
enecny. But tliis at but aceurred, for, during the laet siege, the Ti'gris ovei- 
tlowed its banka and undermined a porliou of iU walla, when [he city waa 
i;aptured, aiier a aicgo of three yearn. Ni'nua continued to be tlie aeat of 
■fovernment, and gradually regained its former importance ; but, on the 
aubveraioD uf Ibo second empire, ita stately walla and pal .... 

with the dust, and the whole reduced to a mass of ruinn. 




ID. East of Ni'nns were Arbe'Ia and Gaugame'Ia; on a vast plain between 
Ihoae towns, Alexander the Great gained the deciiiive victory which made 
him msEter of the Fersian empire, usually called the battle of Arbela, 
Some dialancc below Ni'nua lay Sumo'rc, near to which the Emperor Julian 
waa killed, A. D. 363, in a oonteat with the Fetfiians. Lower down tUs 
river was O'pis, or Antiochi'a; to this place Near'nbus brought hia fleet by 
order of Alexander, after the completion of hia voyage from India. 

Jtfop A'o.S. — What river formed the weelem boundary of Assyria? 
What mountains! What country lay north r Sooth? East! West? 
What rivera Sowed into the Tieria? What cities lay on the cast side of the 
Tigris? On the Zabos Major f Zabus Minor? At what time waa a battle 
fbaght between thoee towns T What nation occupied the norihern part of 
Assyria ? What route is marked in the map on the east aide of the Tigris? 



BABYLONIA, OR CHALD^A 

I. Babtlonia, or Chai.d£a, was the seat of one o 
empires of antiquity. It comprised a rich, level territory, 

Inhabitants entertain ? What occurred during tlie firg 
dubaequcnt &te of Ninus. 10. What towna lay east of Ni 
noted event took place there T At Sumere T What is stated < 
iiat was Babylonia, or ChaldieaT What did it C( 



^H Q.1.V 




BABYLONIA, OR CHALDiEA. 41 

lay on both sides of the river Euphrates. The country was fer- 
tifized by the annual overflow, of that stream, m the same manner 
that Egypt is by that of the Nile. 

2. The land was well cultivated, and the products were im- 
mense. Numerous canals conveyed the waters of the river, and 
irrigated the soil in every quarter. The buildings were con- 
structed of brick, and bitumen was used instead of mortar. 

3. Babylonia formed a province of the Assyrian empire until the fall of 
Ni'nus, when it became an independent State. The most noted of its kin?s 
was Nebuchadnez'zar ; his dominions comprised Babylonia, Mesopotamia 
and Syria, including Phoenicia and the kingdom of Judah. Belshaz'zar, his 
grandson, and the last Babylonian monarch, was subdued by Cyrus, B. C. 
538, and his kingdom was added to the Persian empire. 

4. The Babylonians were a partially civilized nation 2000 years B. C 
Twelve hundred years later, the Chaldoeans, or Kasdim, either conquered 
or became incorporated with them. The priests were renowned for their 
skill in astronomy and astrology ; commerce and manu^ictures were en- 
couraged, and great wealth was acquired. Marriages were usually made 
by purchase, and the sick were exposed in the streets to receive the advice 
of the passers-by. 

5. The religion of the Babylonians was Sabianism, or the worship of the 
sun, moon, and stars. Their supreme deity was Ba'al, or Bel, and was sup- 
posed to personify the sun. Mylit'ta was the principal female divinity ; her 
worship was gross and licentious. Cruelty and obscenity were the most 
marked attributes of Babylonian as well as of Assyrian idolatry. Human 
victims were sacrificed, and the most obscene practices enjoined as a reli 
gious duty. 

6. Babylon, the capital, stood on both sides of the Euphrates river ; it 
was the first city that was founded after the flood, and was one of the most 
magnificeni of ancient times. It was 60 miles in circuit, with walls 200 
cubits high and 50 thick, and a hundred gates of brass. Among its most 
renowned structures, were the temple of Be'Ius and the Hanging Gardens 
The former, originally, it is believed, the tower of Ba'bel, was an eighth of 
a mile in diameter at the base, and 600 feet high : it consisted of eight sto- 
ries, gradually diminishing as they ascended ; a sloping terrace on the outside 
of the building served as a means of ascent and descent. 

7. The Babylonians having provoked a war with the Modes and Persians, 
Cyrus laid siege to the capital, but the citizens, confiding in the strength 
of their walls, laughed their enemies to scorn. At length, during a grand 
festival, when the besieged probably relaxed their wonted vigilance, Cyrus 
diverted the waters of the Euphrates into an artificial channel, marched his 
troops by night through the dried-up bed of the river into the city, and 
overcame all opposition. 



2. What is said of the land? Products? Canals, &c.? 3. What did 
Babylonia form ? What is said of Nebuchadnezzar 7 What did his domi- 
nions comprise ? 4. What is said of the Babylonians 7 The Chaldseans 7 
The Priests, &.c. 7 5. Describe the religion of the Babylonians. What is 
said of Mylitta 7 Of Babylonian and Assyrian idolatry ? 6. Describe the 
city of Babylon. Describe its chief structures. 7. With whom did the 
Babylonians provoke a war 7 What then occurred 7 8. What is «tA.\M. ^1 

4* 




Capiura or B*t)rloa hf Cytai. 

B, Babylon, bein;; neglected by the Penimn monircliB, wilb railing lapidl; 
lo decay, when Alexander tlie Groat rewilrcd to rtwbira ita Bplendour uid 
to tnako it liii capital, but liii death put an end to the project. Five hun. 
dred yeata afterwords, it was ontirel; dcgcrted, and tho apace enclosed by 
its walls was used as a tiuiiting pork by tlio kings and nobles of Poraia,. In 
later time»,ita very site was forgotten for mora tlion a thousand yeora, bnt 
it has been recently reoogniaed. Some huge, ihapcleai! mounds of brick and 
rubbish alone remain to mark (he spot once occupied by ibis vast metropolis. 

9. At Canal's, Cyrus the younger wae defeated and slain by hie brother 
Artaxen'es; from hence hia Greek aaiiliariee, under Die command of 
Xon'ophon, commenced the famons retrant of the Ten Tliousand. Though 
■urrounded by an adverse force of 300,000 men, tliis heroic band forced 
their way through hoetiie nations, until they reached a friendly region. 
The extent of the retreikt from Cunai'a tu Trapc'zus, where danger ceased, 
wos about IlOO milea, but the whole expedition included a morfib of 350O 
miles, and lasted IS montlia. 

ID. Borsip'pa was noted lor its raannfactures of linen ; the inhabitants 
ate the flesh of hats, and preserved them amohe-dricd. Selcu'cia waE founded 
by Seleu'cus Nica'ter, and became the capital of hia kingdom ; at one period 
ita population amounted to 600,000. The ruins of this city, and that of 
Ctes'iphon, on the opposite bank, are called by the Arabs A1 Modain, Uie 
two cities. Is, or ^iop'olia, supplied the bitumen used as a cement in 
bultding. On a lake sDUth-west of Babylon, was Alexandria, or Hi'ra. Soni 
and Apame'a were towns in the southern part of Babylonia ; the latter stood 
at tlie Junction of the Euphrates and Ti'gris rivers. 

Jl/op Jfo. 5. — What country lay en»t of Babylonia, or Chaldaa? What 
eoonlry lay west? Nortb-west 7 What cities lay on tlie Euphrates Hivar 7 
What city on the Tigris 7 Altliejimclion of the Euphrateaand Tigris? At 
what period was a battle fought at Cunaia 7 When did the siege of Babylon 
occur 7 What river bounds Babylon on the north-east 7 What river Sows 
through it 7 

Babylon 7 What did Alexander resolve to do? What was the condition 
of Babylon 600 years afterwards 7 In later times 1 What alone remain 7 
9. What occurred at Cunaxa? What ia said of the Greek auxiliaries? 
Describe the relreat. 10. What i a said of Borsippa? Seleucia? Cteu- 
^lon 1 Is, or £iopo1is, and the other towns 7 



r 



COLCHIS, IBEEI A, AND ALBANIA. 43 



COL'CHIS, IBE'BIA, AND ALBA'NIA. 

. These countries lay contiguous to each other, and occupied 
narrowest part of the region extending from thB head of the 
sine, or Black Soa, eastward to the Caspian Sea, The Cau'- 
113 are the most elevated mountains in this part of Asia ; their 
imils are constantly covered with snow, and they can be crossed 
only hy two passes, called by the ancients Cauca'site Pyke {Cau- 
ca'sian Gates), and Alba'nire Py'te (Alba'nian Gates). 

2. Col'cjUs is faiDQus for tha voyage of tlie Ar'gonauts to its shores, in 
Bearch of the golden fleece. This expedition sniled, in tlie ahip Ar'go, from 
Grcecs, iibout tlis year 1300 B.C. It consisted of 50 noted Individuals, 
under the command of Ja'son. The precise objeot of the voyage cannot 
now be determined, but it was probably undertaken for tbe purpose of trad. 
log in gold, n metal wiilcli tlie inhabitants of Col'ahis obtained, to somo 
oitont, by placing slieepsfcins in (he ahallow parts of the rivers, where tlie 
wool beemne filled with the golden particles washed down from the 



»ai( 
asi 



3. The chief rivers were the Pha'sis and the Ba'tliys; from the former 
the birds colled pheasants were lirsl brought. TheCorehians were afrngnl 
and indnatriouB people, and were supposed to have been originally JCgjp- 
dans. Dioscu'rias, Fba'sis and Cj'ta, were the chief towns. Modc'a, tlie 
Doled sorceress, was born at Cj'ta. At Ji^a the golden fleece was kept ; il 

B fiiblod to be guarded by a dragon that never slept, and fierce bulls that 

LB watered by tlie Cy'rua 
and iin brancties. Zalia'sa, and Harniov'ica, were the chief towns ; Ibe'ria 
was invaded by Poinpey, who defeated Iho inhabitants in a songuinarv 
batde. 

5. Alba'nia lay along the west coast of ttio Caspian Sea. Cabaracn. 
Alba'na, Seta'ra, and Cameeii'ia were the principal towns. The southern 
part of Alba'nia was a rich, lertile country, and its climate was highly 
eulogized. II was invaded by Pompey, and aflarwards by Trajan. 

MET) I A. 

6. Me'niA included the upper part of Per'sia ; it extended east- 
■d from Armenia to Asia, and was bounded on the north by the 

for the most part a fertile and well-inhabited 
region, and was famous for its fine breed of horsea. 

7. The Medes comprised, at first, six distinct tribes. Dej'ooes, 

Q. 1. Describe the situation of Cotchls, Iberia and Albania, The Cau- 
oaana Monntaina, &c. 3. For what is Colchis famous? What ia said of 
the Argonaulio cipedition 7 The precise object of tho voyage I How was 
gold procured in Colchis 1 3. What ia said of the rivers 1 The Colehians 7 
PhasisandCj-la? Medea7 What was kopt at -EaJ 4. Describe Iberia. 
5. Albania. 6. Media. T. What is said of tho Medea? 8. Of Astyages I 



44 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

their earliest king, collected them into villages, and brought the 
nation to submit to established laws. They were long subject to 
Assyria, but at length uniting with the Babylonians, they over- 
threw ilic Assyrian empire. They then became a conquering 
nation, subdued E'lam, or Persia, and extended their dominions 
westw^ard to the River Ha'lys. 

8. Asty'agcs was tlie last kiog of Mc'dia. Manda'ne, his daughter, tho 
wife of Camby'scs, a Persian nobleman, was tlie mother of Cy'rus. Ac- 
cording to sonic, tlie latter was educated at tlic Median court, and afler- 
wards reigned jointly with his uncle Cyax'arcs ; but, according to others, 
ho was an object of hatred to Asty'ages, and on attaining manhood raised 
an army, conquered the dominions ot his grandfather, and became king of 
both Me'dia and Pcr'sia, B. C. 551). 

9. On the union of the Modes and Persians, tho latter adopted the higher 
civilization and more elegant costume of tlie former, and the Median lan- 
guage became the polite tongue. Tho nortliern division of Media was 
called, atler Alexander's time, Atropate'ne, from Atrop'ates, a ^^ovemor who 
rendered himself independent. His posterity continued to reign aflcr him 
until conquered by tho Partliians. 

10. Ecbat'ana, the capital of Media, contained a strongly fortified citadel 
surrounded by seven walls, which were each of a different colour. It 
became the summer residence of tlic Persian, and aflerwards of the Par- 
thian monarchs. Here Parme'nio was put to death by order of Alexander. 
And here, too, HephoiE^tion, another of his favourites, died. 

11. Ga'za and Ve'ra were the capitals of Atropate'ne. In the former 
Cyprus dept)8ited the riches captured from Crce'sus ; it stood near Lake 
Spauto, the waters of which were both salt and bitter, and destitute of fish. 
West of the lake stood Thebar'mai, tlie reputed birthplace of Zoroas'ter. 

12. On the shores of the Caspian dwelt the Caspia'ni, or Cas'pii, a people 
from whom that sea, previously called the Mare Hyrca'num, received its 
name. They were of Scyth'ian origin, and, it is said, starved to death such 
of their nation as had attained the age of 70 years. 

Map No, 5. — What sea bounded Colchis on tlie west ? What country on 
the north ? On tho south 7 East ? What towns lay on the coast? In the 
interior ? What mountains bound Iberia on the north 7 What country 
south 7 East 7 What river flowed through Iberia 7 What sea bounded 
Albania on the east 7 What country north 7 West 7 What towns lay on 
the coast 7 In the interior 7 



18 



PERSIA. 

1. Per'sia, or Per'sis, was the original country of the Persians, 
and gave name to one of the great empires of antiquity. It lay 
north-east of the Persian Gul^ and was surrounded by Me'dia, 

9. What occurred on the union of the Medes and Persians 7 What is said 
ofthe northern division? 10. Ecbatana? 11. Gaza and Vera? 12. The 
Caspiani 7 

Q. 1. What is said of Persia 7 How was it situated 7 What kind of 



Susia'na and Carraa'nia. It is a region consisting of rugged 
ifiounlains and sandy deserts, interspersed with fertile and well- 
watered valleys. 

8. Under their early monarchs, the Persians were a hardy and 
brave people ; but they became hoyirious and effeminate, so thai 
a mere handful of Greeks, inspired with [lie heroic cotirage of 
freemen, was more than a match for the myriads who fought at 
Mai'athon, PlatEe'a, and Sal'amis. 

3. The Ma'gi, or Ma'gia.nB, were the priests of tha Medea and Peraians. 
ZoniiLs'ter was the rounder, or, according to some, the relbriucr of their rali. 
ginn. The Bun as wcU as fire was woraliippEd, b.s an emblerii of llie Deity, 
and the aacrad fire in their temples was kept constantly burning. Statues 
■nd images were furhidden ; hence the Feraians always dealroyed the idolo 
of the nations whom they conquered. 

4. The ma'gi believed in a. Supreme Being, and they taught Ihat the uni- 
verse is governed by Oromas'des, the g<-od, and Ahritna'nca, the evil prin. 
ciple. Ine firat they believod will linah i prevail, when wnra end conteih 
tiona will oease, and mankind live togclhei as one &mily. The modern 
Pat'scee, Gucbrea, or fircworshlppera, still cherish this doctrine ; but their 
number is small. 

5. The Persians are a very ancient people; their first recorded king 
reigned in the time of Abraham. The Kajan'ides were a race of early 
princes, one of whom, Jcm'shecd, about the year SOO B. C^ founded Peraep'o- 
lia. Cy'ruB, 240 years later, rescued his country from Iho power of the 
Medes, and established t)ie Persian, or third universal empire. This vast 
monarchy embraced a wider extent than any preceding state, and comprised 
the earUeat civilised countries : still it decs not appear to have produced any 
material advance in knowledge and improvemenL 

Ei. Camby'ses, the successor of Cy'rus, conquered EJgypt, end part of Ethio- 
pia, his power then extended from Lidia to Lib'ya, and trom the Indian Ocean 
to the borders of Bcyth'ia. Dari'us, his aucceasar, consolidated andatrength- 
ened the empire ; he divided it into Sot'rapies, or provinces, and appointed 
the tribute which each was to pay into the royal treasory. 

7. The reign of Artasent'es Mne'nion was marked by the ineffeelual 
revolt of ills brother Cy'rus, and the retreat of the Ten Thousand. Duri'us 
Codom'antis, tiie last of those kings, was defeated by Alexander the Great, 
at IsBUS and Arbe'la, and wsj slain 330 B.C., when Persia became a part 
of the Grecian empire. 

8. After the death of Alexander, it feil lo the share orScIeu'cuaNicaW, 
who left it lo hia successar^<, the Selcu'cides. About the year S4G B. Cn the 
Parthiaiis, an obscnre people from the shores of the Caspian Sea, expeUed 
the Syrians, and became maatcts of Persia. The latter remained for 500 
years a pronnce of their empire: when Artaxeri'cs, a descendant of the 
ancient Persian monarchs, raised a revolt against the government, achieved 
the independence of his country, and became king, 

WuntryisilJ 2. What were IhePeraianaT 3. What is said of the Magi 7 
Of ZoroasterT What did the Magi worship? What waa forbidden' 
4. What waa their belief 7 What people stili eheriah thia doctrine T 5. 
What is aaid of the Peraians? The Kajanidea, &,c.? Of Cyrus ! What 
immidnfiha Persian empire? 6. Cambyses? Darius? 1 ArtaierxesT 
Darius CodomanuB? 8. What occurred aller (he death of 




CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



^^^^ft 9. The new sU.te U known as Uie iiecond PeraUn empire. Aitaxeires 

^^^^B governed with vigour nnd aagacilj ; one of )iii first acU was tUe reitoratioQ 

^^^^P of the magi and Ihe ancient religion. His succgbsoib arc culled, Irom 

^^^H Stnan, his father, tlie SasBun'idiE or SBSaun'idea. Several of this line of 

^^^H prinoca bora the name of Sa'por : they were aclive and able rulcra, and car. 

^^^H lied on various wnra with Uie Romana. SubacqueoUy, Ibii ODnatry wma 

^^^^ conquered by the Saiaccaa. 



i 

to 

I 




10. Ferecp'olis, the chief city, is said U> have been 35 milon ia length, 
hut has been long in ruins ; it contained tlie splendid palace of the Fenian 
rnonarchs, wliich was set on liro bv Alciander, at the instigation of hia 
miitreaB. Tlie rains now cnlled Chilminai', or the Sirl}' columns, are snp- 
poBcd to be the remaina of this edifice. Pasar'eadie, the ancient capital of 
the empire, was the liivaurite residence of C; rus, who was buried here. 
The sovereigns of Parsia were afterwards crowned in this city, and a part 
of the ceremony of coronation waa to put an the regalia which had been 
worn by Cy'rus. 

JWiiji JVb. 1.— What gulf bounded Persia on the eouth-west 1 What coun- 
try lay on the north I On Iho cast 7 On the west 7 Point out Pcrsopolia. 
Fasar^adtB. Aapadano, Point out Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, Armenia, 
Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Assyria, MeEopoEamia, Babylonia, Media, Susi ana, 
Caimania, Gedrosia, Arachosia, Drangiana, Aria, Moigiana, Parthia, Hjr. 
cania, Baclriana and Sogdiana: Ihcso countries, witli Persia Proper and 
parts of Scytbia and Ethiopia, formed, b the reign of Dariua Hvataapeti, 



SUSIAIMA, CAKMATSIA, GEDRO'SU, ETC. 

1. Susia'ka lay east of Babylonia, and was separated from it 
by tie river Ti'gris ; eastward was Persia Proper, and southward 

Aleiuderl What is said of the Parthians? 9. Of the new stale T How 
did Artucries govern 7 By what name were tiis suceeBsors called 7 What 
name did several ofthis line bear? What is slalcd of them 7 10. Describe 
Fersepolis. Pasargads. Wliat is Eaid of the sovereigns of Pereia? 




CARMANIA — GEDROSIA. 



47 



ihe Persian Gulf. It was an important province of the Persian 
umpire, and coniained the diatiicta of Elyraa'is and Cis'sia. The 
modem name, Khusisian', is merely a corruption of the ancient 
term. 

3. The ChoaB'pBs and GjD'dcanreie its chief rivera; they were both tribu- 
taries oftba Ti'griB. Tbo wnlera uf the former were eBlcemed ao cxDellent, 
that the Fersian kings draak ed other, and supplies of it were carried with 
tbcni, in eiltEt vebbcIs, oq their journeyB. Su'ra or Sbn'BhaD, tho city of 
lilies, was bailt on the Choaa'paa river, and was a wealthy cit/i it was without 
walls, but the ciladal called the Memno'nia was a ploca of great strength. 
Su'sa was one of the winter rasidenceB of the Pereian monarchs. Aleian- 
dor the Great ionnd in it 50,000 taleots of uncoined gold, besides silver and 
pJBwelB of great value. 



ffp 8. CahmVnia was a province of the Persian empire, which lay 
"Ibetween Peiaia Proper and Gedio'sia. It corresponded nearly with 
the modem province of Kerman, to whitdi it has communicated its 
name. The northern districts were dry and sandy, while the 
southem were noted for their fertility, producing com and wine 
in abundance. The grapes were particularly excellenl ; bunches 
being sometimes met with two feet long. 

4. The inhabitants were called the Carma'ai, and were Bimitar to tbeFer- 
giana. Carma'na, the capital, was some distance in the interior. Its name 
LB now Kerman. Harmo'zia was on the seOij^oaBt. In the Ihirteenth cen- 
tury, when the Moguls invaded Carma'nia, the inhabitants retired li 
little island Tyii ' -.' ■ . 

OnnuB, ita wealth became provethial. 



^ B. Gbdro'sia lay westward of the river Indus. It is now called 
Beloochislan'- It is a region composed of arid motmlains and 
sandy plains. In traversing its deserts, the armies of Semir'amia 
and Cyrus were nearly destroyed ; and the soldiers of Alexander's 
y suffered intensely by the heat of the climate and the want 



Th. 



army si 
of water, 

G. Fish and turtlca 
solo food of the peopli 
lehlhyoph'agi, or eat 
Their dwclliogB, owi _ 
bones offish and thcBliolIa of 
the Great, sailed along the coai 
India to the Euphra'tea. 

Q. ]. DcBcribe Susiana. U. What is said of the modern name t Of the 
chief rivers 7 Describe Snsa. What was it 1 What did Alexander gnd in 
ill 3. Describe Carmania. 4. What ia said of the inhabitanta? Of inc 
capital 7 Harmoiia? S. Describe Gedrosia. What occurred in traversing 
'la deaeitB 7 6. What are atUl plentiful, Sec. J What did the Greeks call 



itill plentiful on its shores, and liirm nearly the 
be aocienl inhabitants were called by tlie Greeks 
of fish, and Chelanoph'agl, or eaters of turtles. 
BCareily of wood, were coQetrucled of the 
tlca. Near'ebus, ths admiral of Alexander 
3f thia region in hia celebrated voyage from 



48 CLASSICAL GEOORAPHY. 



a'ria, or aria'na. 

7. A'ria, or Aria'na, lay north of Gredro'sia and east of Media. 
It occupied the whole of what is now Afcrhanistan', as well as a 
portion of Independent Tartary. The chief divisions were, Mar^ 
gia'na in the north, A'ria and Drangia'na in the centre, and 
Aracho'sia in the south. 

8. The whole region was for a time a part of the Persian empire, tabee- 
qucntly of the Grcco-Bac'trian kingdom, and afterwards it belonged to the 
Parthians. The inhabitants were called the A'rii. The Mcdes wore origi. 
nally the same people. The Etyman'der was the principal river, and ue 
lake A'ria, into which it flowed, was the largest lake. The Paropami'sns 
mountains extended from cast to west through the country. 

9. Margia'na. — Margia'na lay on the north side of the Paropami'siu 
mountains. Though surrounded by deserts, it was a populous and fertile 
country. The vines grew so large that two men could scarcely grasp one 
stem, and the clusters of grapes attained a great size. The Romans who 
were taken prisoners at the defeat of Crassus were sent hither. Many of 
them intermarried with the inhabitants, and hence were unwilling to retom 
to Rome when sent for by Augustus. The capital, Antiochi'a Maima'na, 
was built by Antiochus I. where Alexandria, an older city, had stoocU 

10. A'ria. — The province of A'ria gave name to the whole region. It lay 
south of Margia'na ; it was a fertile and populous district, and was noted 
for the excellence of its wine, which, it was said, would keep for three gene- 
rations. A'ria was the chief town. 

1 1 . Drangia'na lay eastward of A'ria. The inhabitants comprised several 
tribes, one of whom, the Agrias'pe, was called by Cyrus Ever'getie (Bene- 
factors), because they saved many of his soldiers fi^m perismng in the 
desert These people formed a little republic, and were greatly superior in 
manners and customs to the surrounding barbarians : hence Alexander con- 
ferred several privileges upon them. Agrias'pe was their principal city. 

12. Prophtha'sia, where Alexander caused Philo'tus, the son of Panne'- 
nio, to be put to death, was the chief town of a tribe called the Zarangss'i. 
The Paropamis'adeB were a barbarous people, who lived among the Paropa- 
mi'sus mountains. From one of their tribes, the Cabol'itflB, the modem name 
Cabul is derived. The Parthians called the province of Aracho'sia India 
Alba, or White India, because the inhabitants, who were of white comples- 
ion, had been at one time the subjects of an Indian monarch. 



Map No, 1. — Point out Susiana, Carmania, Gredrosia, Aria, Margiana, 
Drangiana, Arachosia. What gulf lay south of Susiana 7 What sea lay 



the people ? What is said of their dwellings ? Of Nearchns 7 7. De- 
scribe Aria or Ariana. What were its chief divisions 7 8. Of what was 
tive whole a part 7 What is said of the inhabitants 7 Of the Etymander 7 
Lake Aria 7 Paropamisus mountains 7 9. Describe Margiana. What is 
said of the vines 7 Of the Romans 7 The capital, &c. 7 10. Describe 
Aria. 1 1. Drangiana. What is said of the Agriaspe 7 What did these 
people form, &c. 7 12. What occurred at Prophthasia 7 What is said of 
the ParopamisadeB, &.c. 7 Of Arachosia 7 



PARTHIA, HYRCANIA, ETC. 49 

loutli ofCiLrniania and GedroeJa! E. What liver eeparited Arochoeiit snd 
Drnngiunii 7 Into what lake did the Etymaniler river flow 7 What river 
bounded Gedrosia and AmchoBia on the eoatl What mountains lay north 
of Drangiana 7 What river eeparatod Margiana from Sogdiana 7 Paint 
out Suaa, Ilarmoxia, Para, Aria. Wbat commander sailed along the coosIb 
of Gedroaia and Carmania 7 At what time was his vojagc perloriued 7 
How many yeara is it Binco that period? 

Map No. 5.— What river bounded Suaiana on the nest? What rivera 
flowed into the Tigris in Susiuia? What country tay west of Suniana? 
What city lay on Uw TiplB 7 

20 



PPARTHU, HYECATNIA, BACTKIATVA, ETC. 
1. ParYhia was at first a province in the northeast of Persia, 
and bordering on Scyih'ia ; it subsequently became the centre of 
an important emnire, which, at the height of its power, B, C. 40, 
estended from ine river Euphrates to the Ox'ua, and from the 
Caspian to the Arabian Sea. Hecatom'pylos waa the first capital, 
but afterwards Ctes'iphon became the winter, and Ecbat'ana the 
summer residence of the Parthian monarchy. 

2. The Par'thians were a hardy and warlike race, and were 
orieinally of Scythian origin. Tney fought only on horaeback, 
ana discharged their arrows with unerring precieioQ even when 
on full gallop, and with equal skill whether advancing or retreat' 
ing; so that their flight was often as dangerous as their attack. 

3. They were subject sucoeaaivety to the Peralans, the Macedonians, and 
the Syrians; the tyranny of Ihe latter prompted the ParthiaQs, under the 
command of Arsa'cea, to rise againat them ! they drove out the Syrians, a^d 
established their independence. Araa'cca then beoamo king, and subjected 
to bis arms, flrat Peraia, and subaequcntl; aome of tho adjacent States. Hir 
successors continued his career of victory, and thos eEtablished the Par'thian 
empire, which eiisled for almost 500 years. The race of princes who suc- 
ceeded Arsa'cca were called, from tilm, the Arsac'ide. 

4. Tho Romans had freqnent conteats with the Par'thians, hut never could 
gain any permanent advantage over them. Cras'sns, llie colleague of Cm'sar 
and Pompcy, was defeated with great loaa in Mesopotamia. Phraa'tos, one 
of Ihe Par'thian kings, to obtain the favour of Angnatns, reatored the Roman 
standarda and other trophies which had been taken, on the defeat of Cras'aus, 
Tra'jan Bubsequently conquered a portion ofPar'tliia,hntll was soon retaken., 

5. The cnnstant wars which the Par'thians waged with the Romans, 

Q. 1. Describe Parthio. Its cslcnL Hecatompylos,&.c, 2. Deaoribe the 
Parthiana. Their mode of fighting. 3. To whom were they pubject 7 To 
what did the Ijranny of the Syrians prompt them 7 What tKan occurrad? 
WhatlssaidofArsaces? What were his successors called? 4. What i* 
mid of the Romans 7 Of Crassoa 7 Of Phraates? 5. What was the 
eflbctorthe constant wars 7 W hat was Artabanna 7 What occurred in his 

5 U 



50 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHT. 

gnduallf woakcncd their power uid produced inlcrnil dissension. ArtH' 
ba'nus nu the liil king. In bis timo Atlnjuti'd, ■ cotntnander in his 
•ervice. ovarthrew the goYGinment, and tbnncicd ths Kictnid Peraioa empin, 
which exiited, under hia auccasson the 8u«aa'idB, until the lime of the 



6. Htrca'nia was once an extensive country, but became gta- 
dualiy reslricted in dimensions; it lay on th« soudieasl coast of 
the Caspian, and from it the latter received its tarly name, Hyi- 
' ca'num, or Hyrca'nian Sea. 

T. This country wag nuted for ita tigers and serpents ; Ilie southern part 
WBB jertila in vines, ligB, and olives. The inhabilajits were DfScTth'iui 
origin, and limiliLr to llie Parthinns : tliej had at one lime kings of their 
own, but vero coDqueied by the Far'tliians, and became a jirovlnce of their 
empire. Zadracoi'la, or Hyrca'Dlu, waa the capital. 



8. BACTmu'HA, or Bao'tria, lay on tlip nortliem side of the 
Paropami'sua Mountains, It corresponded to that part of Inde- 
pendent Taitaiy now called Koondooz. On account of its favour- 
able position and its fertility, it became at an early period a 
civilized and important kingdom. 

9. It wua conquered by Cyrus, and subacquenlly by Alexander the Gr«aL 
On his decease, it became a pravinco of the Syrian kiugdom of SeleacuB 
Nicatcr, Dioda'tUB, the Greek governor of Bac'tria, threw off bia allegiance, 
354 B. C, to Anti'ocliuB Il^kiug of Syria, and founded the GrBco-Bac'trran 
kingdom. HIb successDrs extended their dominions to tlie Ganges and the 

' fhnitiera of China. About the year 14U B.C., Bactria'na was subdued by the 
Par'thians, since which time It liaa been almost unknown, and it is not de- 
tBnnined whether any traces of its Grecian origin remain. 

10. Bac'tra, the capital, was an ancient and important city ; here Alex- 
ander the Great, in a fit of freniy, murdered his friend Cli'tus, tor having 
ventured to prefer the actions of Philip to those of his son. Near to Bac'tra 
was Caii'ats, where the philosopher Callis'thenea was put to death by Alex- 
ander, lor refusing to pay him dtvjne honours, 



11. Sobbia'na lay between the Ox'u3 and laxartes rivers, and 
is now included in Bokhara or Bucharia : it vraa a fine, fertile 
region, and was famous for the excellence of ita fruits. In remote 

Ume' e. Doacrihe Hyreanio- 7. For wh. 
of tlie southern part? Of the inhabitants? What cit} 
1^ Describe Bactriana. What did it become, &.c. T 9. By whom was it con- 
quered, &.C. 7 What Ib said of Uiodatua? What kingdom did he found? 
What is said iif his socceasorET Of the eitcnt of their dominions? At what 
time and by whom waa Bactriana subdued J 10. Describe Bactra, What 
occurred there ? At CariatE ! 1 1. Describe Sogdiana. To whom waa it 
subject, &.e. ! la. What is said of Maracunda I Nautaci 7 



r 



ASIATIC SARMATIA 51 

ages il was by turns subject to the Assyrians, the Medes, the Per- 
sians and the Macedonians. Il belonged to tile Greco-Bac'trion 
kingdom, and afterwaids to the Farthians, 

13. Maracno'da, now Bam'arcnnd, wae the Capitol ; it is Bi(UD.te(l in a. difl. 
trict BO fertile and beautiful, that the Arabs oaiuidcred it eno of the three 
paradises of the eaet. It wbb the metiopolia of TaTn'eilane'a vast empire. 
In the vicinity was Ifau'taco, where Bcb'sus, the Persian satrap of Bactria'. 
na, wba behaved bo traitaroUBly to Dari'un, was taken and put to death by 
order of Alciander, Cyrap'aJis was built by Cyrus, to marlE the otmo^ 
limits of his conqueeta in tliia qoarter. Near it wub Alciandria, or Aleian- 
diia Ultima, tiie moet remote city fuunded by Alexander the Great. 

Map No. 1. — What country lay cost of Parthia? What country lay 
weatf South! A. North? 8. foint out Hyrcaoia, Persia, Catmania, 
Media, Aria, Gedrosia, Arachosia, Drangiana, Margiana, Bactriana, and 
Sogdiana, These difforonl counlrieB with Parthia Proper formed the Par- 
Ihian empire. What mountains bounded Bactriana on the south ? What 
river on the nwth 7 What river bounded Sogdiana on the south 7 On the 
northT What tovnB lay on the laiartes tiFcrT Feint out Hcca torn py lea. 
Bactra. Maracauda. The Oxus and laxartcs rivers Sow inln the Aral 
Sea. This body of water is supposed to liave boon aninowoto tha sncienli, 
»3 no account is found of it in anj ancient author. * 

31 

ASIAT'IC SARMA'TIA. 

1. Asiat'ic Sarma'tia lay north of the Cau' casus Mountains ; it 
extended from the Eux'ine Sea and the Pa'lus Mieo'tia to the Cas- 
pian Sea ; on the liorth were the rivers Bha and Tan'ais. The 
interior of llie country was but little known, the inhabitants were 
rude and barbarous, yet the MiJe'sians settled commercial coloniet 
on its slioTea as early as 700 B. C, 

9. The principal liibes vere the Mso'ts, Ala'ni, Sir'aces and Aches'i 
The lattei were noUd pirates. The Sir'aces were probably tlie progenitora 
of the modern Circoasians. Phanaf o'ria and Tan'aia were the principal 
Creek cdouies; the latter was a groat emporinm of trade with tlie Scylh'i- 
ana. The Am'azons, when they loft Pontus, settled in the oouatrj near the 
mouth and on both sides of the rivei Bha, aHer which their oames disap. 
pear from liistory. 

acVTH'lA. 

3. In remote limes, Scyth'ia extended over the whole of North- 
em Europe and Asia, but the name of the European division was 
eubsecjuentl^ changed to Sarma'lia, and the western limits of the 
Asiatic portion were restricted to the river Rha and the Cas'pian Sea. 

4. Scyth'ia, comprised two great divisions, separated from each 
other by the Ima'us Mountains, viz., Scyth'ia Intra Ima'ura, and 

Q. I. Describe Uie positioD of Asiatic Sarmatia. What is said of the 
interior ? Of Iho Milesians T 2. Mention the prinoipol tribes. Whot is 
said of llio Alani and the Siraooa J Of PJianagoria, Jcc. 7 Of the Ama- 
ions r 3. What is said of Scyliiia I What did it comprise 7 4. What did 



62 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Scyth'ia Extra Ima'um, or Scrlhia within, and Scylh'ia beyond 
Imsus. The first included a port of Independent Tarlary, and 
ihe other Little Bucha'ria, Soongaria, Mongo'lia and Thibet'. 

5, Tlie Scjth'iKtis were divided iola mtoj different tribes, the chief port 
of whom led I roving life, uid wen Bimilii in almoat ever; respect to their 
deicrtida tits, the wnndering Tutsts of modem IJiaea. The; were inured Id 
bardihip and fuligue, weis shilftil horHnncn uid expert in the iub ofthe bow. 

6.Thechiertribe»inWoBtcmScylh'iiiwerctheAm'BionB,Aor'Bii,I<oro«'>ii. 
CBcliu'nB,A>piH'ii,An'nibi,CtiQru'niii,Borea'nii,MaBug'elffi,&a. ln£«si- 
cmBcytli'ia were Ihe Si'cle,Cbauran(e'i,Cha'lha.8cy'thK,Ottoracar'ra,&c; 
the tatter were noted for the ailubrilj oF their climate, the fbrlility of their 
■oil, snd their anppoied exemption from nciTly all the evils of humanit]^ 
Tfao foregoing tribes are only a portioa of thoaa mot with in ancient au. 
tbora : hardiy anything It known of them but their names. 

T. Tlie MuBsg'etjB and the Sa'cs were among the most important of Ibe 
Scythian tribes. Tom'yris, a queen of the former, nceoriiing to Home an- 
thore, defeated tha forces of Cyrns, who was killed in the bailie, which 
occurred in tlie vicinity of the Caucaius Mountains. Some aftheScyth'ian 
tribes became in time engaged in the coravim trade carried on between the 
comnieccial nations of Europe and Wcalern Asia, with the people of Ser'ica. 
Turris Lapid'ea, or the Stone Tower, now Tashkent, was a noted station 
fbr merchants in the oonntry of the Masaag'etie. Indo Scfth'ia, which lay 
east of Bactria'na, corresponded for the most part with Little Thibef. No 
particulars of its inhabitants are known, except that Ihcy consisted partly 
of Indian and partly of Scjth'ian tribes. 



8. Ser'ica, the country of the Se'res, lay east of Scylh'ia : it wtts 
one of the most remote repons known to the ancients, and ia be- 
lieved to correspond wilH Northern China. It was the first pan 
of the earth in which silk was produced. Se'ra was the capital : 
sotne suppose that it stood on the spot now occupied by Pekin, 
but its position is a matter of doubt. 

9. The people of India traded at an early period with Ser'ica, and from 
them the Greeks and Romans acquired their earliest knowledge of that 
region, and first received its productions. Bilk was carried to Rome in the 
time of Augustus; it was eagerly bought by the rich, and for a long time 
it sold for Its weight in gold. "The hcenlious Heliogab'slus was the first 
Roman who wore a dross wholly of silk; it was mentioned by the authors 
of the lime as an instance of almost criminal prudigality. 

10. In the reign of JusUn'ian, A. D. 599, Iwo Persian monks broaffht 
some eggs of the silk-worm Irom the East to Constantinople; from that 
time the art of producing and manufacturing silk was gradually introduced 

those divisions include? 5. How were the Scythians divided! To whom 
were they similar? To what were tljcy inured? 6. Mention the chief 
tribes in Western Soythia. In Eastern Scythia 7 What isaaid of the Otto- 
rocoTTB? 7. Of Ihe MagsageliB ond Sacffi? OfTomyris? In what did 
Rome of the Scythian tribes engage? What is said of Turris Lapidea? 
Of Indo Scythia ? S. Describe Scrica. What was first produced there ? 
What is said of the capital 7 9, 0( the people of India ? When was silk 
first brought to Rome, &,c.7 What is said of Hcliogabalus ? 10. What 



1 



INDIA. 



53 



into Tsridua European countries. The Greeka colled the Bilh-wonn Ser: 
hencE the term Se'res lor the people, and Ser'ica for llie country, y re dorired; 
LbeBe nameB, bowever, were unknown to the intaabitajils. 

11. Ser'iciL ia described to have been fruitful and well cultivated, and the 
people aa qoiel, peaceable and industrious, precisely such ae the Chinese 
now are. One of the latest Roman wiitera mentions a great wall which 
encircled tbe country of the Se'res, and which, there is no doubt, ia the 
same that is now called the Great WaU of China. 

12. The Issed'ooeB dwelt on the westera limits of Ser'iBa; they traded in 
die silXs and oUier praduetions of (he Se'res, and trangmittod them west- 
ward to Europe. Their towns wore laae'doo Scyth'ia, and Isse'don Ser'ica; 
rhe former was on the (Ech'ardea river, the same probably aa the CaBh'gar. 
Northward were the Abii, a people highly commended by the ancients for 
their justiiesB. Some authors place this nation on the banks of the Kiver 
Tan'ais. Still more remote were tho falolous Hippophagi and Anthro- 
poptagi. 

Map No. 5. — What sea bounded Asiatic Sarmatia on the eaat 7 On the 
west? Soulh-westT What rivers on the north? What range of moun- 
Uine in the south 1 What rivers flowed into the Euxine Sea T The Cas- 
pian I The Tonais River ! Point out the rivers mentioned in the text. 
The towns. 

Nap No. 1 .—Point out tho river Qha, The Daii. The laxartee. The 
(Eohardes, The Indus, Point out tho Imaus MountaioB. The Ottoro- 
corrK. Tho Annibi. The Hyperborean or Eiphean. Point out the tribes 
mentioned in the text. Point oat Serica. On what river did it lay ? Point 
out Sera. The lasedones. Issedon Serica. Issedon Scythia. Point out 
the Abii. 

INDIA. 

I. Indu has been from the earliest times a renowned country, 
and has with the western nations always borne the same name. 
It lay eastward of the river Indus and the Elrythrffi'an sea, and 
comprised two great divisions : viz., India intra and India extra 
Gan'gem, India within and India beyond the Ganges, The same 
divisioDs are still recognised by geographers, but are unknown to 
the inhabitants. 

2, The ancients regarded India as the richest and mos 



prized. In Alci 
Tho Brachma'ni 



hghy 






e thesE 



:s, though n 
, or GymnoBophis'ts, were the philosoph 



\a the BramiDS of ot 






occurred in the reign of 
tlie Greeks call the silk.worm, &c J 11. How is Serica described 7 What 
is mentioned by a. Roman writer? IS. What is said of the IssedoneB? 
Of tbeir towns? Of tho Abii, &,c.7 

Q. I. What is said of India? Describe its position. Its divisions, 3. 
Hoiv did the ancients regard ibis region T What did it contain in Aleiait. 



r 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



INDIA INTRA GAN'GEM. 

3. India iniia Gan'gem, India within the Ganges, or Hither 
India, corresponds to Hinilosian. lis chief rivers ore the Indus 
and llie GangcB; westward lay ihe Erythrte'an Sea, and eastward 
the Gangc'l'icua Si'nus, or Gulf of the Ganges : on the north were 
the Emo'di, and along the western coast the Bet'tigo Mountains. 

4. Tlio aoulhom purt of this region wat cdlloil Dachinnb'adei : hence the 
modem terra Deocan, or Iho soutli. Lari'co waa a di»lriot southward of the 
Indus ; etiti fiirtlier loiitJi wub Cotton'ura, a district noted for its peppet. 
Korth of the Dya.rdii'ne* or Burrampoo'ler, in what is now TJubBf , the 
tribes called Indapra'thoc and tho Iberin'giB resided; but nolhing m 
Uietr names aro known. 



_..d Sea, loOce'IlB, a great emporium in Southern Arabia, from whence they 
■ailed by tho S. W, monsoon to India, and tlien relurnod to Bereni'oo io 
about a Joar aftor thoir doparture. 

6. On the Ganges stood Palib'othra, n large and populous city, the eaiu. 
t»l of Uie Pra'sii and Gangar'idin. Oie'ne, Plilh'ana and Tag'ara, wbtc 
dties in the interior, noted tor their cilensive commerce. A number of other 
cities, both on the coast and in the interior, are mentioned by ancieot 
authors, but of which nothing can now bo recognised. 

7. Until the invasion of Alexander the Groat, the Greeks knew India 
only by report. Long previous to that time, however, Semir'amie, and then 
Sesos'trie, penetrated thither, and eubsetiuently, Cyrus and Dari'us Hyetaa'- 
pes carried their anna beyond the Indus. Aleiander'a inroad only eitendod 
to the Hyph'asia river, from the banks of which stream he descanded to the 
Indue, and the sea, and then marched westward across the desert of Ge. 
dro'sia to Babylon. 

8. Near the Hydae'pes river Aleiaoder vanquished Po'rus, an Indian 
monarch, and took bim prisoner. The Utter was wounded in the contest : 
on being asked by his conqueror how he would be treated, he replied with 
dignity, " Like a king." Alexander, pleased with iiia deportment, restored 
his kingdom, and the two princes became firm friends. Sclen'cus Nioa'tor 
next invaded India, and was the first Greek who advanced to Ihe Gangea. 



der'e lime ? How wore the inhabitants divided 7 3. What is said of India 
intra Gangcm 7 Mention its chief rivers. Its position. Ita mountains. 
i. The sonthera part, 4.C, 5. What is said of Baryfia2a and other cities 1 
The trade to Egypt ? 6. What capital stood on the Ganges 7 What other 
cities are named, &^c 7 7. What did the Greeks know of India previous to 
Alexander's invasion 7 What is said of Semiramis? Sesostria? Cyrna, 
&,c. 7 Describe Alexander's inroad. His subsequent courea, 8, Wlial 
occurred on the Hydaspcs river 7 What is said ofPorus7 His reply to 
AleiandHr7 What then occurred? What is said of Seleocoa NioatorT 




throogb Egjpt uid Ambiii. 

9. Tsprob'asB. wu s. rich and fertile JBland; the inhabitants were aaid to 
attain to a great ase- Id the centre was Mouut Maleu, now Adam's Peak, 
Sindocan'do, Acubin'gaja, and Col'chi were amnng the chief towns. The 
latter u'aa famed in ancient times for its peul Hsheiy. It is now called 
Cullatoor, and still retains its ancient fame. 

IMJIA EXTRA GAN'GEM. 

10. India extra Gan'gem, India beyond the Gtm'ges, or Farther 
India, conesponda to Birmah, Siam, Anam, and Malacca. Its 
great rivers were the Dyardn'nea, Sabar'acus, Se'rus and Coti'aris. 
or Se'nus. The interior was Bupposed to be rich in different 
metals ; hence the names of Au'rea regio, Argeti'tea regio, and 
Chalci'tis regio, or the regions of Gold, Silver, and Copper, were 
appUed to various inland districts. 

11. The Aorea Cheraone'auB is now Malaya, or Malacca. Its eonthern 
cape was Magnum PronioDtorimn.orMalei Colon, near to which was Zaba, a 
noUd empotiuin ; eastward was the Si'nus Magnus, or Great Bay; westward, 
the Fcrlmu'licus Sinus, or Guli; separaled the Aurea Chcrsonc'sus fromlaba'- 
dii> an island, supposed to be Sumatra; northward were the Mani'ole and 
Bona Fortu'nie islands : the former was said to allrac^t and hold fast all ships 
built with iron nails. 

SINA-RUM BEGIO. 

12. Sina'rum Reoio, or country of the Sinie, orThime, was, with 
Ser'ica, the most eastern country known to the ancients. It is 

The Romans 7 9, What is said of Taprobanaf The cUef towns ? What 
WBH Colchi famed for. 10. Describe India eilra Gangcm. The interior, 
ice. 11. Doscribe Aurea Chcrsonesua. What lay eastward T West. 
"? Northward? 12. Wh^ia said of Sinarum KegioJ Of tho (tin. 





nrj-titn ' 



88 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

supposed to correspond to Central and Southern China, and Cochin 
China. The Semon-thins, Ura-thinte, and An-thince vrete the 
only tribes known. ' 

13. The inhibiianli, like Uie Chinose, rigidly eicluded fi)reigoer» ftora 
their countT;, jcl tliej traded with the aoighbouria^ nations, and furniibed 
them with the MalobalJiriim ; an nrticls the precise nature of which bu 
not been reCagniaed in modern limea. Thine, Cstligtirra, and Siuaruni 
Metrop'olis, were cities in this region. 

JBipJVo. 1.— Point oot the Indus. The Gimeei. Dyardanea. Sabara- 
cuB. Coliarii. Namndua. Goaris. Cbaberis. What slruama flow into tho 
Erythrman sea 1 Into the Gulf of the Ganges, or Gangetuin Siiiua T Into 
the Magnus Sinus? Point out the Hydaspes. Acflsines. Hjdrooles. 
Hyphasia. Those Gvo riven water the country now callud the Punjab. The 
Hyphoais was tlie Goatcm Uinlts of Aleiandor'a conqueats. On its banks be 
built Iwelre greot altars to perpetuate the boundary of hia career. Point 
out the cities nametl in (he text. The district of Larice. Cattonaro. Dk 
chinabadca. The Praaii. The Gangaridie. The Aurca Regio. Argen- 
tea Begia. Chalcilia Regio. The Aurea Cbersonesua. Ibadii islajid. 
ManioliB Is. Bonffi Fortuna Is. Point ont the Sbm or Thins, and the 
Barro. 



AFRICA. 

1. Af'rica was, next to Asia, the earliest settled portion of the 
globe. Its inhahilanta were the descendants of Ham, the son of 
Noah i and though it became the seal of some of the most civil- 
ized and improved States of ancient times, it is now ihe least 
known and the most barbarous part of the eartL 

2. The term Africa is derived from the Romans, h was at 
first Ihe name of the fertile district in which Car'thage stood, but 
was at length apphed to the whole region. It ia a Phmnician 
word, and signifies ears of com. The coast south of Greece, now 
Bar'ca, was in early times termed Lib'ya, by the GJieeks, but 
finally they called the whole of Africa by the same name. 

3. The ancient geographers supposed that Africa was much 
smaller than Europe, and most of them believed it to be a penin- 
sula, situated altogether on the north side of the equator. Ptolemy 
represented it as of greater extent ; but rejecting the idea that it 
was surroimded by the sea, he erroneously imagmed thai its east- 
ern coast extended so as to join that of Asia. The inland regions 

cipot tribes? 13. Of tlie inhabitants! Their trade T Name (he principal 

Q. I. What is said of Africa ? Of the inhahilanta, &e.? From whom 
was Iha term derived ? What further ia said of it. Of the eoaat aouUi of 
Gre«ce 1 3. What was the opinion of (he ancient geographers 7 How did 



were supposed by the ancients to be unfit for the habitation of 
civilized man, from the heat of the climate and the number of its 
ferocions animals, 

4. Tlie Atlaa'were the principoJ Africiin moEintalhs luiown in ancient 
times. The; were thought to be bd high that llie heavens vrere fabled lo 
rest on them ; hence, in the Greek atytliology tbeee mounliiins were per- 
ioniiied b; Alius, a. gigantic Titan, who, on heing conquet'ed by Jupiter, 
wa.B condemned to bear the vB.iilt of heaven on hia ahoulders. At tlie sup- 
poaed aoorcea of the Nile are the Lu'nte Mantea, or Mountoina of the Moon, 
and in the interior were others mentioned by Ptol'emj. 

5. The Bneienta regarded the Nile not only aa tlie largest river in Africa, 
but BB the largest in the world. Like the moderns, they were ignorant of 
its Boorce, and believed that it could not be discovered ; hence they made 
use of the proverb, " NiU caput quierere," to denote an imposaible onde*. 

6. The Gir and the Nigir or Niger vfere rivers in this region, sapposed to be 
a the Jol'iba and the Djyr c "' ' ' ■"' " ' ' " ■- ■ 



banks Reg'mus and hig army w< 



encountered b 




if Ihe Qagrndag. 



enormouB serpent, whieh they kilted with stonea throvm from their military 
engines. The Dar'adua and Bambo'tns or Sta'chir, are probably the same 
as the Senegal and Gambia, TheTrito'nia.Col'oc.NigTi'tes.Lib'ya and Che. 
loni'des, were the chief African lakea known to the ancient geographers. 
7. Thochiefdiviaionsof Ancient Africa were, Elhio'pia, Egypt, Lib'ya, 

PliKTn'nIg, tTn'nlii nrRar- 



Plolomy represent it, &c, 7 What la said of the inland regions? 4. Oflhe 
Atlas MountainsJ How were they peraooifiedT What other mountains 
are mentioned? 5. How did the ancients regard the Nile? What ia said 
of its Bonrce 7 6. Of tlie Gir and the Nigir ? The Bagradea I The Da. 
ndui, &c. T Tbe chief lakea 1 7. Name the chief ditigions, 



Jj 





S9 CL*\88ICAI. CEOOEAPHV. 

^THIO'PIA OR ETHIOPIA. 
8. Etuio'pia wns an extensive division of Africa, which 
prised Ethio'pia sub Egypio and Elhio'pia Interior. The fonner is 
now Nu'bia and Abyssin'ia. In remote limes it was a populous 
and civilized coiiniry. Egypl was not only conquered from nence, 
but is believed to have derived, also, tlie original of those arts and 
inatitutiOTia which have rendered her name so celebrated. 

9. It contained the king. 
domaorMcroeiuidAui'iune, 
llic capiuU of which were 

Nap'atu aod Sir'bitura were 
IS of note in Hei'iMi 

on the Red Sea, was fiuiiouB 
for its trade in ivory. The 
city of Aui'ume, now Atiihi , 
Btill exists, and is lemarkable 

(or ill uitiqaitie*. In the ?rest sqaare, alone, there ore forty nacienl 

ob'elisks, one of which ia eighty feet high. 

10. The kingdom of Mor'oe comprised the peninaula Biluafed between the 
Astab'orus and As'tapus rivers and the Nile. It is called an island by 
ancient writers^ and is said to bceomo so still during tho rainy seoaon. 
The political power Was vested in tho jirissts, wiiu wore a sacred caste. 
They chose the sovereign out of their own order, and could put him to death, 
in the name of their gods, at their pteuure. 

11. Like those of Egypt, their temples, obelisks, and other public baild- 
ingB, were all on a gigantic scale, though they do not display in their con. 
Mruction so high a degree of skill as the fbrmer. About the lime of our 
Saviour a new State arose oa the rniuB of Mer'oe, one of tlio sovereigns of 
which was tbo Queen Cao'dace, mentioned in the New TestamenL Her 
capita) was Nap'ata, on the Nile. 

IS. Among the rods tribes in this part of Aicioo, some lived on locDsts, 
■nd some on the fiesh of elephants end ostrichesj the last two were called 
Elephiintoph'Bg;i,and Struthoph'agi. The Troglod'ytes, a race of rude shep. 
herds, dwelt in caves. The Blem'myes were &bled to be without heads, and 
to have their eyes and mouths in their breasts. The Pyg'mies were a nation 
nf dwaria, who warred with the cranes, and went to battle mounted on the 
hacks of goats and rams. Keeenl travellers in tfiis part of Africa state, 
(hat the inhabitants report a nation of diminutive stature as etill resident in 
the interior. 



B. What is said of Ethiopia? Of Ethiopia sub Egypto T What was it 
in remote times 7 9. What did it contain 7 What is said of tbo capitals ? 
Of the other towns 7 Of Aniame 7 10. Describe tlie kingdom of Meroe 7 
What is said of the political power7 11, Of the temples, &.C.7 What 
occurred about the time of our Savioor? 13. Describe the mode of life 
pursued by the rude tribes, Sec. 13. What is said of tiie Macrobii 7 What 
" Of Cambyses ' 



i 



in upwards, e 

among Ihem; hcnoa their rnune. Gold waa bo abundant, that fettera for 
prisonera were made, it ia aaid, of that metal. Cnniby'aos, when in Egypt, 
marched with a, large army for the purpose of invading the Macro'bii, but 
WILE obliged to return long before he arrived at thcii country. 

Map Ifo. 1. — Point oat MaaritajiiB, Namidia, and the other divisions. 
Wlmt ocean lay west of A&ica! What lay north? What lay east of 
Ethiopia? Eaat of Barbaria and Zingia? What straits separated A&ica 
from Europe ! From Aeia ? Point out the rivers Nile, Njgir, Gir, Daradus, 
Bambotns, Maasithelus, AslaboruB, and Aatapus. Into what river do the 
two last flow 7 Point out the laliea Tritonis, NigritPs, Libya, Chelonides, 
MidColoe. Point out the Atlas monutainB, — LuniH, Maste, Mandrus, Thala, 
and Caphas. What islands la; on the west coast? Where did Hanno's 
Toyage terminate, according toGoBSelinI According to Rcnnell? Accord- 
ing to BongainiiUe? Point out Ethiopia. Mcroe. Anxumc. The citiee 
of Napata. Meroe. Sirbituni, Adulis. Auiome. The Troglodytee. 
Tlie Macrobii. 

34 

I.ffiaYPTU8, OR EGYPT. 
1; EoTPT, m ancient times, w as one of the most noted countries 
ftie world, and became celebrated at a very early period. Id 
the days of Abraham, it wos a weli-govemed and important Slate. 
In the lime of Moses, the Egyptians were renowned for iheir 
learning, and from them the Greeks derived nearly all the ele- 
ments of their knowledge. 

3. Egj'pt occupies the narrow valley of the Nile for a distance 
of 600 niiles southward from the sea. On the north ia the Medi- 
terranean; south, lay Ethiopia; east, the Arabian Gidf, or Red 
Sea; west, Libya and the Great Desert. lis most important fea- 
ture was the river Nile, whose annual inundations feriihzed the 
country instead of rain. 
3. The Romans regarded Egypt as the chief granary of their empire, and 




w 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Ihej obtoincd viit auppliei of Iho ncccBsariei of life from JL It hu been 
ulio eaUcd Ibc gill of ttie Nile, and tlie inlmbituiU, ia giatitudo for llis 
benefits derived Iroin Uint itreun, ofTerctt Bocrificea to, aud adored it, u tbe 
lutelir deitj of tlic countrj'. 

4. Thi effluents of the Nile enclosed the chief port of Loner Egfpt, and 
lormed it into a region ihiiped lilietho Greelc letter Del'ti.; hence it is called 
the Del'ts, and all districla aimijiriy Biluated have rccciTed the Bune name : 
u, the Del'ta of the Misaiuippi, tbe Del'Ui of tlie Gun'ges, &c. Tbe 
nalerB of the Nile flowed into the sea b; boicd moatbs, which are now all 
filled up except two. 

5. Tbe ancient Egjptiaoa were divided into diSerent castes or orders, com- 
prising priests, warriors, agriculturists, nierctiiuits, mariners, artiBans,and 
shepherds. Tlie priests were the ruling order, and tnonopolized all ths 
power of the Stale. The; were noted fur their learning, which the; omi. 
ceded from the common people. The warrior cibIo, to which the rojal 
familj belonged, was, nent to that of the priests, the ino«t honourable, 

6. Besides directing the religious affairs of the nation, the priesta acted 
as astronomers, judges, soothsayers, pliysieianB, and architects. Their hienK 
gljph'ic diiraiters formed tlio first kind of writing, and preceded alpha- 
bMic letters. The religion and government of ^ypt were intimately 
blended; there wore proscribed iiirms and ceremonies lor everj important 
action, which even the sovereign durst not violate or neglect 

7. The priests adopted the doctrine of the transmigra'tion of tha soul, 
while tba belief that it will continue as long as the Iradj ondarea, obtained 

with the people; whence the care displayed in Um 

preservation of embalmed bodies, or mummies, and 

^the vast eipenae of eicavating tombs in (he solid 

, rock. The Egyptians were grossly idolotrouB. Li 

^ addition tbOsi'ris and rais,tlioir chief deities, which 

represented (he sUn and moon, they worshipped tbe 

river Nile, as well as oien, dogs, cats, crocodiles, 

serpents, birds ofvarioua kinds, and even plants and 

S. At an early period, the Egyptians attained to 
great perfection in the arts. Their woven liibrin 
were highly prized ; they excelled in pottery, in 
dyeing, in the working of metals, and in the maun. 
facturo of paper, which they made ftom the fibres 
of the papyrus plant. Their architecture was grand 
and (heir pyramids, temples, obdisks, 




and other i 






re then 



it gigantic ' 






I 



st important feature J 3. How did the Romans regard Egypt 7 What 
I it also been called ? 4. What is said of the effluEofs of the Nile ? Of 
months T 5 How were the ancient EgypfiaiiB divided? What is laid 
of the priests 7 Of the warrior caste 7 6. Beaidea their religious duties, to 
what else did the prieats attend! What is said of their iiieroglyphics 7 Of 
(he religion and government? 7. What did the prieala adopt? What 
obtained with tlie people 7 What reaulted from this belief 7 What did the 
Egyptians worEliip 7 S. What is said of the perfection attained by the 



EGYPT. ei 

9. The Egyptians were the Gist who oreBiiiied a regular army, and intro- 
duced on exact ajratem of discipline. Their moat important tbrce wa« their 
war-chariots, of which thej employed vaet numbers in their miJitarjr opera- 
tioQB. Tbej Bicelled in arcberj : the bow was the national neapon ; and 
the children of the wairior caste were Qrom cliildboad ingtructed in it> use. 

10. Miiraim, or MeDes,the aecood son of Ham, established the Egyptian 
monarchy, 4UI)0 yeara ago. Osjnian'djaa, Mie'ria, and Sesos'tris, wen; 
among the earliest renowned monarcbs. Many of the Egyptian kings 
bore the name of Pha'raob. Sesos'tris was a great conqueror, and subdued 
nearly all Asia as far as India and Baclria'na, and be either introduced 
navigation and commerce into Egypt, or greatly encouraged those branebea 
of industry. Pha'roah Ne'cho, at a later period, also patronized navigation 
and commerce, and waa the first that attempted to cut a canal Iroia the 
Mediterra'nean to tlie Red Sea. 

11. About the year 1600 B.C^tlie H^^k'sos, a shepherd nation from Ara- 
bia, conquered Egypt Subsequently, it fell under the domiaion of the 
Ethio'pians, and tlien of the Persians, whose government was so oppressive, 
that the invasion of Alexander the Great was hailed as a nationiJ deliver- 
ance. On the division of the Macedo'nian Empire, the Ptol'emiea com. 
menced their leign ; these enlightened princes encouraged learning, and 
«Tory kind of public improvement The last sovereign of their race, the 
celebrated Cleopa'tra, committal suicide B. C, 30. E^ypt then became a 
Roman province, and so remained for E70 years, when it was conquered by 
the Saracens. 

IS. Ancient Egypt was divided into three great sEctions; viz., Lowe! 
Egypt, tlie Tiieb'ais or Upper Egypt, and the Heplan'omis, The whole 
comprised filly-tiirce nomcs or provinces. The Hcptanomis lay between 
Upper and Lower Egypt, end derived its name from the seven nomcs int.^ 
whiclt it was divided. In its most pnHpcroua times Egypt is supposed to 
liBve contained eight million inhabitants, and twenty thousand cities and 



Map No. S.— What sea bounded Egypt on the north ? What gulf or sea 
on the east 7 What desert lay on the west? What country lay north, oi. 
the opposite side of tho Mediterranean SeaT What country lay on Iht: 
opposite side of the Arabian Golfl What lakes were in Egypt? What 
rogioii boandod Lower Egypt on the westT On the east! What desert 
lay on the east 7 Point oat the Greater Oasis. The Wealem Oasis. Thr 
Lesser Oasis. These Oases were ftrttle spots in the Libyan Desert, that 
nere conatdered to belong to Egypt. They were all inhabited. The lioniurv^ 



Egyptians? 9. What were they the first to organiieV What is said of 
tlteir Bar-chariots? Their archery ? 10. What is said of Menes f Os^-- 
mandyoB? Of Scsostris ? Of Pharaoh Neobo? 11. What occurred abous 
the year 1700 B.C.? Subsequently! What is said of the Ptol'cmiesT 
The last sovereign, &.e.? 13. How waa ancient Egypt divided? What 
did the whole comprise I What is said of tho Hcptanomis 7 Of Egypt iii 
its most prosperous times? 



I 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



EGYPT. — [CONTINUED.] 

1. The most noted cities in Egypt were Thebes, Mem'phis and 
Alexandiici. The first waa a magnificent city, and was called 
Hecotom'pytos, from its hundred gates. Its temples, obelisks, 
staWes, &c., were all of gigantic size. The population waa pro- 
bably the greatest of any city that ever existed. Historians state 
that 700,000 men could be equipped for war at one lime, besides 
which, 200 armed chariots could be sent (com each gate. Thebes 
was destroyed by the Persians almost 2400 years ago. Its luina 
still cover a space of twenty-seven miles in circumference. 

3. Mem'phia, once the capital oTEgjpt, was b, epitndid cit;,and stood on 
nearly the same grouiii! now occupied bj Cain). It »aa t^ken and plun- 
dered by Camby'fiefl about the Btuno time that TliEbea waa captiifed, aud has 
long- BiDcs dieappoared. Babylou, called tbn Egyptian Babylon, stood not 
da Horn Mein'pliia. The inhabitiints were Bahyloaijuia, brought hither bj 
the Pcraiiuis H-hen they wcie maatCTB of Egypt. 

3. The weU-known Pj^amida 
and Spliini were io the vicioitj of 
Mein'phJB. The Ejrmer are about 
sixty in number. The lareeet u 
from 4B0 to 300 feet in heisbt, and 
covEra an area ofSTO.OIH) square 
fecL The Arabs cail theiq Gebel 
Pharoan, (Phnroab'a Mountains). 
Near the base of the largest pyra- 
mid in ttie Sptiini, a, gigantic 
image representing tlie body of a 
lion, nilh a huuia.n head. All 
Icxccpt tho head and neck is no» co. 
vered with sand. Tho whole figure 
The EgjiiUia Bphini. >s ISS leet long, and 60 leet Mgb. 

4. Alexandria was (bunded l^ Alexander the Great. 




renewnod city, and conbnued tc 






three hundred and fitly years, lis population onco amounted to 600,000. It 

d of the PtorcmieB. Hero they collected the noted librarr of 

3, which was afterwards destroyed by the Saracens. Tin 



was the 
700,000 

celebrated Pha'roa, or light.hi 
is said to have beon 500 feet high, 
of the world. 
5. Cano'pus, near Alexandria, ws 



iinall island near t)ie city. It 
accounted ona of tho wwiden 



( the 



ed lor a Temple of Sera'pis. Close 

Q. 1. Wliioh were the most noted cities jn Egypt? What waa said of 
Tbebes? Of its temples, statues, &.&) Of ibi popukUoa ? What is staled 
by hlBloriana? When was Tliebes destroyed 7 3. Describe Memphis. 
Babylon. 3. The Pyramidj. What do the Arabs call tliem7 Describe 
the Sphinx. 4. What is said of Alexandria? Of what race of princes was 
it the capital ? What la said of the Pdaroa ? 5. What is aaiJ of Cano 



EGYPT. 

to it w»B Nicop'olis, built by Augastus in hon 

llionj; snd in eight of this place, 1800 years ... 

Nile WHS fought between the English and French. Soma other noted towns 
in Lower Egypt were Hcroop'olia, (he residence of the eheptierd kings; Sain, 
atoDetime the cnpitsl of ]::g7pl ; Heliop'olia, (he On or Beth'shemesb of 
^criptoie, fiunoua for its Temple of the Sun. Pelu'aium, (he birth-place of 
the geographer FLol'Eniy, wna ea Blconglj ibrtified that it was considered the 
key of Egypt 

6. Arsin'oe, or Crocodilop'olis, lay neat Lake Mteria, Tbia lake was dug, 
it is Baid, by order of Mceris, an ancient monarch, to receive the sorplus 
waters of the Nile during itg inundations. Near the lake was the famous 
labyrintli. It contained 3000 chambers, one half of which la; above ground 
and Ihe otlier Iiaif below. In tho latter the kings and the Bacicd crocodiles 
Wero buried. 

T. At Heracle'o, or Heracleap'olis Magna, the ichneumon was worshipped, 
becanao it destroyed the asp, a venomous kind of serpent, as woU as the 
eggs of the crocodile. An tin' oo received its name ftom Antin'ouB,llieliiyourite 
of the Emperor Adrian, who drowned himself here, from a auperstitious 
belief! then not uncommon, that such a sacrifico would prolong his palroo's 
life. The emperor, gratified at this instance of devotion, not only built a 
temple (o the memory of Anlin'ous, but ordered that he should be worship- 
ped throughout tho empire. 

8. At Lyoop'oliu the people worshipped tho wolf, because a number of 
(lioae animals had orii^e repelled aji Ethiopian invasion. Antaiop'olis waa 
once an important city. Ita ruins are higliiy interesting. Ptolema'id, afler 



^ 




tliB fall of Thebes, became the chief city ii 



Den'deroh, 
of the ceiling, 



preserved ancient temple in Egypt. A part 

which was a representation of the Zodiac, was cut out and 

' ' ' ihabitanu were oflen attacked by those of 



:d the crocodile, while Ibe latter w 



OiTibos, beci 

9. Cop'tos was noted for its extensive commerce. A road led hence (o 
Beroni'co, by which the merchandise of India was transported to tho Nile. 

pm! Nioopolis? Of the other towns in Lower Egypt? 6. What is ipid 
ofArainoeT LalteMieris? The Labyrinth? 7. What is said of Horaclea ! 
Antinoe? 8. Of Lycopolis? Ptolemais? TenlyraT Of its ancient inha- 
bitants? 9. WhatissaidofCoptos' LalopolisI OmhosT lO.Whatissud 
jf SyeuB T What did the ancient geographers imagine rcBpeCting Syene ' 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



'"■i™ 



K ABBoaali', 






I 



IB Arabian Gulf| noted fi>r 
n of Egypt. It WIS 



10. Sje-ne 
reguded b; liie Romans at ona of Uic kcjs • 
^Mgraphers imagined that il lay directly uadisr the Dorlliem tropic j hot it 
It now KaQWii to be mare than half a degree oriatitude to the noith. Above 
Sye'ns were ths ialands of iSephui'tiDe and Fhi'Ira. The latter contained 




lome beautiful temples. Near to Phi'lffi waa the firat cataract of the Nils. 
Ila height must have been greatly eiaggeraled by the ancients, as it ii now 
only a rapid, op which small boats may with aomo oiortion be drawn. 

JlIo;( JVo. 5.— In what partof Egypt wnsThebeaT Momphia? Alexan- 
dria? In V hat district was the Dtlla? The Pyramids T The lalanda of 
Philffi and Elephantine? What eities wore in Lower Egypt? In the Hepta- 
notniil In the ThebaisT What (own stood at the head of the Arabian 
Gulf I What towns stood on its western shorta ? 



■ 
i 



MAUEITA'NIA APTO NUMIDIA. 

1. MAURiTi'NiA, Numid'ia, and Africa Proper, now comprise 
the region called Barbary. It extends along the coast for more 
than 1200 miles. On the north is the Mediterranean Sea; aoulh, 
the Atlas Mountains ; eastward, the Syr'tis Major, and westward 
I he Atlantic Ocean. 

2. The Atlas range extends throughout the country, from east^ 
to west. The name is by some derived fiom Atlas, a Maiirita'-' 
nian king and astronomer, who made his observations on the 
heavens from their summits; but by others from Atlas, one of the 
gigantic Titans. They gave name to the Atlantic Ocean, which 
washed the whole of the western coast of the world, as known to 
the ancients, 

What isnowknown tobethefaet? What islands lay above SyeneT' What 
is Slid of the first calaraot ? 

Q. t. What did Mauritania, Numidja, &.c,, compriae ? What is aald of 
tlie whole region? 2. Of the Atlua range? From whom is the r 




MAURITANIA. 65 

3. Under the Carthagin' ians and the Romans, this region was distin- 
guished for prosperity, population, and wealth. It was onie of the chief 
granaries of Rome, and was second only to Egypt in fertility. The Roman 
writers called it the soul of the republic, and the jewel of the empire. 
Many of the wealthy citizens had splendid palaces and country-houses on 
its shores. Corn, wine, and oil were the principal productions. Many wild 
beasts were sent hence to Rome to be exhibited in its amphitheatres. 

4. Maurita'nia was named firom its first inhabitants, the Mau'ri. It 
included the whole of what is now Alge'ria, and part of Moroc'co. At first, 
it extended only to the river Morochath, but it afterwards included a large 
part of Numid'ia, and was divided into Maurita'nia Csesarien'sis in the 
east, and Maurita'nia Tingita'na in the west. Subsequently, Maurita'nia 
Sitifen'sis was detached from the former. 

5. The chief cities in Maurita'nia Tingita'na were Sa'la, Lix'us, Zi'lis, 
Tin'gis, Ab'yla and Ru'sadir. Ad Mercu'rios was the most southern Roman 
station. Lix'us was an important city, and carried on a considerable trade 
with Ga'des. In its vicinity, the giant Antae'us is said to have been overcome 
by Her'cules. Tin'gis was the capital, and gave its name to the province : 
it became a Roman colony. 

6. Ab'yla was the most northern town : near it was Mount Ab'yla, whicli 
stood opposite to Cal'pe, a high rock on the European side of the Straits of 
Hercules, now Gibraltar. These eminences were called the Pillars of Her- 
cules, or the Columns, because when Hercules, as it is fabled, tore asunder 
the isthmus which separated the Atlantic from the Mediterra'nean, he 
erected them on either side of the Strait, as a memorial of his labour. 

7. In Maurita'nia CiPsarien'sis were Si'ga, Mi'na, Carten'na, and Caesare'a, 
besides other towns of minor importance. Siga was the capital of Sy'phax, 
the king of the MasaBsyl'ii, before he removed his court to Cirta. CaBsare'a, 
called at first lol, was a Phcenic'ian colony. It was the residence of Boc'- 
chus, and afterwards the capital of Juba*s kingdom. The latter prince 
enlarged and beautified it, and changed its name to Csesare'a, in gratitude to 
his benefactor, Augustus. 

8. Sit'ifis, which gave name to the province of Maurita'nia Sitifen'sis, 
was situated in a rich, fertile district S&l'doe, Coba and Igil'gilis were 
towns on the coast. The latter was an important sea-port, and kept up a 
constant communication with the city of Massil'ia, in Gaul. Southward of 
Sit'ifis, was the Sali'nse Nubonensis, a salt morass, now called the Shott. 
It received many small streams from the neighbouring mountains. 

9. Numid'ia lay eastward of Maurita'nia. Previous to the 
Roman conquest, it was occupied by two distinct nations; the 
Massy'li in the east, and the MasaBsyl'ii in the west. The river 
Amp'sagiis separated these territories, and the Molochath was at 



derived ? To what did these mountains give name ? 3. For what was this 
country distinguished under the Carthaginians, &c. ? What did the Roman 
writers call it? What were its chief productions ? From whom was Mau- 
ritania named ? What did it include ? What is said of its extent ? Its 
divisions ? 5. Name the chief cities in Mauritania Tingitana. What is 
said of Lixus ? The giant Antaeus ? 6. What is said of Abyla, &c.? Of 
the Pillars of Hercules ? 7 Name the towns in Mauritania Ctesariensis. 
What 18 »^n;d of Siga? 8. Of Sitifis? Of Igilgilis, &c.? 9. What is 

()* E 



(jTy CLASSICAL (JEOGRAPHY. 

unc tiiru* its M-fsliTii boundary. The first were tlie subjects of 
.Mit-iiiis'sa, and tin- t»i!uT o\ Sv'pliax. The connection of these 
iiiuiiaivhs wiih the Kotiiati.s, ul>()ut tlie year i^OOB. C, has pre- 
fer vci I heir naiiK's lo ihe present time. • 

I(). The Xiuiiid'i.Lnrt wen.* a hruvc and active race, accustomed to endure 
fatiirui' .'Liul Iiiirdsiiip. Tliry rode fuarloHsly, without cither saddle or bridk, 
uiid ot\( II iii.idf u'lrlit attacks on their cnoinius. During the Second Punic 
Wur, iht-y ininoycd tiic Ko.ikiiis inccKsmtly. Some authors believe that 
the Xiiiiiid iaiiM were the di'scendaiitM of the Canaanitcs, who Icfl their ' 
country ut tliu time it was invaded by Joshua. 

11. (-irta was the niotropolis of Nuiiiid'ia, and the residence of Sy'phaz, 
Masiiiis'sa, and their successors, ainongrKt wiioin Micip'sa contributed most 
to its iiiiproveincnt hy invitini; a nuniher of drcek colonists to settle in it 
In tiio r(i;rn uf Constantinc, it was nearly destroyed in a rebellion; but that 
emperor caused tlic city to be rebuilt, and tlieu named it after biinscll^ 
wiiich nanie it still retains. 

12. I{i|)'po.Rc'giii8 and Cullu were towns on the coast. Tho first became 
tlie Kpiscopal Sec of St. Anirustinc. Ta^as'te, Tib'ilis, Mos'cula, Ba'gai 
and 'I'uliu'dis wore in tlic interior. Tagas'tc was tho birthi-pluce of 8t 
Augustine. Tahu'di.s was an emporium for the interior trade of Africa. 
It lay on tlie river S.ibus, or Zabus, which flowed into a lake at the baae 
of tlic Atlas Mountains. 



M(ip No. 5. — What sea bounded Mauritania and Numidia on the ncurth? 
Wiiat countries on the soutli 7 What countries bounded Numidia on the 
east? Wliut ocean bounded Mauritania on the west? What rivers flowed 
from the All.is Mountains into the Atlantic Ocean? Into the Mediterra- 
nean Sea? What river separated Mauritania Ctusariensis and Mauritania 
8itifoni:is ? What river separated Mauritania and Numidia 7 A. What 
river formed the southern boundary of Numidia? What mountains formed 
tiie southern boundary of Mauritania? What strait separated Mauritania 
troin Sp.-iin ? What cities lay on the eoaf«t of Mauritania ? In tlie interior J 
What cities lay on the coast of Numidia ? Li tlie interior ? 

t>7 



AFRICA PROPER. 

1. Africa Proper, or Carthage, lay eastward of Numid'ia, and 
almost within sight of Sicily. It comprised three provinces: 
Zeugita'nia, Byza'ciiira and Tripolita na. The latter occupied the 
modern territory of Tripoli, and the first t\vo what is now Tunis. 

fjaid of Numidia ? What river separated the two nations ? 10. Describe 
the Numidians. What did they do during the Second Punic War? What 
do some authors believe? 11. What is said of Cirta? What occurred 
during the reign of Constantino ? 1:2. What is said of Hippo Regius, and 
the other towns ? 

Q. 1. What is said of Africa Proper ? What did it comprise ? 2. When 



AFRICA PROPER. 



67 



2. Carlhaffe, the diiof city nf this rfglon wm (bunded 818 a C, hj 
Dido, a Tjtian prineosB, who came hither with a. colony of PhisnioiBin. 
At one ILme il wm Iwenty-lhree miles in circumftrencB and Imd 700,000 
iiihahilantB. It was for more than »cvi,n hundred yoara the capital of the 
rEjmblic of Cartilage, which became a groat gommercial and niaritioie 
power, and planted coloniea all along the coaatu of Northern Africa, and 
also in Spoin, Sicily, Corsica, and ^rdmia Ita mannera navigated all 
parts of llie Mediterranean Bea, ae well as the acatcm ahoros of Africa 
and Europe. 

3. The Carthaginians carried on three aenguinary n-ara with iho 
Romans, which ara called Punie Wars. They were at Inat conquered 
by tbat people. The capital was destroyed, R C. 146, and the country waa 




BMimiliim or CanliigE.* 



reduced to the rank of a Roman province. The people of Carthage, like 
llieir progenitors, the Phfenieians, worshipped the sun, and oSercd up human 
i^acrifices in their IcmplcB. Han'nibal, Hamifcar, Han'no, and Ae'drubd, 
ore (he most cdebrutcdCarthagin'iana whose names have reached our limes. 

4. The other cities were Tu'nea, new Tunis, where Regulua was defeated ; 

Utica, where Calo committed amcide; Zama, where Han'nibal was defeated 

bySoipio; Thap'sus, where Ciesar gained a celebrated victory. Clyp'ea, or 

■ ' * ' ' ■ ■ ■ legulus in the Erst Punic War. It was 

a shield ; hence ita name, winch signiEes 



Aa'pis, served as a stronghold to Regulus 
built on a. promonUiry shaped like a shielt 



was Carthago founded 7 What is said of its entent and inhabitants 7 How 
long was it the capital! What is said of the republic of Carthage? Its Colo. 
!ouieb7 lis mariners? 3. What wars did UieCarthBginintiBtarry on? What 



reen Heipio, II 






Ik burning lemple, peril 



at 

'J 



68 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

a ihield — the one in Greek and the other in Latin. Hadrume'tum, on the 
coast, and Capsa, in the interior, were considerable towns. From Turris 
Hannib'alis, Hannibal set sail for Asia, when banished from Carthage. 

5. Tripolita'na received its name from its tliree chief cities : viz. Sabrata, 
(£& and Leptis Magna. The latter was the birth-place of the Emperor 
Severus. The soil in some parts was extremely fertile, but generally it was 
barren and sandy. Eastward was tlie Syr'tis Major, noted for its numerous 
shipwrecks. The country on its shores was called Syr'tibus Regio. 

, 6. In the interior of this region dwelt the Lotoph'agi, a race who lived 
on the berries of the lotus. This fruit, if eaten by strangers, would, it is 
said, make them forget their native country. Here, also, were the Nasa- 
mo'nes and the Psyl'li. The former resided for a time on the coast, and 
robbed and sold as slaves all shipwrecked persons. They were at length 
driven by the Romans into the interior. The PsyrU were noted for their 
skill in charming serpents and curing their bite. 



LIBYA. 

7. Lib'ya was the Greek name for the whole of Africa ; but 
was generally used to denote that part of it which lay immediately 
south of Greece. It comprised the provinces of dyrena'ica and 
Marmar'ica, which lay on the coast, and the oases of Au'gila and 
Ammon, in the desert. The modem name is Bar'ca. This 
region was sometimes called Maritime Lib'ya, to distinguish it 
from Interior Lib'ya. 

8. Cvrena'ica, so named from Cyre'ne, its chief city, was founded by a 
colony of Greeks, 630 B. C, and became an important and flourishing State. 
In its most prosperous days, it contained the five cities of Cyre'ne, Apollo', 
nia, Ptolcma'is, Barce, and Bcreni'ce, whence it was called Pentap'olis, (the 
five cities.) There were other towns of less note ; one of which, on the 
coast, was Darnis, now Derne. 

9. The country was remarkably fertile, and abounded in com, wine, and 
oil. Its fruits were of superior quality. Its horses were the finest in the 
world, and often gained prizes in the Grecian games. The most noted pro- 
duction was the gum Silphium, whicli is supposed to have been assafcetida. 
It was made a State monopoly, and was exported to all the neighbouring 
countries. At Rome it was considered, weight for weight, equal in value 
to silver. 

10. Cyre'ne gave birth to some eminent men, amongst whom were Eratof/- 
thenes, Callim'achus, Aristip'pus, and others. It was also famous for a sect 
of philosophers ; hence called Cyrenaic. This city has been long in ruins : 
A part of these consist of the Necrop'olis, or city of the dead, extending for 

towns? 5. What is said of Tripolitana? Where was Severus bom? 
What is said of the soil ? Of the Syrtis Major ? 6. Of the Lotophagi ? 
The Nasamonies and Uie Psylli ? 7. What is said of Libya ? What did 
it comprise ? 8. What is said of Cyrenaica ? By what people, and when, 
was it foimded ? What did it contain? 9. In what did the country abound ? 
What was its most noted production, &c.? 10. What is said of Cyrcne ? 




The NecrupDlis nf CyieDB. 
iio.iriLlong' Uie brow of a blU wliich overlooks (lie eucrounding 



11. MAniiAH'ic* i. 
inhabitantB wc^re (lie 
fimeil as swifl turn 

12, Soulh of Cvr< 
The first 



1 barren, snufJj region, wbich lay west of Egypt Tho 
lariiiar'Idie, a raci: of Noiiiad'jc bacbaritme, wlio w«ro 
'G, and for curing tlie bite of tlie most venomous ser- 



and Mannsc'icii !a; the noaes of Au'irilai nnd 
, aa it was in Ibe daf i of Herod'otus, Urtlla in 
nan, or nramoni BcnRegioTvu ikmous ior its Temple of Jupiter, 
Cetcbrntod among all civilized nations. It was visited by Alex. 
aiider the Great previous to his eastern eipedilian, when the priests pro- 
nonnced Iiim to be the ion of Jupiter, This district was once governed by 
ill own kings ; but in the time of Alexander, the supreme power was in the 
hands of ii chief priest. It is now called Siwah, aiid has been repeatedly 
visited in recent times. 



>. S, — Point out Zeugitania. Bjrzacium. Tripolititna, What 
y weet of the two first-nauied provinces 7 What sea lay north 
. . What sea lay norUi of TripoUtona? A. What river flowed 

through Zeugitania ? What takes lay Bouth of Byzaciom 7 What island 
lay east 7 C. What promontory or cape lay nearest to Sicily! H. What 
island lay north of Tripolitana 7 M. Here, in Uie tonm of Girba, Uie Em. 
peror Vihius Gallos was bom. What river bounded Tripolitana on the 
.■ast? What towns lay on the coast of Africa Proper! In the interior? 
When was the battle of Zama Ibught? The battle of Thapsus? What 
truif separates Tripolitana and Cyrenaica! Where is Libya! Cyrenaica7 
Maimarica ! What sea lies north of these regions ! Where are the cities 



ins! 11. Describe Ms 
ii of Cyrenaica and Maimarica? Whi 
~ By whom was its temple visited 



Its ii 



labitanls, 13. What lay 
aidofAugila? Of Am- 
s said of its government 7 



70 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

from which Cyrenaica derived iti name 7 Point out* the Bhilenomm Ars. 
The river Lathon. Tiie Puliurus. The Cyronci mountains. Bscolicus 
mountains. Boscisi mountains. The oasis of Augila. Of Ammon. 



28 



LIBYA INTERIOR. 

1. Lib'ya Interior included GoDtu'lia, nearly all the Great 
Desert, and the countries now called Soudan and Senegam'bia. 
Some contend that the ancients knew nothing of this region beyond 
the northern edge of the desert, while others believe that they 
were as accurately acquainted with it as the modems were, pre- 
vious to the time when Park made his discoveries. 

2. G.ctu'lia, now the Bclcd cl Jcrid, or Land of Dates, is a dry and 
almost desert country, partially watered by streams that deseend from the 
Atlas. The people of this region were a roving, unsettled race, and com- 
prised several different tribes, of which some occupied the oases of the 
Great Desert, and some were intermingled with the Ethio'pians, further to 
the south. One of tlie most important tribes was the Dar'sB Grstulia. 

3. Piiaza'nia (now Fezzan) is an inland country, or oasis, surrounded by 
deserts. The inhabitants were called Garaman'tes. They fought in war. 
chariots ; and were a terror to the neighbouring tribes from tlieir cruelty 
and oppression. For a long period they were allies of the Carthaginians, 
and carried on an extensive trade witli the interior regions, similar to tlic 
caravan trade of our times. The chief town of Phaza'nia was Gar'ama. 
It is now called Germa. Its ruins have been visited by recent travellers. 

4. The Great Desert was called Dcserta Lib'ya Interioris (Interior 
Lib'yan Desert), and also the Great Lib'yan Desert. It was often compared 
to a leopard's skin, from the oases scattered, like spots, over its surface. It 
is doubtful whether the ancients were acquainted with the full extent of the 
desert ; but they had a knowledge of the northern and eastern oases, and 
probably of some of the most available routes across it to the southward. 

5. On the sea-coast were the Cana'rii, Autordes and Peror'si, rude tribes. 



Q. 1. What did Libya Interior include ? What do some contend ? What 
do others believe ? 2. Describe Goetulia. The people. 3. Describe Pha- 
zania. What is said of the inhabitants ? Their trade ? 4. What is said 
of the Great Desert ? What is doubtful ? Of what had the ancients a 
knowledge ? 5. Name the tribes who lived on the coast. What is said of 

. * The Phileno'rum Arffi were two altars, which stood on the eastern bounds of tne 
Carthaginian Republic, and were erected from a circumstance thus related by ancient 
authors. In a dispute between CarthajEre and Cyre'ne respecting territorial limits, it 
was agreed that two individuals should start fVom the capital of each country at the 
pnme time, and that the future boundary should be established wherever they micfht 
meet. The Carthaginians chose two brothers, named Phile'ni, who used such diligence 
in their journey that Ihey had advanced far within the territory of the Cyrene before 
Ihey met the rival party. The Cyreneans were so enraged «t their progress, that they 
gave thenj the choice, either of recommencing their journey , or of being buried alive 
on the spot. They chose the latter alternative; and their country, in admiration of 
their patriotic devotion, and to commemorate the event, erected those altars over their 
remaiiiti. 



ETHIOPIA INTERIOR. 71 

of which nothing is known hut the names. The countries immediately 
isoutJi of the Great Desert, now called Soudan' and Senegam'bia, were inha- 
bited by the Nigri'taB, Merano-Gsetu'li, Leu'co-iEthi'opes, Hespe'rii-iEthi'opes, 
and Cali'tsB. The chief rivers were the Gir and the Nigir. Their position 
and identity have excited much learned discussion ; but it is now generally 
believed that they are the same as the Joliba,and Djyr or Misselad, of Sou- 
dan. Pliny and Ptolemy both describe the Nigir, in particular, as a great 
river like the Nile, overflowing and fertilizing the country in the same man- 
ner, and with animals and productions of the same kind in its waters, and 
on its banks. 

6. The principal lakes of Interior Lib'ya were, the Nigri'tes, Cheloni'des, 
and Lib'ya. The latter is supposed to be Lake Tchad. Various towns are 
mentioned by Ptolemy, but none of them can now be recognised. Nigi'ra- 
Metropolis, Gira-Metropolis, Is'cheri, Tagama, and Thuppse, ore some of 
those named. 

7. The Mandrus, Caphas, and Thala, were mountains supposed to form a 
portion of the great chain that is now known to extend across Ai&ica from 
east to west. That part in which the Nile was supposed to rise, was called 
b^ Ptolemy the Lu'nse Montes (Mountains of the Moon), and the name is 
still retained. 

8. The FoRTUNA'T-as iNSULiE, or Fortunate Islands, now the Canaries, 
derived their names from their delightful climate, and the abundance of 
their fine fruits, and other products. The ancients described them in the 
most exaggerated terms, and believed them to be the islands of the blessed, 
or Elysium. Centu'ria lay nearest the African coast ; Cana'ria was noted 
for its large dogs, and Purpu'riae for its purple dye. Niva'ria is now Tene- 
rifFe. Its lofty peak is always covered with snow ; hence the name of the 
island. Hi'ero, or Ferro, was the most western of these islands. The ancient 
geographers chose it as the first meridian. They reckoned their longitude 
ti*om it ; and it is still occasionally used for that purpose. Further south, 
was the island of Cer'ne. Here Hanno, in his celebrated voyage of disco- 
very, planted a Carthaginian colony ; it was long held by that people as a 
commercial depot. 

.ETHIOTIA, OR, ETHIOPIA INTERIOR. 

9. Ethio'pia Interior was the most remote part of Africa 
known to the ancients. The inhabitants were called ^Ethi'opes 
Anthropoph'agi. They were a race of cannibals. Here some 
geographers place Agyzymba ; a country of which nothing more 
is known than that it was reported to be the southern limits of a 
Roman expedition. Others suppose it to be the country now 
called Ag'ades, or Agdass, an oasis on the Southern edge of the 
Desert. 

10. AzANiA, or Barbaria, and Zingis, now A'jan and Zanguebar', were 

the countries south of the Great Desert ? Of the chief rivers ? What is 
now generally believed ? What do Pliny and Ptolemy both describe ? 6. 
What is said of the lakes ? The towns ? 7. What is said of the moun» 
tains ? 8. From what did the Fortunate Islands derive their name ? How 
did the ancients describe them ? What is said of Centuria ? Canaria ? 
PurpuriBB ? Nivaria ? Ferro ? Cerne ? 9. What is said of Ethiopia Interior ? 
Of the inhabitants ? Of Agyzymba 7 10. What is said of Azania and 



72 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

countries lying on tho Indian Ocean, vaguely known to the ancients. 
Several ports on their shores were frequented by the Egyptians, Greeks, 
and Romans, for commercial purposes. Cape Prasum was the most distant 
}»uint known in this quarter ; from whence the land was erroneoosly believed 
to extend eastward until it joined tlie coast of India. 

11. CiNN'AMOMiv^ERA Reqio, or Aromatoph'orus Regio, was an interior 
district, fertile in myrrh, frankincense, and spices. It bears the same pro- 
ductions at the present day, and is known as tlic country of the Somaull. 
The principal tribe was the Salathx. Avali'tes, the chief town, gave name 
to tiie great bay which extends hence to the coast of Arabia. 

Map No. 1. — Point out GcBtulia. Phifzania. Agyzymba. The Great 
Libyan Desert. The Gstuli Dars. Garaniantcs. Nasaraones. Nobats. 
Canarii. Autololcs. Pcrorsi. NigriUe. Melano Goetuli* Hesperii ^thi. 
opes. Calitae. Where is tiic Daradus river ? The i3ambotus. The Mas- 
sitholus. The Nijfir. The Gir. The Nile. Where is the Nigrites Lake ? 
Lake Libya. Chelonides Lake. Point out ^tliiopia Interior. Cinnamo- 
mifera Regio. Barbaria, or Azania. Zingis. Point out the ^thiopes .^Iji. 
thropophagi. Salathie. Where was Aroniata Pr. ? TabaB Pr. ? rrasmi 
Pr. ? Dioscoridis Is. 7 Menuthias Is.? The full name of this island is 
P^itenediom-mcnouthcsais ; but is usually contracted into Menuthias. 



29 

EUROPE. 

1. Europe is the smallest, and it was also the last settled, of 
the great divisions of the eastern continent. The name, which 
was at first applied to a small district in Thrace, is supposed by 
some to have signified white, from the light complexion of the 
inhabitants, and by others the west, because the whole region lay 
west of the first-settled parts of the earth. According to the 
mythology of the poets, the term was derived from Europa, the 
daughter of a Phoenician king, whom Jupiter, influenced by love, 
carried off, under the shape of a bull, across the sea, to Crete. 

2. The ancients were acquainted with only the one half of 
Europe. Scandina'via they supposed to be a group of islands 
lying in the Coda'nus Sinus, or Baltic Sea. The unexplored 
northern and north-eastern regions they assigned to the fabled 
Hvperbo'reans. The countries bordering on the Euxine, or 
Black Sea, were in early times considered to be a part of Scythia; 
but they were subsequently included in Sarmatia. 

3. Of the first settlement of this region, nothing now can be ascertained. 

Zingis? Of Cape Prasum. 11. Describe Cinnamomifera Regio, &c. The 
principal tribe, &c. 

Q. 1. What is said of Europe? Of the name? From what was the 
term derived? 2. What knowledge had the ancients of Europe? Of 
Scandinavia ? What is said of the northern and north-eastern regicms ? 
Of the country bordering on the Euxine ? 3. What were the Celts ? What 



EUROPE. 



73 



1 



The Celts were among the cnrliEsl known iohabilantB. Amnng Ihese people 
ilie nobles poasBascd groat power and influence, and lltey rormed e, iidliuna! 
Hssemblj for the diseunBion of public oSkirs, but the loner class were 
rcfai^ed almaet as iilaveB. Fewof Ihem tilled the ground; [lie Renter purl 
■ubaiatod on the produce of Iheir f ocks and herds, or by hunCiog, 




4. Tho priests wero called Dniids Diejr were iIeo the poela, philosopiiors, 
and teachers of the Celts, and their authority in Ilio Statt was almost 
uniimiled They taught tlie immortahty ot the soul, its transmigration 
Ihrough different bodies, and lihewisa the nalurc and properties of natural 
productions The Dmide worshipped in the ojwn air bome of their tem> 
plea, which were mBrely circles of very large, rough stones set up ou end, 
Htill eiist, as at Stonehenge, in the south of England, and at Slenues, in 
the Orkney ialands. 

5. The Druids regarded the oah as a sacred tree, and planted thick groves 
of it around their dwellings; but the mlsletoe, a parasitical plant, which 
^rows on various trees, was, when found growing on an oak, considered bj 
Ihem tho holiest object in nalnre, and was held in peculiar veneration. The 
rcligioua worship of these people was cruel and barbarous. They offered 
human sacrifices to their gods, and predicted fiilure eients trom the miinner 
in which the blood flawed from the victims. 

6. Tlie Celts were divided into numerous tribes. Some of tliem painted 
and tattooed themselves, and somo were cannibals. They wore a people of 
gigantic size, and great bodily atronglhi with yellow or reddisli hair, and 
bright bine eyes. In battle, they were fierce and impetuous, but were des- 
titute of miiilary order and discipline. In the progress of Roman conqoest, 
nearly all tjie tribes of this race were finally anbdued and civilized. The 
hingusge of the Celts still exists in the Gaelic, the Irish, the Welsh, and the 
Dasijue, which are all dialects of the same original tongue. 

T. The Greeks were the most distinguished of the European nations. 
They became eminent for their genius, love of liberty, and heroism. The 
fine arts, painting, poetry, and architecture, reached among them a degree 
of excellence which they have not since attained; and in each the finest 
models for imitation were left, which has served to farm the basis of modern 
Inate and knowledge. The language of the Greeks is the moat perfect ever 
^poten ; it comprehends the finest productions of the human mind, and is 
the most copioua, Seiiblc, and harmonious in existence. 

8. Subsequently, the Romans rose to power and distinction; they subdued 

isaaidoftlienoblesT Of the lower class, 4.C ! 4. What is said oflhe priests, 
or Druids? What did they teach 1 Describe their temples. 5. What is 
said of the oak? Of the mialetoe? Of the religious worship of these 
people? 6. How wore the Celts divided I Describe their appearance. 
Their conduct in battle, &.c. What occurred darmg the progress of Roman 
conquest ? What is said of the language I 7. What ia the character of the 
Greeks? What is said of the fine arts, &.c.? Of the Greek language? 
a said of lbs Romans? What occurred in process of time 7 




" - ■^''^ 



Jj 



74 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

the divided Greeks, and transplanted their learning and refinement to the 
Italian Hoil. In process of time, tlie whole of Central and Southern EuropCf 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Euxinc Sea, was annexed to the dominions 
of Koine. Aj^riculture was then introduced and encouraged, and flourishing 
cities were founded among tribes once iierce and barbarous. The Christian 
religion, also, as it spread its benignant doctrines over European countries, 
became a powerful instrument in their civilization. 

9. But with the decay of the empire, occasioned chiefly by its separation 
into Eastern and Western, a great change was produced. The barbarian 
nations, no longer held in check by the discipline and valour of the legions, 
poured in from the north and the east, and ravaged all ports of the empire 
with fire and sword. The people were everywhere enslaved or exterminated; 
the cities were laid waste ; the monuments of art levelled with the diut; 
and the civilization and policy of Rome were replaced by barbarism and 
Ignorance. 

10. The chief divisions of Europe, in ancient times, were Greece; Italj; 
Hispaiiia, or Spain; Gaul, or Gallia; tlie British Isles; Gcrma'nia, or Ger- 
many; Scandina'via ; Da'cia; McB'sia, and Illyrlcum. Many of the rivers 
and mountains retain their ancient names, with some slight alteration. The 
principal arc the Rha, Tan'ais, Borys'thcnes, Ister, or Danu'bius, Pa'du, 
Rhod'anus, Ibe'rus, Tagus, Du'rius, Li'ger, Seq'uana, Tam'esis, Sabri'na, 
Rhe'nus, Albis, Via'drus, and Vis'tula. The mountains are the Pyrenees:, 
Ilip'ula, Maria'nus,Canta'brian, Alpes, or Alps, Apcnni'nus, or Apennines, 
Car'patcs, Hse'mus, Scvo, and Hypcrbo'rean, or Riphe'an mountains. Also, 
the volcanoes ^tna and Vesuvius. 



Map No. 1. — Point out the countries named in the text. The chief rivers. 
The lengths in miles. The chief mountains. Their heights in feet 

The rivers, &.C., that are not on Map No. 1 will be found on Map No. 5. 
What ocean lay west of Europe ? What sea on the south ? What strait 
separated Europe from Africa ? What sea lay between Italy and lUyricum, 
or lUyria ? Between Greece and Asia Minor ? East of Mocsia 7 What 
sea or lake lay northeast of the Chersonesus Taurica ? P. M. What sea 
lay north of Germany ? North-west of Nerigonia ? North of Spain ? 



30^ 



THRACE, OR THRA'CIA. 

1. Thrace, or Thra'cia, extended westward from the Euidne 
sea to the river Nestus, and southward from the HaB'mus moun- 
tains to the Propon'tis and the iEge'an sea. It was a wild, rugged 
region, and was once considered to include all the countries mat 
lay north of Greece. It was therefore represented as the residence 
of Boreas. Thrace was conquered hy PhiHp of Macedon, and 
continued to be governed by ms descendants until the time of the 

What then followed ? What is said of the Christian religion ? Of the 
decay of the empire ? What is said of the barbarian nations ? What did 
they do ? 9. What occurred to the people ? The cities, &c. ? By what 
were the civilization and policy of Rome replaced? 10. Name the chief 
divisions of Europe. The principal rivers. The principal mountains. 

Q. 1. Describe the position of Thrace. What was its character, &c.? 



THRACE. 75 

Roman conquest. It was then, for the first time, considered to be 
a part of Greece. 

2. Colonies were settled, at an early period, on different parts of the sea- 
coast, by the Greeks, and the country was found to contain rich meadows 
and corn-lands. It abounded in mines, and its horses rivalled those of 
Thessaly. The principal mountains were the HsB^mus and the Rhod'ope. 
The latter was the reputed birth-place of Mars. The He'brus was the 
largest river. On its banks* Or'pheus is said to have waAdered, and to have 
played with such delightful melody, that the wild beasts listened to him, 
and the trees and mountains moved in cadence to his music. 

3. Among the cities of Thrace was Abde'ra, notorious for the stupidity 
of its inhabitants. It gave birth, however, to Democ'ritus, the laughing 
philosopher, and also to Protag'oras, noted in Athens for his eloquence. 
Near it was the residence of Diorae'des, king of the Bis'tones, who fed his 
horses on human flesh, and was slain by Hercules. At Sestos, on the Hel- 
lespont, Xerxes placed the bridge of boats over which his vast army passed 
on their march to Greece. Here, also, LeanMer was drowned, in swimming 
to the opposite town of Aby'dos to visit Hero, his mistress. 

4. Byzan'tium, a Greek colony, was built at the entrance of the Thracian 
Bosphorus. It was called Chrysoc'eras (the Golden Horn), from the beauty 
of its situation. The Emperor Constantino made it the capital of the 
Roman empire, under the name of Constantinople. At jE'gos Pot'amos, the 
Athenian fleet was defeated by Lysan'der, a Spartan. From the vicinity of 
Heracle'a, on the Propon'tis, a wall, forty-eight miles in length, was built to 
the Euxine sea, by the Emperor Aiiastasius, to guard the capital from the 
attacks of the barbarians. It was called Macron Tichos (the Great Wall). 

.5. Philippop'olis was named after Philip, the father of Alexander. Adrian- 
op'olis and Trajanop'olis, on the same stream, and Nicop'olis, on the Nestus, 
have all retained their ancient names. At Adrianop'olis, Valens was routed 
by the Goths, A. D. 378. This was the severest defeat experienced by the 
Romans since the time of Can'nsB. On the coast of the Euxine were Apol- 
lo'nia and Salmydes'sus. The flrst was noted for its temple, containing a 
colossal statue of Apollo. It was carried to Rome by Lucul'lus. Salmydes^ 
BUS was noted for shipwrecks. The adjacent coast was reckoned dangerous 
to mariners, and was called Salmydessum-Littus. 

MACEDO'NIA. 

6. Macedon, or Macedo'nia, was the kingdom of Philip and 
Alexander. It lay west of Thrace, and on the south side of the 
Hae'mus mountains. It was for the most part a rough, wood}- 
region, the chief riches of which consisted in mines of gold and 

What is said of its conquest ? 2. Of its settlement by the Greeks ? In 
what did it abound? What is said of its horses? Name the principal 
mountains. What is said of the rivers ? Of Orpheus ? 3. For what was 
Abdera notorious ? To whom did it give birth ? What is said of Diomc- 
des ? Of Sestos ? 4. Of Byzantium ? iEgos Potamos ? What extended 
from the Propontis to the Euxine Sea ? 5. What is said of Philippopolis, 
&c. ? What took place at Adrianopolis ? What is said of Apollonia and 
Sulmydessus ? 6. What was Macedon ? Describe its position. Its cha- 



76 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

silver; but, on the coasts, wine, oil, and fruits were produced in 
abundance. 

7. The limits of this country varied at different times : At first its west- 
ern boundary was the Canolo'vii, or Pindus mountains ; but, subeequently, 
it was extended to the Adriatic sea, and included the southern port of Ulyr^- 
icum. It was for a long time hardly considered a part of Greece, and, until 
the days of Philip, was regarded as of little importance. That wily prince 
having added Thrace, Epi'rus, and Thcssaly to his domains, took advantage 
of the domestic commotions of the Greek States, and, in the battle of Cher- 
one'a, B. C. 33d, brought them all under his control. 

8. His son Alexander aflerwards subdued a large part of Asia ; and, by 
an uninterrupted series of victories, for ten successive years, became master 
of half the world.. Aflet his death, his vast empire was divided ; Macedo- 
nia was soon restricted to its ancient limits, and, after a time, lost iti 
supremacy over Greece. At Icngtli, Per'scus, tlie last of Philip's descend- 
ants, having taken up arms against Rome, was totally defeated by Pau'luB 
jEmirius ; and the Romans took possession of the country. 

9. The principal mountains in Macedonia were the Hse'mus, Canalo'- 
vii, Cis'sus, and Cambu'nii. The largest rivers were the Dri'lo, Ao'us, 
HaUac'mon, Ax'ius, and Stry'mon. In the south-east, was Mount A'thos, 
now famous for its monasteries. Xerxes caused a canal to be cut across the 
narrowest part of the peninsula, on which the mountain stood, and sailed 
tlirougii it with his fleet to Thessaly. 'This work, it is said, can still be 
traced. 

10. The chief towns of Macedonia were Edes'sa, the first capital, and Pella, 
the capital, and native place, both of Philip and of Alexander the Great 
Bers'a, a very ancient city, is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. 
Thessaloni'ca was the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Here 
(Uccro lived when he was banished irom Rome. To the inhabitants St. 
Paul wrote two of his epistles. This city was once called Therraa, and 
gave its name to the Therma'ic, the gulf on which it stood. Potidoe'a, or 
Cassan'dria, Olyn'thus and Amphip'olis, were noted in the wars waged be- 
tween Philip and the Athenians. Singus gave name to the Singit'ic, and 
Toro'ne to the Torona'ic gulf. 

11. Pyd'na was noted for the final defeat of the Macedonians by the 
Romans. Philip' pi was named after king Philip. Here Brutus and Cassius 
were defeated by Antony and Augustus. ApoUo'nia was famous for its 
schools; here Augustus was educated. Dyrrach'ium, previously called Epi- 
dani'nus, was the common landing-place from Brundu'sium, on the opposite 
side of the Adriatic sea. 

12. At Metho'ne, which Philip had besieged, he lost his right eye by an 
arrow, shot fi-om the walls by Aster, a skilful archer. On the arrow was 
this inscription—** To Philip's right eye." Philip caused the arrow to be 
shot back into ihe town, with these words attached to it : ** If Philip takes 
Metho'nc, Aster shall be put to death ;" which was accordingly done on the 

racter, &c. 7. What is said of its limits? Of Philip? Of Alexander? 
What occurred after his .death? What is said of Perseus ? 9. Mention 
the principal mountains. Tiie largest rivers. What is said of Mount 
Athos ? Of Xerxes ? 10. What is said of Edessa ? Of Pella ? Bersea ? 
Thessalonica ? 11. What is said of Pydna? Dyrrachium? Brundu- 
sium ? 12. What occurred to Philip at Mcthone? What, then, did Philip 
do ? What is said of Stagyra ? 



GREECE. 77 

surrender of the city. Stagy'ra was the birth-place of Ar'istotlc ; henci; 
called the Stagy'rite. He was a noted philosopher, and the tutor of Alex- 
ander the Great. 



Map No, 5. — What seas lay south of Thrace? What mountains lay 
north 7 What river bounded Thrace on the west 7 What mountains lay in 
the south 7 Point out Abdcra. Byzantium. Heraclea. ApoUonia. Salmy- 
dessus. Adrianopolis. Philippopolis. What mountains separated Macedonia 
from Moesia 7 What river separated it from lUyricum 7 What river from 
Epirus ? What river from Thrace ? What sea bounded Macedonia on the 
west 7 On the south 7 Point out Philippi. Neapolis. Amphipolis. Apol- 
lonia 7 Dyrrachium. 

Map No. 2. — Point out the Thracian Bosphorus. The Hellespont The 
Macron Tichos. Sestos. Doriscus. Here Xerxes numbered his vast host 
after the passage of the Hellespont When were battles fought at ^gos 
Potamos and Adrianopolis 7 

Map No, 3. — Point out the Thermaic gulf The Strymonic. Singitic. 
Toronaic. Point out Mount Athos. Canalovii mountains. Cambunii 
mountains. Cissus mountains. Point out Pella. Thessalonica. Stagyra 
M ethone. Pydna. Potidaea, or Cassandria. Olynthus. 



31 



GREECE, OR HELLAS. 

1. Greece, or Hellas, the country of the Greeks, was the chief 
seat of learning and refinement at a period when nearly all other 
European countries were involved in gross harbarism. Though 
the most celebrated region of ancient times, it was of very moderate 
extent ; and did not, excluding the more distant islands, exceed in 
area half the State of Pennsylvania. 

2. It comprised a peninsula wholly bounded by the sea, except 
on the north, where Macedo'nia separated it from the rest of 
Europe. Eastward, was the -^ge'an ; westward, the lo'nian ; and 
south-eastward the Myrto'an sea. On the north, were the Cam- 
bu'nii, the Tu'marus, and the Acro-Cerau'nii mountains. In almost 
ever}'' quarter, the surface consists of rugged mountains, interspersed 
with valleys, some of which are rich and fertile. The gulfs and 
harbours are numerous, and indent the coast on all sides, affording 
every facility for navigation. The climate is mild and pleasant, 
but varies, to some extent, as mountain, plain, or valley predo- 
minate. 

3. In its infant state, Greece was inhabited by naked savages, scarcely 
superior to the beasts of the forest, living on herbs and roots, and sheltering 
themselves in caves and hollow trees. The first improvement in their coii- 

Q. 1. "What is said of Greece ? Of its extent? 2. What did it comprise, 
&c. ? What is said of its bounds 7 What mountains lay on the north ? 
What is said of its surface 7 Of the gulfs, &c. 7 Of the climate 7 3. What 
is said of Greece in its infant state 7 What was the first improvement m 



7S CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

ciition was Uic exchange of their ancient food for the more wholesmne aoorn. 
They then built Uiomsclvcs huts, and covered their bodies with the skins of 
animals. 

4. Tlic inhabitants were at Icngtli gradually formed into little States; and 
were governed for the most part by petty princes, whose role was oflen des- 
potic. To this period, called tlio heroic ago, belong the exploits of Hercules, 
The'seus, Mi'no8,.and other heroes, exulted into demi-gods for the zeal with 
which tlicy redressed and punished oppression. Until the Trojan war, the 
Greeks had no common bond of union, and hardly considered themselves as 
one people. That event brought togetlier the warriors of the different 
States — made tliem known to each other, and laid the foundation of their 
national greatness. 

5. Subsequently, the desperate contests of the Greeks with the great 
inonarchs of Persia served to unite them more closely; and the splendid 
victories of Mar'atlion, Saramis, and Platie'a, raised the national enthusiasm 
to tlie higlicst pitch. Greece then took the lead among the nations of the 
earth ; and, though oflen wasted by internal dissensions, she added to her 
military renown tiuit of carrying eloquence and the arts to a perfection 
before unknown. 

6. Under Alexander the Great, the power and dominion of the Cheeks 
were extended to the most remote regions then known ; and, for a time, the 
laws, the learning, and the language of Greece prevailed from Cgjpt to 
India. The conquest by Rome put an end to the political existenoe of 
Greece ; but the latter subdued in a measure even her conquerors. Her 
fame in of ts and eloquence remained undiminished, and the greatest of the 
Romans, and all who aspired to learning, came to study in her schools. 

7. The Turkish, or Ottoman invasion finally extinguished in Greece 
everything that remained of her ancient greatness. The Greeks were sub. 
jectcd to the most grievous oppression, and werd reduced, for almost four 
centuries, to a condition little short of slavery. At length, partly through 
their own exertions, and partly through the assistance of the great European 
powers, this interesting people is now independent. 

8. The earliest known inhabitants of Greece were the Pelas'gians, ii^o 
founded tlie kingdom of Sic'yon about the time of Abraham. Two centuries 
later, they founded Ar'gos. They were a widely spread people, and migra- 
tory in their habits ; hence the Athe'nians called them " storks.** About the 
year 1400 B. C, these people were expelled by tlie Helle'nes, who afterwards 
became so eminent for their genius, learning, and taste. From them the 
country was called Hel'las. The terms Greece, and Greeks, are of Roman 
origin, and have been generally adopted in modern times. They were 
<!crived from the Gres'ci, a small tribe in Epi'rus ; the first with whom the 
Romans became acquamted. 

I he condition of the inhabitants? What did they then do?, 4. Into what 
were they gradually formed ? What is said of tlie government ? What is 
said of Hercules, &c. ? Of the Trojan war ? What was the effect of that 
uvent ? 5. What occurred subsequently ? What raised the national enth^. 
siasm ? What then occurred ? What did Greece add to her military 
renown ? 6. What took place under Alexander, &c. ? What is said of the 
conquest by Rome ? 7. Of the Turkish invasion ? What was then tlie 
condition of the Greeks ? What at length occurred ? 8. What is said of 
the Pelasgians? What did tliey found? What is said of their habits? 
AVhat did the Athenians call them ? When and by what people were they 
expelled ? What is said of the Hellenes ? Of the terms Greece and Greeks ? 



GREECE. 



ftor great brtutchcs; vi 



9. TbeHolie'nMwtrediv 
IVtiunB, Eo'lianB, and Achi 

^uielied tVoni each other by ditfcrcncca of diitlect, tnu 
of govcrnmciit. The firet two wore the tnoat predominanL Atliens 
Ihe chiof lo'nisn, and S[>arta was the chief Da'riin State. The Achra' 
ond Ed'lioas became, in a great degree, identified with 
ruling States. 

10. Though the Grci 



if the 



were ol^n at variance with each other, the influ- 
gion, and their eacrfd, or public gsmee, always 
eerrod bb a bond of nniou, The public games were the Olym'pian, Pjth'- 
ian, Isth'mian and Nome'an. During tiieir celebration, a auspenaion of 
iiOHliUtiea, (if any existed,) tooli jilace between the different States, and to 
witiicsB them not only natives, but many foreigners, always reaorted. 
None but Greeks, however, could contend for the priie. 'I'hia right was 
(leenied a privilc|;e of llie highest value, and acned to unite the must disUuit 
Lranchea of the Il<:llen'ic race. 




by 



Olympian Gaai( 



11. The object of all these games was to prepare the youth for 
nccusloming them to fcata of agility and atrength. The eierciaea wer.', 
throwing tlie discos, or quoit, wreEtling, boxing, and Cooi, horse, and chariot, 
races. Musical and poetical contests eoncludtd the whole. The moat noleit 
was the Olym'pjc ; In wliicli the renown of gaining a victory was ao great, 
that the victor was regarded as an honour to hia country. They were cele- 
brated every foni years ; and from them the Greeks began, about T76 B. C, 
to compote their titna : every period of foor years was called an Olym'piad. 

Map Nb. 3— Point out Thessaly. Eplrua. Hellas, or Greece Proper. 
The Peloponiieaua. Tho Ionian islands. Thrscian islands. Theeaalian 
islands. Tho Cycladea. The Sperades. The island of Eubom. Where 
are the Aero Ceraunii mountains? TumaruB mountains? Cambunii 
inoantnins ? Pindua mounlaina ) Point out tiie Ionian sea. The .£gean 

9. How were the Hellenes divided 7 What ia aaid of the two 6rBt, &c. 7 
Of the Acbmonaand^olians? 10. What purpose did the national reUsion 
and the noted games serve I What is said of (hem? II. What was Uieir 
object? DeEcribo tlie exercises. What is said of the Olympic gamins 7 
^J/gK il^™ ^'"1^ tf"y celebradd? Wlmt was computed from thcio ! 



80 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

flea. The Myrtoan sea. The sea of Crete. Where is the Gulf of Corinth ? 
The Gulf of Ambracia ? Gulf of Cy pariflsa ? Gulf of Messenia ? Gulf of 
Laconia? Saronic gulf? Tlicrmaic gulf? Strymonic gulf? Singititi 
gulf? Toronaic gulf ? Pelasgic gulf ? Maliac gxdf ? Opuntic gulf ? 



32 



GREECE--[CONTINUED.] 

1. The elements of their religious worship were derived by the 
Greeks either from Asia or Egypt ; but they modified the whole 
so completely, that it retained few or no features of its original 
source. They worshipped a number of gods and demi-gods, whom 
they divided mto three classes— celestial, marine, and terrestrial. 
These were all subject to Jupiter, who was considered the father 
of gods and men. 

2. The celestial deities were, besides Jupiter, Apollo, the god of science, 
who was also considered as Phce'bus or the sun. Mars was the god of war; 
Mercury, the god of eloquence ; Bacchus, the god of wine ; and Vulcan, the 
god of fire. Juno, the sister and consort of Jupiter, was tlie highest female 
deity. Minerva was the goddess of the liberal arts ; as Pallae, she was the 
goddess of war ; Venus was the goddess of love ; Diana, the goddess of 
hunting: as Phce'be, she was the goddess of the moon; and, as Hec'ate, 
she was in hell the goddess of the night, and darkness. Ce'res was the 
goddess of agriculture , and Vesta the goddens of fire. 

3. The marine deities were Neptune and his wife, Amphitri'tc ; Ocean'i- 
cus and his wife, The'tys ; Tri'ton ; Pro'teus ; Ne'reus, with his sister and 
consort, Do'ris, and their progeny, known under the appellation of Tri'tons, 
Ne'reids, &c. The infernal gods were, Plu'to and his consort, Pros'erpine; 
Plu'tus, the god of riches; Cha'ron; the Furies; the Fates; the three judges, 
Mi'nos, iE'acus, and Rhadaman'ihus. Besides these, they had rural deities : 
as. Pan; Sylva'nus; Pria'pus; Arists'us; Ter'minus; The Fauns and 
Sa'tyrs ; Pa'les ; Flo'ra ; Pomo'na ; and a vast number of nymphs. 

4. During the early periods of their existence, the Greeks were governed 
by kings, and almost every city formed an independent State; but, by 
degrees, the love of liberty introduced the republican form of govenmient : 
a change the more easily effected, each State being so small that almost all 
the inhabitants could assemble together, at a short notice, to consult on their 
general interests. 

5. Greece comprised four divisions ; viz. : — 1. Thes'saly and Epi'rus. 2. 
Greece Proper, or Hel'las. 3. The Peloponne'sus. 4. The Islands. The 
Romans added Macedonia, and then divided the whole into the provinces of 
Acha'ia and Macedo'nia. The first comprised Hel'las and the Peloponne'. 
sus. The capital was Corinth. The second included Thes'saly, Epi'rus, 
and Macedo'nia. The capital was Thessaloni'ca. 

Q. I. What is said of the religious worship of the Greeks? Of their 
o-oda, &,c. ? 2. Describe the celestial deities. The female divinities. '3. 
The marine deities. The infernal gods. The rural deities, &c. 4. How 
were the Greeks governed in early times? What was introduced by 
degrees ? From what circumstance was the change the more easily effected ? 
.'». Name the divisions of ancient Greece. How did the Romans divide it? 
What did the first comprise ? What did the tecond include ? 



thes'baly. 

6. Thb9'saly laybehveen He]'laa and Macedo'nia, and was sur- 
Tounded on all sides by high mountains, except on the eaat, where 
its coasts were washed by the £gc'an sea. It consisted of an 
extensive fertile plain, which was watered by the Pe'neus and its 
branches. Thes'snly was famous for its breed of horses, and the 
inhabitants for their dexterity in horsemanship. 

7. Among !ho inhabitanla were the Cen'taur*, who were fkWed to be hnlf- 
maD uid Imlf-horBe. They were pcobablj among the iiist who iboght oti 
honeback ; and tbe hoise and rider t>eing taken for one and the lame indj- 
vidoal, gave rise, no doubt, to the report The Myi'midons, who dwelt in 
tbe loutbern part of Thes'aalj, were imagined to have been, at first, a race 
of anta. They accompanied the rest of the Greeka to the siege of Troy. 

& Olym'pua wa» the most celebrated mountain in Thes'aaly. It was, 
meeordiDg to the poeta, the reBidence of the gode : on ita aummita reigned 
mn Btemal spring ; and on the mogl lofty pinnacle stood the palace of Jupi- 
ter. Tbe Greeka considered this mountain to be the higheat in the world, 
qnd the central part of the earth^a surfauc. 

9. On mounts Oa'aa and O'thrya the Cen'tanra resided. Mount Pc'lion 
wu corered with pine trees, and from thence was obtained the cclebiatfd 
■pear of Achil'les, wliich no one could wield but himself. In tlicir fiiblcd 
wara with the gods, the gients piled Oa'sa on Pe'lion. Pindus was aaocd 
to the Muses, The poets feigned Mount CE'ta to be ao lofty llial the sun, 
moon, andetarB rose und set behind it Near tlic mouth of the river Pcnc'ui*, 




•nd between Olym'puB and Os'sa, waa the vale of Tern' pe, celebrated among 
the ancients tor the beauty of its scenery. It is about five miles in Icnfrlh. 
and ia entered by a narrow defile. 

10. Laris'sa, on the Pe'neus rircr, was the most famous of all the cities 

6. Describe the position of Thessaly. Of what did it consist T For what 
was it &moiis7 7. What is said of the Centaurs? What were ther, 
probably 7 Whnt is said of tlic Myrmidons? a Of Mount Ulympua'? 
Whst did the (Jrccka consider it to be 7 S. What is said of mounts Oss]> 
mndOthrysI Of Mount Fclion J Ofthecimts? MountPindus? Mount 
alia' DewribB the valo of Tompe. 10, What ia aaid ofLariaaa? Phthia ' 
Mt'IibiL'ii? Anticyra7 Hypula? lolcos7 ApheltE 1 What occurred ^t 



S2 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

of that name. Achiries had here his Rcat of government. Phthi'a was the 
city of the Myr'midons. Melibs'a was famous for dyeing wool of a purple 
colour ; Antic'yra for its hellebore ; and Hyp'ata for the skill of its inhabit- 
ants in magic. lol'cos was the birth-place of Ja'son, the leader of the 
Argonau'tic expedition ; and Aph'ctas was the port from which it set sail. 

11. At Cynoceph'alsB, tlie Macedonians were defeated by the Romans; 
!;nd at Pharsa'lia, Ccesar obtained tlie victory over his rival Pompey, which 
Hccured him the government of Rome. Gom^phi, Itho'me, Tric'ca, Metrop'o- 
lis, Cyph'ara, Thau'maci, Scotus'sa, Cra'non, Pocr'na, Dcme'trias, Pag'ase, 
Thebes, La'mia, and Magne'sia, were all noted towns. 7'hessaly anciently 
contained several tribes, or districts: — iGstioBo'tis,Thessalio'tis, Pelasgio'tis, 
Magnc'sia, Dolo'pia, and Phthio'tis were the principal 

Map No. 3. — What mountains bounded Thessaly on the north ? On the 
west? South? What sea and gulf bounded it on the east? Into what 
gulf did the Peneus river flow ? The Sporchius ? In what part of Thessaly 
was Mount Olympus ? Mount Ossa? Pclion? Othrys? ValeofTempe? 
Lake B<£be ? Point out the chief towns mentioned in tlie text The districts. 
What towns stood on the Maliac gulf? On the Pelasgic ? On the ahorw 
of the ^gean sea 7 At what time were battles fought at Cynoscephals 
and Pharsalia ? 



33 



EPTRUS. 

1. Epi'rus lay between the Ionian Sea and the Pindus Moun- 
tains. In early times it was hardly considered a part of Greece, 
but, subsequently, it was fully recognised as one of the divisions 
of that country. The celebrated Pyr'rhus, who invaded Italy about 
the year 300 B. C, and who first transported elephants to that 
country, was king of Epi'rus. 

2. I'he Epi'rots were, for a time, a powerful nation, but were at length 
conquered by the Romans ; who captured 70 cities, and sold 150,000 
of the inhabitants into slavery. The chief divisions of Epi'rus were Chao'- 
nia, Molos'sis and Thespro'tia. The inhabitants of the latter were the most 
ancient in Epi'rus. Molos'sis was noted for its breed of hunting-dogs. Tb^ 
whole region was, like Thessaly, famous for the excellence of its horses. 

3. The principal streams were, the Achelo'us, Arach'thus, and Ao'us. The 
Ach'eron and Cocy'tus were considered by the poets to be infernal rivers ; 
the former, probably, from the dead appearance of its waters, and the latter 
ibr the unhealthiness of the country on the lower part of its course. The 
Pindus mountains separated Epi'rus from Thessaly. The Acro-Cerau'iiii 
mountains were named from the summits being so otlen struck by lightning. 
They were said to attract storms, and were dreaded by sailors. 

CynosccphalsB ? At Pharsalia ? Mention the other noted towns. The dis- 
tricts. 

Q. 1. Describe the position of Epirus. How was it considered in early 
times, &c. ? What is said of Pyrrhus ? 2. Of the Epirots ? Name the chief 
divisions. What is said of tlie inhabitants of Thesprotia ? Of Moloe- 
sis 7 How did Epirus resemble Thessaly ? 3. Name the principal rivers. 



GREECE. 83 

4. Ambra'cia was the residence of Pyr'rhus and his successors. Buthro'- 
turn was visited by ^ne'as in his way from Troy to Italy. Dodo'na was 
famous for its oracle, said to be the most ancient in Greece. At Or'icum 
Helen and Androm'ache reigned after the Trojan war. Nicop'olis was 
built by Augustus in honour of his victory over Antony at Ac'tium. 

HEl'lAS, or GREECE PROPER. 

5. E^l'las, the central division of Greece, was called Greece 
Proper, from being the seat of the chief Hellen ic nations. It lay 
north of the Corinthian and Saronic gulfs, and south of Epirus and 
Thessaly. In area it was nearly equal to Connecticut and Rhode 
Island ; and comprised Acarna'nia, ^Eto'ha, Do'ris, Lo'cris, Pho'cis, 
BcBo'tia, At'tica, and Meg'aris. 

6. The Achelo'us, in Acarna'nia, the Eve'nus, in ^to'lia, and the Ce- 
phis'sus and Aso'pus, in Bceo'tia, were the chief rivers. The Achelo'us was 
the largest. On the banks of the Evc'nus, Hercules slew Nessus, for offer- 
ing violence to Dejani'ra. The Cephis'sus (called the divine) was the river 
of the Graces. On the banks of the Aso'pus, the renowned battle of PlatsB'a 
was fought Lake Copa'is, in fioco'tia, was the largest lake. It was famous 
for its eels, which were highly prized by epicures. 

7. The chief mountains were, besides Mount CEta, which formed the 
northern boundary of Hel'las, Aracyn'tlms, in Acarna'nia; Pansetoricum, in 
^to'lia; Pamas'sus, in Pho'cis; Hericon, in Bceo'tia; Ciths'ron, on the 
borders of Boeo'tia, Meg'aris, and At'tica ; Par'nes, between B«eo'tia and 
At'tica ; and Hymct'tus and Pcntel'icus, in At'tica. 

acarna'nia. 

8. Acarna'nia was the westernmost division of Hel'las. The 
inhabitants were rude barbarians long after the other branches of 
the Hellen'ic race had become the instructors of the world. They 
were gross, sensual, and addicted to low pleasures ; so that porcus 
Acamas became a proverbial expression. 

9. Its chief cities were Aygos-Amphiloch'icum, and Stra'tus. It con- 
tained, also, the town and promontory of Ac'tium, off which the battle was 
fought that gave Augustus the empire of the world. 

jeto'lia. 

10. -^to'lia was the least cultivated part of Greece. The 
people were, for a long period, the most uncivilized of the Hellen'- 
ic race. They were also noted freebooters. On the dechne of 
Athens and Sparta, the ^to'lians became an important people, 

What is said of the Acheron and Cocytus ? Of the Acro-Ccraunii ? 4. 
Of Ambracia ? Buthrotum, and the other towns ? 5. What is said of 
Hellas ? Describe its position. Its area. What did it comprise ? * Name 
the chief rivers. What is said of the Achelous? Of the Evenus? The 
Cephissus ? The Asopus ? Lake Copais ? 7. Name the chief mountains. 
t. Describe Acarnania. 9. Its chief cities. 10. What is said of JBtolia? 



S4 



CLASSICAL GEOOHAPHY. 



and formed an alliance with Rome, B, C, 314. Their subsequent 

desertion of the Romans, for Aiiti'ochus, king of Syria, was the 
chief cause of the subjugation of Grewce. 

11. The cliief tnirnB were Chal'ci*, Cal'jdon, and Theimua. The Utb;t 
wm Ihe capital of .^loliu. Cal'jdun wu Ihc naliye plnce of Melea 
Dejani'ra, niid Diome'dea. Here the (brocioug Calydo'nian boar, w 
Diani sent to rarage the country, nu killed bj Meioa'ger. 



12. The Lo'CRii, or Locrians, comprised three tribes; viz. : the 
Oz'oIsB, the Opun'lii, and the Epi.Cnemidii. The Locrii-Oz'olse, 
or weslem Locrii. occupied a small district on the north side of 
the Cortnihian gulf. 

13. The principal eitj was Naupac'tua, [the ahip-buiiding townj co 
named beciusB the HotecU'da! huilt here the flscl in which they cromei' 
otcr into the Peloponne'mis. The territory of the two oiher trilies laT oi 
the Opun'tic gulf, and was dividud between tliem in neuily equal portiona. 

'aatliechicftDwiiDf theLocrii-O'puntii, andThroniunioftheEp'i- 





14. In the territory of the latter ig the rimouspaBB of Thormop'ylea.whioli, 
ID its narroB-BBt part, is only twenty. five feel widp. Here three hundred Spar- 
(ang, under Leon'idas, repulsed, for three days, the vast army of Xerieg, Bsli- 
mated at two millions of men. On the same ground, the Greeks sfterwards 
liontended Bjiainet the Ganlsj and the Romans, under the Conaul A^ius, 
f Anli'ochQs. 

3.— What bounds Epirus on 1 



ceurrcd on the decline of Athens and Sparta ? 1 1, PTame the gIubT 

13. What did the Lncrii, or Locrians, compriss? What is swd of 

the Locrii Oiolm 7 13. Of their principal cilj '( What is said of Ute two 

other tribes ? Their chief towns? M. Descrilio the pans of TherraopjItB 



OKEECIE. 



65 



[uniansea? The Gulf of Aria? Whnl idindB lay westorGpirua 7 Whnt 
towns lay on the csaat 7 In the Interior 7 Wlist sea. west of Acarnimia 7 
South of ^tolia ? What gulf voulh of Wc^pro Lactis7 Wliitt niouulMnB 
i^aat of AcoritaniOi? Norm of A^lia ! Wiiot rivers in Acamiinia7 In 
.£tolia7 In Wesb^m Locris? What islands lny west of AcarmmiiiT 
When did the buttle of AcLiuin occur I In what gulf was it fought I When 
ivos the hatQe of ThcrmopyliB fougljt? 



«PHO'CIS, DO'EIS, ECEO'TIA, &c. 
1; Pho'cis Iny near the centre of Greece Proper, Qod north of 
the Gulf of Corinth. The inhabitants auhsisted chiefly by agri- 
culture, and were distinguished for iheir bravery. The Pho'cian, 
or Sacred Wars, which proved so disastrous to Grecian liberty, 
originated with these people. They lasted ten years, and were 
leiminated by the battle of Cherone'a ; a victory which enabled 
Philip of Mac'edon to control the affairs of Greece. 

a. Celp'hi, the chief city of Pho'- 

Moont FamBB'soB. Here Apollo 

killed the Bcrpent Py'thon ; in 

honour of which ciiploit, the Fyth'- 

iflii Games were celebrated every 

fifth year. It wns famouB for a 

temple of Apollo, and lor an oracle 

ceiehratcd amongst aU (he aQcient 

nations. Here the Amphietyon'ic 

:i! met to deliberate on tlie 

t of thonalion. Dcl'phi was 

iered 1o be the luobihcue, or 

! of Greece, and olso of tlic 

3. Cir'rha was ths port of Del'. 

Ehi. Antic'yra wna noted ior its 
ellobore, tho great remedy for 
madneBB umong the ancients : 
hence it vos said of a person la. 
bouring niider insuiitj, "Let him 
go to Antic'yra." The same, how. 
ever, was also said of Antic'yra in 
Tlirraiily. Utn'a and Elate'a were towns on the Cephis'sus river. 

4. Mount Pamos'sna wsa ono of the most noted mountains of Greece 
It hud two summits ; the one consecrated lo Apollo and the muses, and the 
other to Bacchus. On it wiis the celebrated Casta'lian fountain ; the waters 
of which were fabled to iDspire those who drank them with the true spirit 




Q. 1. Describe Phocis. 
or Sacred Wars? a. De 
what was Delphi famous 1 
Ol'Cirrha and t!ie olhur ti 



What i 



E said of the inhabitants? Ofthc Phoc 
Delphi. What ts said of Apollo? ] 
1 is said of the Amphietyonic Council ? 
4. Describe Moniit r.iroa8su«. Wlmt ii 



^ 



\ 

X 

S 
« 









96 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



^ do'ris. 



5. Do'ris was a small, interior State, which lay between ^tolia 
and Pho'cis, and at the base of Mount CE'ta. It was called Te- 
trap'olis, from its four cities. 

6. The Do'rians were one of the chief branches of the Ilellen'ic race 
Thouorli limited in numbers, they sent various colonies to Italy, Sicily, and 
Asia Minor. The Dor'ic order of architecture, and the Dor'ic style of music, 
were derived from hence, as well as the Dor'ic, one of the principal dialects 
of the Greek tongue. 



B (E O' T I A . 



7. B(eo'tia lay between the Gulf of Corinth and the Euri'pus. 
It was the most fertile district in Greece. The inhabitants were a 
vigorous and athletic race; but were considered by the more 
sprightly Athe'nians as dull in intellect. — ^Yet Hes'iod, Pindar, 
Corin'na, and Plu'tarch, were natives of Boeo'tia. 

8. In early times, it comprised several small States. About the year 1640 
B. C, Cadmus, the Phcenic'ian, founded the city of Thebes. After the 
death of Xan'thian, its last king, tlie adjacent cities were formed into a 
republic, of which Thebes took the lead, and was raised, by the talents of 

V. Epaminon'das and Pelop'idas, to the rank of the most powerful Grecian 

States. 

9. The city of Thebes was named afler the celebrated Egyptian Thebes. 
It was long without walls ; but was at length fortified, and had seven gates, 
— from which it was called Heptap'ylos. It was the birth-place of Epami- 
non'das, Pelop'idas,and Pindar. It revolted from Alexander, previous to his 
eastern expedition, when he captured and demolished it ; sparing nothing 
but the house and family of Pindar, from admiration of the poet. 

10. Orchom'enus was, at an early period, celebrated for its wealth ; it was 
called the City of the Graces, from a temple consecrated to them. ChcBrone'a 
was the birth-place of Plu'tarch, and the scene of a noted victory gained by 
Pliilip over the Athe'nians and Boeo'tians. Here, also, Archela'us, the gene- 
ral of Mithrida'tcs, was vanquished by Sylla, B. C. 86. At CoroncB'a, the 
Thebans were defeated by the Spartans. 

11. PlatsB'a was memorable for the defeat of the Persians by the Greeks, 
on the same day that the battle of Myc'ale in lo'nia was fought. At Leuc^ 
tra, the Spartans were beaten by the Thebans under Epaminon'das ; this 
victory put an end to the Spartan rule in Greece, after it had continued near 
500 years. Thes'pias was sacred to the muses ; the inhabitants were the 
only people in Boeo'tia who refused the tender of earth and water to Xerxes 
as a token of submission. Ascra was the birth-place of Hes'iod. 

said of the Castalian Fountain ? 5. What is said of Doris ? What was it 
called? 6. What were the Dorians? To what countries did they send 
colonies, &c.? 7. Describe Boeotia. What is said of the inhabitants? 
What individuals were Boeotians ? 8. What did Boeotia comprise in early 
times ? What is said of Cadmus ? What occurred after the death of 
Xanthian ? What is said of Epaminondas and Pelopidas ? 9. Describe 
the city of Thebes? Who were natives of it? What did Alexander do? 
10. Describe Orchomenus. What is said ofChaeronea? 11. Of Platisa? 



GREECE. 87 

IXI. At Au'lis the Greek fleet were detained, previous to the siege of Troy, 
hy contrary winds. De'lium was noted for the defeat of the Athenians by 
the Boso'tians : it was in this battle that Soc' rates saved the life of Xen'ophon. 
Tan'agra was the birthplace of the poetess Corin'na : it was famed for its 
breed of fighting-cocks : the Athenians were here worsted by the Spartans, 
prior to the Peloponne'sian war. This'be was noted for its abundance of 
wild pigeons. 

meo'aris. 

13. Meg'aris lay between At'tica and Corin'thia. It was long 
attached to Athens ; but was at length taken by a Peloponne'sian 
army, and was then obliged to side with Sparta. Though pos- 
sessing but an inconsiderable force, the rivalry of the larger States 
enabled the Megare'ans to Hve long in peace. 

14. Meg'ara, the chief city, was nearly equidistant from Corinth and 
Athens, and possessed, at one time, considerable splendour. The Megar'ic 
school of philosophy was founded here by Eu'clid, a disciple of Soc'rates, 
who, when the Athenians had forbidden the Megare'ans, on pain of death, 
to enter their city, travelled thither by night, disguised in women's clothes, 
that he might attend the lectures of his master. 



Map No. 3. — Point out Doris. Phocis. Boeotia. Megaris. What 
mountains north of Doris ? North of Phocis ? What gulf south of Phocis 
and Boeotia ? What strait east of Boeotia ? What gulf south of Megaris ? 
Point out Mount Parnassus. Mount Helicon. Mount Cithoeron. Mount 
Parnes. Which is the highest of the first three ? On what river is Orclio- 
menus ? Chseronea ? Tanagra ? On what strait is Delium ? A alls ? 
Anthedon ? When were battles fought at Chseronea ? Coronee ? Leuctra ? 
Platsea? Tanagra? Delium? 



35 



AT'TICA. 

1. At'tica was the easternmost district of Hellas, or Greece 
Proper : it was hardly equal in dimensions to a moderate-sized 
county, yet it has eclipsed the glory of the greatest kingdoms. The 
inhabitants became the most eminent of the Greeks ; their genius 
was acute, and their wit was deUcate and poignant ; the latter was 
so distinguished and peculiar that it was proverbially called "Attic 
salt." 



Leuctra ? Thespis ? Ascra ? 12. What occurred at Aulis ? At Delium ? 
What is said of Tanagra ? Thisbe ? 13. What is said of Megaris ? What 
was the effect of the rivalry of the larger States ? 14. Describe the chief 
city. By whom was the Megarlc school of philosophy founded ? What 
is said of Euclid ? 

Q. 1. What is said of Attica ? Of the inhabitants ? Of their genius and 
wit? What was the latter proverbially called? 2. What is said of tlve^ 



S8 CLASSICAL GEOORAPHT. 

•2. llie territory of At'tica Wu not fertile in gnio, and wai never able to 
tiirniah a supply for the inhibitaDU': the deficiency vas aauallj imported 
I'rom EuIxe'ei und Thraee. Figs and olices were produced in abonduice. 
'I'hc oil of the lallcr waa, with the ancicnta, the chief lubatitute for batter. 
The wool WM noted for its finences, and tlie ekill with which it was dyed 
of the most beautiful calnuiB. Mount Hyniel'tus was famous for its booey; 
Lau'riimi Ibr its silver mines; and Mount Fentcl'iciu for the fine nuirak 
whicK it furnished Ut tho citizens of Athens. 

3. The people of At'tiea bosstcd of their ancient and unmingled descent: 
they believed that they sprung from the soil on which thcj lived, and that 
they originstcd with Uie sun. The first known iiihabilsnts were rndo bar. 
barians. Cc'crops, who arrived from Egypt 1550 B. C, introduced the ele- 
ments of civilization; he tsught them a bcttci mode of living; instmcted 
lliem in the cultivation of {[rain; planted the olive tree, and established 
vrholesome laws. 

4. Tlicy were long governed by king^ of whom Co'dms was the last: 
after his death royalty was abolished, and archons were appointed, whose 
power was at flist perpetual, tlicn decennial, and lustly, annual. At'tick 
was, in early times, divided into iuurtrilK:s,whieli were afterwards increased 
to ten, and then to twelve, each having its own chief In its prosperous 
days it was, for its client, densely peopled ; tho population is supposed to 
liavc been about 550,000, of whom 4110,000 were sli»-es. 

5. Athens, the capital of At'tiea, was the most important and 
splendid city of Greece. It was calied, by the ancients, the eye 
of Greece, and also of the civilized world. It was the great seat 
of learning and the ails, and was the birth-place of the most eminent 
orators, philosophers, and anista of antiquity. Athens was founded 
by Ce'cropa, and received, after him, the name of Cecro'pia; sub- 
sequently it was called Adiens, It by east of the Saron'ic Gulf, 
and between the small rivers Cephis'sus and Ilis'sus : ai the time 
of its greatest extent it is supposed to have been five or six miles 
in circuit, and to have conlained 120000 inhabitants 

0. It consisted of two div sions the Vcropohs and the Catop' 




territory of Attica ^ What was produced in abundance? For what was 
Mount HymettUB lamousl Lauriumt Mount Pentelicos? 3. Of what 
did the people of Atliea boast? What did they believeT What were the 
lirst inhabitants 7 4. Wliat Is said of Cecrops 7 Of the government of 
AHioa 7 How was Allica divided 1 What was the amount of population 7 
5, Describe Athena. By whom was it founded T Describe its poaitioa. Ex- 
tent. Population. 6. Describe its divisions, &.C. Its harbours. LoDg 



GREECE. 89 

olis, or the upper and lower city, ond was distant five miles from 
the sea. The PiriE'ua, Munych ia and Phole'fiis were harbours, 
connected witli the cily by walls of great stren^ih and extent, 
called the lone: walls ; they were 80 feel high, and so broad that 
carriages could pasa each other on their sumniits. 1'he Arst- 
iiamea harbour was considered the most convenient, and was one 
uf the emporiums of Grecian commerce. 

7, The AcTOp'olij*, or citadel, was built an the lop of a rack that wis 
tliree-rourths of u mile in circuit; it was accesBibls onl; on one Bide, anil 
uonMineda number or buildinga, some of them tlie most Bplendid orH-hirh 
AlhenB could boast. Tbe cbief ornament wns the Par'thenon, or Teniple of 
Jlinerdi, a atrncture which, avsn in mins, has been the tidrniralJon of the 
world, and has sarved as the model of many of the hneat buildings both iii 
Lbe old and the new world. It waa erected by Fer'iiJcB, during uie classic 
age of Athena, of t!ie finest white marble, cncompaafcd with fluted colunina 
of the Doric order, and embelli^cd with the sculpture of Phid'iaa. 

8. The Temple ofJupltErOlympiiiawaBtheprideoflhelowercil;?. Itwas 
Irom lime to time enlarged and beaullHed, and waa, Bt length, linishcd by 
the emperor A'drian, 700 years afler ita commence niEnt. It wob 400 feet in 
lenelh, and 171 in front, and WM adorned bj 124 fluted columns, 60 feet 
hign,and S feel ' '' 



^ 




9. The Pan'UiBon, the O'deon, the Prylane'um, the Pcpxile Stoa, or gal. 
lery of paintings, in which were the schools of the Stoics, and the Academy 
and tlie Lyce'um, two other celebrated schools of philosophy, were a few, 
among the numeroUB objects of interest in Athena. The Temple of The'. 
teas aoiiienhat resembled tbe Pan'theon, and is, perhaps, as to its outline, 
l)>e moat entire of the Greek ediliceB remaining in Athena. 

10. Northwest of Athens lay Eleu'sis, celebrated for its religious myate- 

walls. The first named hirbour. 7. Describe the Aorapolia. The Par- 
thenon. By whom was it erected, &e. ! 8. What is ssid of tbe Temple of 
Jupiter OljmpiusT By whom was it finislied ? By what was it adorned T 
Describe its extent. 9. What were some of the objecU of interest in 
What is said of the Temple of Theseus? 10. Of Eieusis ? 




w 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



B, which were considered so awfiil, llint anj one of llie initiited wlio 
divulged Uiem, was put to dcnth. Mar'allioii, which laj it tiie base of 
Mount Fentel'icuB, and 20 miles Tram Athens, ia famed (bi tha brilliant 
victoiy gained b; Milti'adcs. Here, 11,0U0 Greeks defetilcd 110,000 Per- 
sians. A soldier ran from the l^eld of battle to carr; tJie news to Alhcn)', 
but was so Gidiaiisted whro be reached the city, that, having utifced tiie 
words. " rejoice, we are vicLcrs," be fell down and eipired. 

II. On the eoast, op|Kisite to Enbre'a, was Rham'nus, celebrated tor a 
temple of Neo'esis, in which was a statue of the goddess mnde out of a 
block ofPa'rian nmrhJc that the Persians intended as a pillar to be erected 
to com main orate tlio eipected viclory over the Greeks. Laa'rium, near the 
promoatorj of Su'niiini, wu celebrated for its silver tnino ; Faoor'nun 
WW the chief harbour of Athens on the east shore. 







Tbe Plaet of Xenea defeiled by ll d r ^.hi a1 OaNm s. 

12. The narrow strait on the east side of the Island of Sal'amiB was the 
scene of the greatest naval balUe of ancient limes. The Greeks had 380, 
and the Pereians 3000 ships ; tiie former lost 41) vesEcla, and the latter 2U0, 
but nearly all the remainder, soon aflerwards, fell into the handa of the 
Greelis. Xerx'es, seated on a rich throne, viewed the conflict from tlie ad- 
jacent coast of Al'Cics, aud saw, with iningicd rage and anguish, the defeat 
of his numerous fleet 

Map Nb. 3.— What district bounded Attica on tlio north T . On the west ? 
What gulf on the southwest? What strait on tha east? E. Point out 
Athens. Pirsus. Phaleriu. Munyohia. On what Fulf did tiiese three 
towns lie ? What two islands lay west of Attica ? Wliat large island lay 
partly east 7 In what direction from Athens is Mount Hynicltua 7 Mount 
PentelicuB? Mount Paraes! Moont Cith^ron 7 What is the louthern 
point of Attica! Between what rivers does AlhEOs stand 7 When woe Iha 
battle of Marathon fought 7 Tha batde of Salamis ! 

Marathon 7 WTiat occurred iiere 7 II, What ie said of Rharanus 7 Of 
the statue of Uic goddess Neineais7 Lsurium 7 Panoimus? 19. What 
took place near Salamis? How many ships were engaged in it! What 
was the result 7 What ia said ofXeritsT 




GREECE. 91 



86 



THE PELOPONNE'SUS. 

1. The Peloponne'sus, the most southern division of Greece, 
is a peninsula, about equal in area to the State of Massachusetts. 
It is a mountainous countnr, watered with numerous streams, and 
its coasts are indented with several deep inlets. The modem 
name, More'a, is said to be derived from the resemblance of its 
outline to a mulberry leaf. 

2. It was at first called A'pia, and afterwards, PeWgia, from 
the Pelas'gians. The term Peloponne'sus (island of Pe'lops) was 
derived from Pe'lops, a Phryg'ian prince, who married a daughter 
of a king of Pi'sa in E'lis, and, becoming his successor, conquered 
a considerable part of the peninsula. 

3. The isthmus of Corinth, which unites the Peloponne'sus to Hel'Ias, 
was an important pass, and formed a barrier against foreign invasion. 
Small vessels were often drawn over it, from one gulf to the other, and 
various attempts were made by Deme'trius, Csesar, Nero, and others, but 
always wkhout success, to construct a canal across it : hence, to cut through 
the Corin'thian isthmus has long been a proverbial expression for auning at 
an impossibility. 

4. The chief products of the Peloponne'sus were corn, wine,and oil. The 
inhabitants were among the most renowned of the Greeks, and acted an 
important part in all their national affairs. The population, when most 
numerous, is supposed to have amounted to about a million. The chief 
divisions were Acha'ia, Ar'golis, E'lis, Arca'dia, Messe'nia and Laco'nia : 
Sicyo'nia and Corin'thia were generally included in Acha'ia. 

acha'ia. 

5. Acha'ia comprised the most northern part of the Peloponne'- 
sus ; it was at first called Egi'alus, subsequently, lo'nia, and then 
Acha'ia. At the siege of Troy the Achse'ans were the most nume- 
rous and powerful of the Greek tribes engaged. 

6. The famous Achse'an league was formed about the year 287 B. C, by 
the union of all the Achae'an cities, and also by the Stales of Cor'inth, Sic - 
yon, Ar'golis, Laco'nia, Arca'dia, Meg'aris, and others. This confederacy 
became formidable to the adjoining nations, as well as to the Romans, by 
whom, on the capture of Cor inth, it was dissolved, after an existence of 130 

Q. 1. What was the Peloponnesus? What is said of its extent, &.c. 7 
Describe the country. What is said of the modem name ? 2. Of its an 
cient name ? How was the term Peloponnesus derived, &c. ? 3. What is 
said of the isthmus of Corinth? What attempts were made by Demetrius 
and others ? What was deemed an impossibility ? 4. What were the 
chief products ? What is said of the inhabitants ? The population ? Name 
the chief divisions. 5. What is said of Achaia ? 6. Of the Achsean league ? 
What cities and States were included in it ? What did it become ? When 



92 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

years. Wlien annexed to Rome, the Peloponne'sus and HeVlas were formed 
into the provinee of Acha'ia. 

7. The most important towns of Acha'ia were Pelle'ne, JEgi'r&jM'ginm^ 
Pa'trsB, Dj'me, Pha'roD and TritaB'a. Pelle'ne was famous for its wool: 
cloaks made of it were given as prizes to the riders at the gymnastic games, 
held here in honour of Mercury. MgVra. was called, at first, Hypere'sia ; but 
received the former name from the circumstance of its inhabitants tying 
lighted faggots to the horns of some goats, and thus protecting themselves 
against the attacks of an enemy. 

8. At M'gium the States of Acha'ia held their public meetings ; hither, 
also, Agamcm'non assembled all the Greek chiefs, prior to the Trojan war. 
Pa'troB was an important town ; it suffered severely in the Roman wars : 
ailer the battle of Ac'tium, Augustus settled a number of veterans in it, and 
made it a Roman colony. Pha'rs possessed an extensive forum, with an 
image of Mercury, and, near it, an oracle of the god. Dy'me, with the 
adjacent country, was frequently laid waste during the Social War. 

sicyo'nia. 

9. Sicyo'nia was one of the smallest, and it was also one of the 
most ancient of the Greek States. For a time it was subject to 
Argos, but it was usually reckoned as a part of Acha'ia. About 
the years 240 to 220 B. C, Ara'tus, an able commander, raised 
Sicyo'nia to considerable power and distinction, but, after his death, 
it became of little importance. 

10. Sic'yon, the capital, was founded more than 2000 years B. C. It was 
once the first school of painting in Greece ; several noted artists were natives, 
among whom was Lysip'pus. The inhabitants were luxurious and efFemi. 
nate, and hence the proverb, " Sicyonii calcei,'* used in reference to effemi- 
nate gayety. The almonds of Sic'yon were noted ; also a kind of shoes 
worn by the voluptuous and delicate. 

corin'thia. 

11. Corin'thia occupied the narrow isthmus which joined the 
Peloponne'sus to the main land; its territory was one of the 
smallest in Greece ; but commerce rendered it rich and powerfuL 

12. Cor'inth, the capital, was one of the most splendid, but, at the same 
time, most voluptuous cities of Greece. It received the epithet Bim'aris, 
from being situated between two seas or gulfs. In its vicinity the Isth'mian 
games were celebrated, in honour of Neptune, every five years. This city 
maintained its rank until it was captured and destroyed by the Roman 
consul Mum'mius, 146 years B. C. Julius Caesar rebuilt it, and it became, 
afterwards, the metropolis of the Roman province of Acha'ia. 

was it dissolved ? What did the Peloponnesus, &c. form ? 7. Name the 
most important towns of Achaia. What is said of Pellene? ^gira? 
8. -Egium? PatraB? Pharae ? Dyrae? 9. Describe Sicyonia. What is 
said of Aratus ? 10. What is said of Sicyon ? Of the inhabitants, &c. ? 
11. What did Corinthia occupy ? What is said of its territory ? 12. Of Cor- 
inth ? What epithet did it receive ? What were celebrated in its vicinity ? 
What is said of its capture ? Julius Caesar, &c ? 




LI, wlih moderD CnrlBtb. 



13, Cor'inth had two ports, Lecfan'uin, on the Corintliian, and Cenclirx ^i, 
on tho Saron'ic gulf; Ihcy were always crowded with shipping ; the cili' 
Htaodntthe boaoora hill 2100 feet high; on tho lummit wsb the Acro-Ci> 
rinthuii, the Btronfreet fbrtroB in Greece ; tha view from hence is img of tin- 
finest in the worid— the peoliB of Helicon and Pnrnas'gos, uid tiie Aorop - 
olia of Alliens ere vibiUe in iho distance. Cor'inth is Dow a meiu villa^. 

Map No. 3.— What bounds the PeloponnesHB on the north 7 What s.m 
WBBIT EaBt7 What gulf euBt? Into what sea does the Pencus riv.-i 
flow! The Alpheus? TheNeda! Into what gulf does the PamiHUB rivtr 
flow 7 Tho Eurota; 7 What gulf bounded Achaia on the north 7 Whni 
diitiicls oanlh 7 What district obbI 7 What riven in Aclmia flow into thi- 
enlf of Corinth 7 What gutf north of Sicyonia 7 What districtti aoulh ' 
What di-trict east7 West 7 What gulf norlh of Corinth? South 7 On 
what gulf is Lcchipom 7 Cpnehnea 7 What mountains aoulh of Achnia I 
Poinl out Pellene. Sicyon. Coiinth. Thu other towns mentioned in the 
text. 



^ AR'GOLIS AND LACO'NIA. 

]. Ar'oolis occupied the most eastern part of the Peloponne'- 
sus ; it was a ilch, fertile district, and was settled and cultiraled ai 
an early period. In'achus, about the year 1800, and Dan'aus, 
about the year 1500 B. C, came hither with rolonisla from Egypi. 
In reiaoie times it was governed by one monarch ; subsequently 
it was divided into several small kin^oms, all of which afief- 
wards became free States. The inhabitants were railed Ar'gives. 
or Argivi. 

13. What 18 said of the portn of Corinth 7 Describe iho position of the cil\ 
WhatissiidofAcro-Corinthiui? What is Cor intli at this lime? 
^.Q. 1. Describe Argolis. Wliat is said of Inacims 7 Of Ilauaus? Of 



94 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHT. 

2. Epidan'ras, one of the chief towns, stood on the coast of the Saron'ie 
{vulf ; near it was a renowned temple of Escula'pius, much visited by the 
tiick. It was celebrated for its vines and its fine breed of hors^. In the 
vicinity was Mount Arachne'us, the last station of the telegraphic fire b^ 
which tlic capture of Troy was announced at Myce'nsB, the same night it 
was taken. Not far distant was the peninsula of Meth'ansB, noted for its 
hot springs ; near it was TrcBze'ne, the birth-place of The'seus. 

3. Myce'nse was the royal city of Agamem'non, the commander of the 
Greeks at Troy : it was at that time the chief city in Ar'golis, and superior 
to Ar'gos. The inhabitants of the latter captured and destroyed it more 
tlian 2U00 years ago. Its ruins are in nearly the same state as when de- 
scribed by ancient authors. Nem'ea had near it a grove where Her'coles 
slew the Ncm'ean lion, in honour of which exploit theNem'ean games were 
celebrated tliore every three years. 

4. Ar'gos, the chief city of ArVolis, was one of the oldest cities in Greece 
it was strongly fortified, and was defended by two citadels. Some of the most 
skilful sculptors of antiquity were natives of this city, and music was ardently 
cultivated. At Thyrse a a battle was fought between 300 Ar'gives and as 
many Spartans, in which one of the latter was the only survivor. Nau- plia 
was the port of Ar'gos, and the naval station of the Ar'gives. Ti'ryns was 
celebrated as the early residence of Her'cules. 

5. The island of iBgi'na lay east of Ar'golis ; though of small extent, it 
became an independent State : it was noted for its ships and its commerce, 
and was, at one time, the emporium of Greece. .£gi'na was the rival of 
Athens, at sea ; its warriors were the most distinguishea of the Greek allies 
at the battle of Sal'amis, and obtained the prize of valour. The iEgine'tan 
marbles are noted pieces of Doric sculpture, taken from the temple of Ju- 
piter Panhelli'nus by some English and German artists about the year 1811. 
South of iEgi'na was the island of Calau'ria, where Demos'thenes poisoned 
himself, to escape the persecutions of Anlip'ater. 

laco'nia. 

6. Laco'nia, Lacedje'mon, or Sparta, was the largest of the 
Peloponne'sian States ; it was a rugged, barren country, and diffi- 
cult of culture. Its inhabitants were renowned for their bravery 
and love of liberty ; they were forbidden to exercise any mechani- 
cal arts or trades, which, together with the labours of agriculture, 
devolved on the He'lots or slaves. 

7. The austere education introduced by Lycur'gus about the year 880 
B. C, rendered the Spartans ambitious of glory, fearful of dishonour, and 
undaunted in battle ; and to its influence the achievements of Leon'idas at 
Thermop'yliB, and Pausa'nias at FlaUe'a, are to be attributed. Obedience to 



Pelops ? How was it divided in remote times ? What were the inhabitants 
called ? 2. What is said of Epidaurus ? Mount Arachnseus ? Of Me- 
thansB? TroBzene? 3. Mycense? Nemea? 4 Argos, &c.? What oc- 
curred at Thyrsea ? What is said of Nauplia ? Of Tirjms ? 5. Describe 
the island of iEgina. What power did it rival ? What is said of its war- 
riors ? Of the iEginetan marbles ? 6. Describe Laconia, Lacedsemon, or 
Sparta. What is said of the inhabitants ? What devolved on the Helots 7 
7. What is said of the education introduced by Lycurgus ? Of obedience. 



GREECE. gS 

mperior^ nnd the endurance of ]iardBhip, were rigorously incnlcatcd. To 
inure Ihe jauth (d hunger, llic; received but lillle ibod ; if tliey wanted 
more, they were obliged to sleaJ it, Bad, if diecflVered, they were punished, 
not for the theft, but for tbeir awkwudneBs. 

8. At the HUDoal teHtiva] of Dia'na Or'tbin, to enable Ihcm to bcM pain, 
they wcTB severely whipped ; tbeir fathers stcwd by, exhorting them to forti- 
tude, and thB youths endeavoured to surpass each other in firmness. Wlio- 
ijver uttered Lhe least cry wns conBidered to be disgraced. The art of swim, 
ming tJie SporlBJiB thought very important, and the greateat reproach that 
could be bestowed on a man, was to say, "he can '[even swim." CancisencBE 
of language was much etudied, and [he [erni "laconic" has been long used 
to signily a sliort, pithy manner of speaking. 

9. The Spartans exercised, for a period of 500 yoora, a powerful influence 
over the affoirs of Greece. Their constant diaputca with [ho Athenians 
involved all the other States, and produced a series of ware, in which they 
finall; became predominant j but, intoxicated by the dominion they had 
gained, and corrupted by lujcurj, they departed from Iheir ancient disci- 
jiline, and lost their aacendancy. 

ID. Tbo chief city of Laco'nia was Spaitaj it stood on the Euro'tas, the 
raort beautiful and hmpid of all the Grecian streams. At tlie time of its 
greatest extent, it was about six miles in circuit ; but it was never equal in 
Kplendour to some of the other Grecian cities. It remained long without 
walls — the Sparlans believing tbat a city's best defence lay in Uie valour of 
its citixens. It was, at length, regularly and strongly ibrtiGed< 

II. Gytlt'inm, the port of Sparta, was a town of great atrenglh. A short 
distance east of it was He'los, the inhabitants of which were reduced to 
slavery by the Lacediemo'nians, whence their staves were called He'lots. At 
Sella'sia, the Spartan monarch Cleoin'enes III. was defeated by Antig'onua 
Doaon, king of Macedonia, B. C. 334. Therap'ne was sacred to ApoUo. 

IS. Scutli of Sparta was Amyc'lie, one of tlie most ancient towns in La- 
co'nia. Zarex and Epide'lium lay on the eastern coasL Ike'a alood not far 
from the island called Onigna'thos (tlie Assea Jaw). Messa and Cmnop'olia 
la; on the gulf of Messe'nia : tlie latter, called also Tnna'rium, was noted 
for i[a beautiful green marble. Malea promontory or cape was (he south- 
eastoitremity of the Peloponne'aua; and Tasna'rium promontory the most 
aoulhem. Near the latter was a cave, aaid to bo the entrance to Pluto's 
liominioas, by which Hercules dragged Cer'berus to the upper regions. 

J^apNa. 3. — What aea lay aoutbeast of ArgoHa and Laconia? What 
gulf eaat of Argolia ! South? Nonbeaat of Laconia? SoulliT What 
islands south! What islands on the coast of Argolis? What districts 
north of Argolis ? What district west J North of Laconia 1 West ! 
What mountains in Argolis 1 In Laconial What promontory formed the 
southeastern extremity of Laconia? The southwoatcrn I On what river 
was the city of Sparta? Argoa? Point out the otiier towns mentioned in 
Iho Icit. When was a battle fought at Sellaaii 1 

Jtc.7 How were the youth treated? What was done, if discovered? 8. 
What occurred at the festival of Diana Orthia ? What is said of the art of 
swimming? Conciseness of language, &e. 7 9. What did the Spartans 
exercise for 300 years 7 What is said of their constant disputes ! What 
was the result! 10. Describe the city of Sparta? What did the Sparlans 
believe 7 II. What is said of Gylhium! HelwT Sellaeia ? Therapne 7 
J3. Amyclieand llie other towns ! What is said of Malca and Tenarium 
untory? Of a cave near the latter? 



1 





9ti CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



38 



ETLIS, MESSE'NIA, AND ARCA'DLA. 

1. E'lis or E'lea was the most fertile district in the Peloponne'- 
sus ; it was watered by the Alphe'us, the Pene'us,and other streams. 
The inhabitants were much engaged in agriculture and rural 
pursuits. The name of this district was derived from Eleus, one 
of its first monarchs. Salmo'neus, another of its kings, was killed 
by Jupiter for attempting to imitate thunder and lightning. 

2. E lis was considered the holy land of Greece. The Olym - 
plan, the most ancient and solemn of the national festivals, was cele- 
brated here. In early times, when warHke bands traversed the 
country, they deUvered up their arms on entering it, and received 
them again when they quitted the frontier. Subsequently, how- 
ever, its territory was as little respected as that of any of the other 
States. 

3. Olym'pia, the most renowned city of Elis, lay on tlie river Alphe'us, a 
short distance from the sea : here the Olym'pian games were held every 
fourth year, and here the great temple of Jupiter was built by the Eleans, 
but at the expense of all the other Greek States ; hence it was considered as 
a national structure. It rivalled the Pantheon, in extent, and surpassed it 
in grandeur : within it was placed the colossal statue of the Olym'pian 
Jupiter, considered one of the wonders of the world ; it was sixty feet high, 
carved by Phidias, and was acknowledged to be the most perfect piece of 
sculpture that ever existed. There were several other temples, besides many 
monuments and statues, erected in honour of deities, heroes, and victors at 
the games. 

4. The city of E'lis stood on the banks of the E'lcan Pene'us, (so called to 
distinguish it from the river Pene'us in Thessaly,) about twelve miles from 
the sea ; it consisted, at first, of several detached villages, which were after 
wards united, and became the metropolis. The port of E'lis was Cylle'ne. 
Here the Pelas'gi sailed on their expedition to Italy. Near to E'lis stood 
the ancient city of Py'los : Nestor, one of the most renowned Grecian heroes 
of the Trojan war, was king of Py'los, but as there were three cities of that 
name in the Peloponne'sus, it is uncertain at which of them he reigned. 

5. In the vicinity was Bupra'sium ; it was surrounded by a fruitful and 
well-cultivated district. Scil'lus was the dwelling-place of Xen'ophon : here 
he wrote nearly all his works. Not far from Olym'pia was the city of Pi'sa ; 
its inhabitants long enjoyed the privilege of presiding at the Olym'pian 
games; but the people of E'lis envied them that distinction, and made war 
upon them ; took their city and utterly demolished it. 



Q. 1. Describe Elis. What is said of the inhabitants ? From whom was 
the name derived ? What is said of Salmoneus ? 2. What was Elis con- 
sidered ? What was held here ? What is said of early times ? 3. Describe 
Olympia. What is said of the great temple, &c. ? How did it compare 
with tlic Pantheon ? What was placed within it ? Describe the statue, &,c. 
4. D?scrihe the city of Elis. The port of Elis. What is said of Pylos? 
OfNostor? 5. Of Buprasium ? Scillus? Pisa? 6. Describe Mossenia. 



6. Messe'nia was the souihwestem division of the Peloponne- 
sus. It was in some parts mountainous, but abounded in neb and 
well-watered plains, furnishing excellent pasturage : henco its 
possessiou was cuveted by the Spartans ; and this circumstance 
gaye rise to three obstinate wars between the two nations, in which 
the Messe'nians were at length subdued, and obliged to leave their 
conntiy. Their descendants, however, in consequence of the 
change of cireumstunces produced by the victory at Leuc'tra, re- 
turned, about a century afterwards. 

7. AleBBe'ne, the chief town, was founded b; EpuminDU'dBB ahortl; after 
the battle of Leuc'tra, with such zeal and activjtj, thnt its fortifi cation a oDd 
chief ediiiccB were completed in 85 dajs. Itho'me was the citadel of Met- 
He'oQ J it and tbo Acro-Conn'thns were the two strongest places in the 
Peloponne'sQs. I'ra, a moontain.lbrtJBSB, was ftjnons for maintaining s 
siege agaioet the Lacednmu'nians liii eleven years. 

8. Metho'ne wai an ancient city, which receiifed its name from Melho'ne, 
daoghter of Moe'tB. In Ilie limn of the Romans it was taken bj Agrippa, 
when in command of a Roman fleet : lie found here Goc'chus, king of Mauri- 
ta'niK, and put him to death as a partisan of Marc Antony. Trajan particu- 
larly fcvouced this city, and Iwstowed several privilcgres on the iniiabilants. 

9. Corypha'sium and Py'los lay in a fine harbour, now the gulf ofNava. 
ri'no. It was the accne of a naval conflict between tha A^e'nians and 
Spwtwu; and, in our own times, the great naTal victory which secured 
indepenilenCB to the modern Greeks, was gained here. Fy'Ioe is suppoecd to 
have been the capital of Neetor'a kingdom, though the honour was disput«d 
by two other towns. Phe'rie stood at ttie head of the gulf of Mesee'nia j 
Stenyda'rus lay on the FamiB'sus river ; in the vicinity was the Campus 
Stenycla'nu, in which the Spar'tans were twice defeated by the Mosse'ntans. 
Cypsris'ia gave its name to the gulf on which it stood, and albo to the adja. 
cent promontory. 



10. Arca'dia, so renowned in poetry, occupied the inienor dis- 
trict of the Peloponne'sus, and was enclosed oa every side by the 
adjacent States. Being elevated and mountsinous, it was well 
adapted to pasturage, and was consecrated by the ancients to Pan, 
the god of shepherfs. The inhabitants were devoted to a pastoral 
life ; they were strongly attached to Uberty, and were noted for 
their love of music. 

What gave rise to three wars between the Spartans and MosseniansT 
What was the result! Wliat occurred about a century aAerwardst 
7. What is said of Messcne 7 Of Ithome 7 Ira ) S. What is said of Me- 
thone? What occurred in the time of tbo Romans? What is said of Tra- 
jan? 9. Of Coryphasinni and Pylosl What occurred in our own limea! 
What is eaid of I^los? Fherm ? Stenyclarns? Cyparissa? 10. What 
of Arcadia? For what was it well adapted! To what god was it 
■ " What is said of the inhabitants 7 




1 



S8 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

11. Arca'dii never contained B,ny great cities, and it was long before 
towns began to be erected ; among tlie latter waa Cli'tor, remarkable for a 
fouatain whose watcra gave tbose who drank Iliem a diataEto for nine; it 
Btsod on a slroam of the same name, the fiah of which are atated lo hsTe 
■mig like thnuhoa. Orchom'enus waa an ancient town; it aent 130 Bol- 
diera to Tliennop'yie, and 600 lo Platn'a. Hcre'a was a city of anme 
importance, the poaseBaion of which waa frequontly contBsled by Ihe E'le- 
ana and Arca'dinna, Gor'lya or Gorty'na was cclohratod 6r a beaullltl 
temple dedicated to Eacula'pius. At Mantine'e, Epaminoa'das, the noted 
Theban general, gained a victory over the Lacediemo'nians, la which bo 
lort hia hte. 

19. Megalop'olta, the largest Arca'dinn city, waa launded by the advice 
of Epuninon'dai aflar the battle of Lcuc'tra ; it was tile birth-place of Pliilo- 
pn'men, and Poljb'ioa, the hiatoriaji. At Tc'gea the gigantic bonea of 
. — ^^ Oroa'tea were Ibond ba. 

ried : the celribrated Ata- 
lan'ta was a native of this 
place ; it wan lamed lor a 
temple of Miner'va, the 
moBl splendid in the PeJo- 

13. Failan'tium was lbs 
cityofEvan'dor. AtFlii- 
ga'lia was a boautiibl tem- 
ple of Apolb Epicu'rius : 
It still eiiata, though much 
dilapidated : some beauti- 
ful plecea of aculptore, 
nd are called the Phigalian 

Map No. a — Whalaealay weatofEliaandMesBenia? Whatgulfton 
Ihe weatl What promontories or capes? What islands? What rivers 
tlovred through Elia, McBa«nia,and Arcadia? What gulf aoulh of Messe. 
nia7 What river Bowed into it? WJiat mountain lay north of Ella? 
North of Arcadia? Between Mesacnia and Laconia? In the southern 
part of Meaaenia ? Point out the towna mentioned m the leit, in Elia. In 
Mesaenia. InArcadia, When waa the battle of Mantinea fought? What 
is the height of the Taygctusmoantaina? OftheCyUene? The length of 
the AJpheua river ? 




THE GREEK ISLANDS. 

I, The islands attached to Greece comprised several groQps, 
the greater part of which lay in tlie jEge'an sea. They were first 

II, What ra Baid of the cities and towns 1 For what waa Qitor remark, 
able? What ia aaid of the stream of the same name? Of Orchomenus T 
Hermal Gorlya? Mantinea? 13. What is said of Megalopolis? What 
was found at Tegea? Who was a native of that place? For what wai 
it famed? 13. What ia said of Fallantinra ? The temple orPhigalla? 

Q. 1. What is said of the Greek islanda? By whom were they fital 




GREECE. 99 

peopled by the Phffinic'ians, Ca'rians and Pelas'gians, afterwards 
ihey were occupied by the Helle'nes, and, until Athens established 
her sovereignty over the aeoa, each consiaied of one or more free 
Slates, The Romans, in the time of Vespa'sian, formed them all 
into one province. 

2. Cre'ta or Cbe'tb was the largest Greek island, and was sur- 
named Hecatom'polis, from its hundred cities; it was noted as the 
birth-place of Ju'piter, and for ihe wise laws which the renowned 
Mi'noa established. In the centre stood Mount I'da, where Ju'piter 
was nuised. The principal city was Gnos'sus, or Gno'sus, where 
Mi'nos reigned, and where, it is supposed, the celebrated labyrinth 
vvas constructed. The other cities were Lyctos, Gorty'na and 
Cydo'nia. 

3. Tile Cto'Ihus vfece skilful srchGia, and hired thoniBclves lo any Slata 
that Deeded mercennty soldiers. In the earlier period of Uieir ciirtence, 
thay were a wise and just people, but they degenerated bo lar as lo bo 
chaig^ with the giosBeet vicea. St. Paul quotes one of their own poele, in 
evidence of Iheir bad chacucler. 

4. Ecke'a wu DBit lo Cre'lo, in eitent ; It wiia aepiiraled from the main 
land by the stmit Euri'pui, which was said to ebb and flow seven limes 
each diy and e&cfa aigbt. It was a rich and fertile island, and the Athe- 
□ians drew their chief supplies from iL The principal (owns were Glial' cis 
and Ere'tria ; the first was joined lu Bceo'tia by a tbrlificd bridge. 

5. O'reaa was noted for its vines; near it the battle of Artemlai'um wat 
fought, in wliich the Grecka defbalfld the fleet of Xen'es, at the eame tima 
th>t his army was lepulaed at Thermop'ylEe. JE'ga, Ceriri'thua and Carys'. 
Eus, were also towns in Eubcs'a; the lutler was noted for its beauti till green 
marble ; near it, at Caphare'lun promontory, tbe Greek fleet was wrecked, 
on its cetom from Tray. 

G. Tlie Thracian IsMbdb, Tha'sos, Samothra'ce, Im'bros and Lcmnoa, lay 
mthe Dorlliera part of tbe £ge'Bn sea. Tha'sos was noted for iteivtne and 
its marUe. Samothra'ce was called alter tlie island of Sa'mos, to which lbs 
epithet, Tbrace, was added by way of distinction. Tbe worship of Cyb'ele 
originated here; whence the island was regarded as sacred, and became 
an asylum for criminala. Im'broa was eonsecfaled to Ce'res and Mer'cury, - 
sod to tbe deities called Catu'ri. 

7. Lem'noa was called Diop'olis from its Iwo towns, Hephiea'tia and 
Myri'na; in tbe Ibrum of tlie tatter was tbe fiunoas statue of llje ox, made 
by Hy'ron, on which the ancienta uiErm Mount A'tlios, 45 miles dialant, 
Ihrew its shadow, at tbe time of the winter solstice. This island contained 
a. volcano tabled to be the workshop of Vulcan. Here the women once 
maaaaored ail the male inhabitanls : certain Felas'giana, alao, murdered 
some women and children which they had carried away from Allica. From 

peopled? By what people were Ihcy aflerwarda occupied! Of what did 
each consist ? Into what did the Romans form them 7 3. Describe Crete. 
Kome the pfincipol cities, 3. What is said of the Cretans 7 4. Of Eubcsa T 
Kama the principal towns. 5, What la said of Oreua? What took place 
neat it I What is said of ^ga. Sect 6. Which were Iho Thracian 
idandsT What is said of Thasos 7 Samotbrace? 7. Lemiios? What 



t 



100 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



tbeie Blrocitie*, the Greek* give the epithet " Lem'nian" to anj hordbie 
murder. 
B. The TnCBg^'utH IsLtNin were Halonne'saa, S^ntUtis, Scoj/elos, Pre- 

pare'thiuond Scy'me. The women oT Hnlomie'Biuale wid tohave repelled 
■lone an invasion after all the men were sliin. Frepare'thus was celebrated 
Tor its wines and olives. Scj'roB wai the counlry of the king Ljcome'- 
des : here Achil'lea disguisod himgelf in Iho habit of a, girl, to escape giaog 
to tha Trojan war. 

9. The Cio'LiDta lir "oatheaet of Attica, and reeeiTSd Iheir naiDe ba- 
eaiue the; surrounded De'los u with a circle. The; were noted for their 
fine marble, and [he eicellenee of their wioea, the reputation ofwhieh is not 
jel onlirel; lost. Uc'loe, though one oT Iho smallest islands, was the most 
distinguished oflh^ whole group. It was famed lor its temple and altaf of 
Apollo, and as tbo birth-place of Apollo and Diana. It is said to hale floated 
about, under the surface of the eea, until made to appear and stand finu by 
order of Neptune. 

10. De'los was a place of great sanctity, and was tamed all atet the 
■ncisot world ; even the Hypeibo'ioans sent ofierinni to its tempjo. It was 
noted for the skiU of its artists, the fineness of its s4lvar, and the cxcoUmce 
of its bronze, Nax'oa was aacred to Bueehus. Fa'ros was celebrated tor its 
loarble, and also as tlie birlh-ploae of the renowned scu^>tor Praiif elea. 

11. The inhabitants ofMjc'onos.who were avaricious and rapauous,lo>t 
their hair at an oarlj ago : hence the epitliet ** Myco'nion" wa> proverbially 
applied to a bald person. Te'nos was noted for the number of Us springs ; 
the waters of one of which would not mil willi wine. The gianU who lied 
been conquered by Hercules, were said to lie buried under th« isknd- 
Nix'os, the largest and most fertile of the Cyc'lodes, is about GO milcB in 
circniL It was sacred to Bacchas, vbo was said to have been born theic. 
Nu'oe had a city of the same name. 

12. An'dios was fcrlile and well cultivated. Tits inhabilants of Ca'oa 
were noted for IheK mo- 
dest; and •obriel;, io oppo- 
sition to the Chi'aOB ; twDce 
the adage, "Ceua Bon Chi- 
ua," Co'os is no) ChiToi. So- 



places of banishment : on 
the former, Cas'sius Sevs'in* 
died in exile. Cyth'nOB was 
noted for ils cdieese ; Oli'ar- 
OB or Auti-ParoB lor its grot' 
to, or rather, eeriee of grot- 
toes, the roof; the flow, and 
the sides of which are to- 

did this island containi 8. Which were the Tbessalian islandsl What 
did the womenof Halonesasdo; What is said of Preparutliua ? ScnroaT 
9. Describe the Cyclades. 10. What is said of Delos ? What is aud of 
the Hyperboreans 7 For what was Delos distinguished 1 What ia said of 
Noios? ParoB? U.Of theinhabitants of Myconos7 For what was Tenoi 




What is SI 
inhabitants of Ceos T 
For what was Cythnu 
ble 1 Nome the prinei 



„ IsJ OfNaiosI la. OfAndroaJ Tba 
what purpose were Seriphns and Gyarus a 
)ted 1 Oliaros T For what was Meloa m 



ioa7 Tba i 
iruB used' ] 
>9 memora- fl 



Gh-EECE. lOI 

tirely covered with a daiiling' encriiE^lijiri; as while as snow. Me'ios waa 
■nemoiable for tlie EuSeriDgH of ils iiiljBl)itp,ii'.8 for want of tbod, when bc- 
BJeged by the Athcninna, wfaeDce a " Met'/ar/ fapiine" becamo ii proferb. 
The other principal islands were CimoloB, Pbljte^iiR Scy'roa and Rlicne'a. 

Map No. a. — What iBlands lie north of Cretin, What jaiand due east t 
What part of Abia Minor northeast? To what part of t|>£ United States do 
Lheao islands correspond in latitude? How long is Crete J- How wide ? 
What mountaina in Crete 7 What mountain in the oentr»T.-'How high ia 
it? Which ia the moat eaalorn promontory 7 Weateralf : ' Sautham ! 
What itlandti on the coast of Crete ? Point out the cities DamBi-in Uie text. 

Map Na.3, — In what direction does Eubcca lie from Hellaal WhaUtrqil 
aepairated it from Locria, Bceolia, arvd Attica 7 What gulf separBtqJ^ it , 
from ThessaJy ? What is the length of Eubma, by tho scnte 7 The great- ' 
est broadth 7 The amaUeat ! The average ' What mounliiiru in EubmaJ- " ' 
What towns 7 What ielanda lay northeast? Southeaet 7 Point out the 
TTinician ialanda. What tawna in Thasos 7 Samothrace? Imbroel 
Towns in Lemnos 1 Point ont the Thesealian islanda. What distance, by 
the scale, ia tjia nearest from Theaealy 7 The most distant! Point out tho 
Cjclades. What sea on the northwest 7 Northeast! South! Which ia 
llje largest of the Cjclades 7 The moat northern 7 Southern! EaateniT 
Western ! Wliat island lay west of Delos 7 Northeast 7 

40 

THE GREEK ISLANDS— [CONTINUED.] 
I, The Spor'ades lay east and south of the Cyc'iades. They 
received iheir name from being scattered or sown along the coast 
of Asia Minor, and over the adjacent seas. Part of them were 
included in Asia, and part in Europe. The principal of the Eu- 
ropean islands were The'ia, Phokgan'dros, Sici'nus, Tos, Amor'- 
gos, An'aphe, Astypal£B'a,and Car'pathus. 

2. The'ra was fabled to have been formed of a clod of earth thrown from 
tho ihipArgo: Cyre'ne, in Africa, waa aettled by a colony from hence. I'oa 
was the burial-place of Homer ; bis mother was a native of the island- 
Amor'gOB was the birth-plaee of the poet Simon'idea. Car'pathus gave 
name to the Carpa'thian aea. 

3. The Spor'ahes belonging to Asia, were Ten'odoB, LeaTma, Chi'os, 
Si'moe, Ica'ria, Palmos, Cos, Rhodea, and some amaller islands. Ten'edos 
vraa sacred to Apullo; here thcGrseIca retired when they pretended to raise 
the BiEge of Troy. Les'boa was lamed for the noted writers to which it 
)!BVH birlh, as well as for its wine. Tlie inhabitants were celebrated for 
Iheii skill in music. Mityle'ne and Methym'na were the chief towns. 
Farther to the south was Chi'os, whose winea were deemed the beat in the 
anoient vorid. It also contained quarricB of excellent marble. 

Q.I. What ia aaid of the Sporadea 7 The Enropean islanda? 2. Of 
There? What colony was settled from thence? What noted poet was 
Luried at los? Who was born there! At Amargos? To what did Car- 
pathuB give name? 3. What were the Asiatic Sporadea? What ia said 
of Tenedos! For what woa Leabos femed 7 For what were the mhabit- 
anls celebrated 7 Name the chief towns. Wliat island lay south ? What 



102 CLASSICAL GEOG'EAPHT. 

4. Sa'moa ffae wicrsd to Ju'no^-aiidnu the birth-place of the pliiloBopher 
Pjthag'orBB. Ica-ria giive najoo to the Ica'rian Ma. In Pat'mos St John 
wrote the ReTBlation. Co.* fcaB.lhn nativB place of the celflbratBd phjsician 
Hippoc'rates, where a vea^bl? pluiu-tree is etill exhibited, under which be 
is Mid lo have Icclure^.- Ilhbdeii wu celebratud tor its raising, oraagesiand 
roses ; also for i}s Cnfcsaus and its eitcnuivc coniDicrcs. Its inaritime laws 
were so esleeiaed,.thut thej' were adopted by the Romans, Horn whose code 
same of Ihcm. have, been incorporated into tho conimercial relations of 
modern liolet. •_ - 

5. The'Jo'M'AN Ibuhdb lay in tlio lo'nian sea. In the prosperoDS timek 
oTGreet^ caoh island formed a ecpirate State. Alexander the Great, and 
■ubslK[iiBD'tly tho Romans, conquered them ; aflervards, the; formed a part 
iif'^ Bymn'line empire. Corc/ra, Leuea'dia, Ith'aca, Cepbalk'nia, Za. 
cjn'thuB and Cythe'ra were the largest islands. 

- 6. Corcv'ra was celebrated for its richca and ferlililj ; also for the ship- 
wreck of Ulys'ses, and the gardens of Alcin'oua. Leuea'dia was at Grst a 
peninsula, but was separated from the main land by the Corinthians, to 
fiicililate navigation. Lcuca'le promontor; was called the Lover's Leap: 
here Sap'pho, tho poetess, and other disappointed lovers, threw themselves 
into tho sea. Ith'aca was the birth-place of Ulys'ses. 

7. Cephalle'nia, called anciently Sa'me, from its chief town, was less 
fertile than the other islanda. Zacyn'lhus, with a capital of the same name, 
was a pioductive island : it contained springs of bitumen, which are still 
'■""""'' when she rose fioin the soa; 
. Itwas&medibritEfbftility. 



S. The Giieeks, being a maritime people, established colonies 
on the coasts of the Medilerranean, the Eux'inB,lhePropon'tis,anii 
the Pa'lus Meo'Iis. These colonies were designed to extend com- 
merce, rather than conquest : many of thera became independent, 
and some not only equalled, but even surpassed the parent States 
in wealth and power. 

9. The iGo'Jian colonies of Asia Minor lay on the neetern coast, and in 
the islands of Les'bos and Teo'edos. Tho lo'nians established themselves 
on the coasts of Lyd'ia and Ca'ria, and in the islands of Sa'mos and Chi'os. 
The Do'rions settled on the coBst of Ca'ria, and in the islands of Cos and 
Rhodes. 

10. The colonies on the Fropon'tis, the Eui'ine and the Pa'lus Meeo'tis, 
were established chiefly by the Mile'sians. On the Propun'tis were Lamp'. 
Bocus, Cyz'icus, Heraclo'a, Byzan'tium and Chalce'don ; on the Euxine 
were Heracle'a Pon'tica, Ami'aua, Trape'zns, Fha'sis, and Dioscu'rias : on 

is said of it? 4, What is said of Samos? Of Icariaf FatmoaT Of 
whom was Cos the native place, Sic. 7 For what was Rhodes celebrated I 
What is said of its maritime taws? 5. Of tho Ionian islands? By whom 
were they conquered, &c. T Name the largest islands. 6. What is said of 
Corcyra? LeucadiaT Lencate promontory, &C.7 7. Of CephollHniaT 
Zacynthus 7 Cytheta 7 8. Where did the Greeks establish colonies 7 
What is said of them T 9. Of the if^olian colonies 7 The loniansT The 
Dorians! 10. Where did the Milesians settle colonies? What colorues on 
the Froponlis? On the Euline? Palus Mceotis? In Thrace? In 



ITALY. 103 

the Pa'IuB Mao'lia was Tan'aia. In tho Cboraone'iua Tnu'ricii were Cher. 
Bonc'suB, Eupalo'ria ond Panfcapn^'iim ; and at the moulh of the Borja'. 
thcnus stood Olbia: the last two were imporlnnt towns. In Thrace, Ses'tos, 
Car'ctiB. ^'goa Fol'amoe, Abde'm and Marone'a ; and, in MacedD'nJo, Aia- 
phip'olis, Chul'cia, Oljn'thua and Polidie'a, were the moet iiupDrliuit cola. 

II. The Greek eDbnlEsofBouthcmlt'aly were nomeTOua and important; 
Iience that region received the name of Mag'na Grffl'cia, or Great Greeca ; 
among theaa Taran'tum, Hcraclo'a and Brundu'simn were of Do'rjan; Syb'- 
aris, Croto'na, Mstapon'tum, Pms'tum, ic^ of Aohffi'nn; snd Rhe'gium, 
B'lea, Neap'olis, &£., of lo'uian origin. 

□'tuni, BJid otiier 

iTaxuB, Cat uia, and 

s. 1 n«re were alao Greek colonies in Cor'aioa and 

lail'iai in Spain, Sagan'lum J and in AJrica, Cyre'ne. 

tfoB JVa. S. — Where is the island of Tenedosr Lesboa? ChiosT Sa- 
mosi Icarla? Palmoe? Caljmna? Cos? Rbodea? Whicli island was 
the most northern of the Sporadea J The most eastern 7 Mear what part 
of the coant of Asia Minor did each of these islands lie 7 Which were the 
five largest of the Sporadea 7 

Map No. 3. — Point oot Thera. Pholegandroe. Sicinus. loa. Amor. 
eoe. Anaphe. AstypalGea. Caipathus. (The latter will b« Ibund in Map 
No. 9.) What group la; immediately north of lliese islands 1 What sea 
lay b6uUi7 Point out Corcjra. Leucadja. Ithaca. Cephallenia. Zacjn- 
thns. Cythera. Paiua Islands. The Strophades. {These were tho islands 
of the fabled Harpies.) Which was the most northern of the Ionian islands7 
The most southern I What towns were in the Ionian islands I 



^ ITALIA, OR ITALY. 

1. Italy is one of the most celebrated countries in the world, 
and atili retains its ancient name and limits. Under the dominion 
of the Romans, it was a well-cultivated and fertile region, and 
is believed to have contained a more numerous population than in 
our days. 

2. It was called Hespe'ria, hy the Greeks, on account of being 
situated westward of Greece ; and, in remote ages, it was known 
by the names of Satur'nia, Auso'nia, and .^no'tria. The term 
Italy was not generally adopted until about the commencement 

Macedonia? 11. What is said of tlie Greek colonies of southern Ilaly? 
Which were Dorian? lonion 7 12. What colonies in Sicilj7 In what 
other regions were coloniea established T 

ft. 1. WhatisIlalyT What does it still retain 7 What was it under the 
Romans? 9. What was it called by the Greeks, and why 7 By what 
names was it known in reinolo ages ? Wlial is said of tlio term 7 3. Of 



^ 



104 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

of the Christian era : tt is supposed to have been derived from 
li'alus, one of the itncient monarchs of the counlty. 

3. The KtUoaiGnt of Italj commencei] at in eailj period, but of the dale 
■nd circumiluDces of that event there it no BUlhentic account. Rome wis 
(banded b; Romulus, IwCDIj-sii centuries ago ; at which time the Bdjocent 
pQUUti; wag inhabited bj Iho Ctrua'cana, the Lafina, the Sa'bines, the 
Saro'iiileB, and some other tribes. Among these the Romana aptang up, 
rather as a band of refugees, than s> a regular Stale. In proceas of lime, 
however, Ihej eubjecled first tliu neighbouring districts, then the nhole o( 
lUlj ; anerwarda, they crossed Ihe Alps, and the seaa, to coaqaei all the 
known world. 

i. The first influeaee of Roman oonqucat waa unfavourable to civiliiation i 
but an acquaintance with the matohlcss eloquence and philoaophy of Greece, 
produced, in time, a love of learning, and a desire to rival that diatinguisiuid 
nation. During the Augustan age, poetry and the fine aria were pursued 
with ardour b; Ibe Romana, and carried to a high slate of perfection. The 
wealth accumulated at Rome by the spoils of ao man^ notions, at length 
introduced aa unbounded luxury, which vitiated the simplicity of ancient 
manners, and Ihe oppressive government ofaucceaaive tyranta paralyzed the 
energies of the Slate, and paved the way for its final overtlirow. 

5. I^e decline of the Roman power was attended with the most dreadfiil 
calamiliea to Italy, as well as to mankind. The barbarians of the north and 
the eaat, allured by tlie reputed wealth and weakness of the empire, (breed 
tlie barriera which the legions could no longer defend, and ravaged the 
beautilid and cultivated districts. Rome itself, the imperial capital of the 
world, bccamo the prey of barbarians, and was successivt^ly occupied by the 
lioths, under Al'oric, and the Vun'dals, under Genea'eric. 

6. Italy forms a large peninsula, lying between the Adriat'ic and 
Tyrrhe'num, TyTrhe'nian,or Tuscan seas : the continental part ia 
au)ut equal, in extent, to the Stales of New York and PetmsyfvaQia; 
hut, vrith the islands usually considered to belong to it, the area ia 
one-fourth greater. In ancient, as in modem times, its terrestriai 
boundary was chiefly the Alpes, or Alps, which separated it from 
Transalpine Gaul, Helve'tia, Nor'icum, and Illyr'icuni. The 
Apenni'nua, or Apennines, extend through the whole length of the 
peninsula. 

7. The chief rivers were the Pa'dua, or Erid'anus, called, by some of the 
ancienla, the king of rivers. Ila early name was BoJin'ous, said to signify 
bottomless. The Ath'esis, Medo'acus, Pla'vis, Ar^nus, and Tiber, were the 

the settlement of Italy! By whom waa Rome founded, &c7 By what 
Iribea waa the adjacent Muntry inhabited? What is said of the Romuu ? 
What occurred in process of lime 7 4. What is said of the first influence 
of Roman conquest! Of Greece ! What occurred during Ihe Aagnaliui 
age! Whatwas the efl'ect of the wealth accumulated at Rome, &C.1 The 
government of successive tyrants? 5. With what was the decline of the 
Roman power attended ? What followed ? IVhut oeoarred lo Rome itself? 
6. What does Italy form? What is said of the conlinenlil pajtl The 
ialanda! Of ila terrestrial boundary 7 From what countries did this aepa. 
rale Italy ? What is sajd of the Apennines ? 7. Of the chief rivers ? 



U SITES, 



,and Bena'cue, It the ba>e of 
- , Llicir natural benutieB. In the 
. Vukinicn'sia. and Fuci'nuB. The tatlcr 
outlet, Bjid was, Iheralurc, subject to inundiilioiia ; to obviale which 
llie emptrDr Cluu'diuB employed 30,(100 men, lor lliree yeara, in cutting an 
oDlJet to the Li'ris river. Oa the completion of this work, b real Nau- 
macli'ia, or navul battle was ezhiliited oo the take, in tlie preaeuce of 
Cku'diuB and Agtip'pa, and an immense aiullitnds of Bpectalon. 

9. Ancient Italy compriEcd tbiee great divisioae, viz., Ita'lia Gol'lica. 
Ita'lia Mc'din, and Magna Orm'cia ; ^o fint oomprbed N'orthern Italy ; it 
waa culled Uallis Cisalpi'Da (Cisal'pitio or hither Gaul, or Gaol within the 
Alps) : the second comprised Central Ital^r ; it was called Ita'lia Propria 
tllaly Proper), ft-om being inhabited by nations deemed purely Ilaiian : the 
Ifaird comprised southern Italy ; it was called Magna Giie'cia (Great Greece), 
from the number and fame of the Greek loloniea there established. 



10. Gal'lia Cibalpi'na lay directly south of the Alps : it ex- 
tended from Gaul to IJlyricum, and was inhabited hy a portion of 
the Gal'lic nation. These people were, for a long period, formi- 
dable to the Romans: they once look Rome ilself; but the for- 
tune of the latter prevailed, and the last of the Italian Gauls was 
subjected about the close of the second Punic war. 

11. When hrmly attached to the sway of Rome, this region became the 
beet collivatcd and most populoiu part of Italy ; it was noted &r the abun- 
dance of its wine, grain, fruits, and wool Cic'ero styled it " the flower of 
ttalj, the support of the empire, and tbe ornament of its dignity." 

12. Cisal'pine Gaul was divided by the river Pa'dus into two separate ter- 
ritories. Gol'lia Transpada'uB lay north, and Gal'lia Ciepada'na south of 
that stream : Gal'lia Toga'ta (Cloaked Gaul) was another name bestowed on 
northern Italy, after the inhabilaots had adopted the Roman dress and man. 
ners, and wore llie cloak or toga. Ligu'ria was a districl in Iho southwest, 
and Vene'tia another in the northeast part of Cisal'pino Gaol. His'tria was 
the smallest and most eastern divlBLon. 

3foj JVd.4, — Point out the Adriatic sea. The Tyrrhenum sea. The 
Alps, The Apennines. Gallia Transpadana. Gallia Cispadana. Liguria. 
Venelia. Histria. The rivers mentioned in the Icit. The lakes. How 
many statute mils^ is Italy in length, by the seals 7 Boman miles 7 What 
is its greatest breadth? From the mouth of the Tiber, norlheast? From 
Ihc gulf of Terina to the Sojlaeian gulf 7 With what part of the United 
States docs Italy in N. !aL 44° corresprtid 7 In laL 42" 7 J^at. 40° 7 Lat. 
38= 7 With which of the States does Sicily correspond in laUtnde ! 

e. Of the lakes at tbe base of the Alps? In the centre? Lake Fncmus ? 
The emperor Claadins 7 What was eihibilcd there 7 9. What did ancient 
Italy comprise 7 Northern luly, &.c? Central 7 Soalhern? 10. Describe 
'.he position ofGalliaCisfllpina. By whom was it inhabited 7 Whatissoidof 
these people 7 When was the laet of the Italian Gauls subjected 7 11. What 
did this region become, under the sway of Rome 7 For what was it noted? 
Whst did Cicero style it? 12. How wus it divided by the Padus 7 What 
■jlher name was bestowed ? Where was Liguria ? Venctia ? Histria ? 



CLAeSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



OALUA CISALPINA— [CONTINUED.] 

1. Meoioia'hiui, now Milan', was the most iraporlaiit city nonh 
of ihc Pa'dus ; it was at first the capital of the Insu'brian Gauls : 
under the Roroana it Bci[uired fame and prosperity, and was sui- 
named Novte Athe'nte (New Athens), from the liberal arts being 
there highly cultivated. In ihe decline of the empire, when 
the emperora left Rome, it was chosen as the capital; it was after- 
Mpids taken by the Goths and Burgun'dions, when 300,0U0 of the 
inhabitants were put to the sword. 

3. North orMediola'Duni Uy tlie R 
for the overllirow of the Cini'bri by 
river, where Hin'iiibal obtained bis iirt 
Prslo'ria wu built in hoaoui of Augiislui. Not fir from hence Hanliibal 



Jf Rjjunit tbe power of Kome. 



WBEtward wag the I'io 

the Ramans. Auffuslii 




ri'ni, nrug burnt bj Han'ni- 
0, seTeml centurieB sfter- 
um was the birth-place o( 



ig lli« Alpe. 

3. AaguBtiTnurino'ruin, the capital oflhe Tan 

bal because the inhsbitants opposed hint. Her 

wards, CouBtanliDS defeated Magnen'tiua. Co'm 

the younger Pliny. Crcmo'na, which still retains its ancient nome, was a 
town of some note. Sir'mio was tfac fitvourile renidcnco of Cotul'lus. Man'- 
tua wafl, in ancient times, a considerable city ; it still eiisla : near it was 
the village of Andes, where Virgil waa born. Bedd'acum was nolcofor two 

Q. 1. What is said of Mediolanum ? W!ml was its Burnsme7 What 
occurred in Ihe decline of (he empire 7 Afterwards 7 2. What lay north 
of Mediolanum 7 What look place there? Westward? What is said of 
AQgnsla Prtetoria 7 Of Hannibal 7 3. Of AurubU TaurinorumT What 
occurred there several centuries afterwards 7 Who was bom at Comum ? 
What is said of Cremona? Sirnijo 7 Mantua? Andes 7 BcdriacumJ 




ITALY. 



B DVermnie b; O'tho, u 



107 

I [he ntbcr. 



e of which Gallia w 
|Tile1'liuB defeated (Ttho. 

. Veke'tia was a district which lay at the head of the Adriat'ic 
Sea, t!ie inhabitanis of which were, from an early period, friendiy 
to the Romans. The soil and climate were excellent, and the 
cattle and horses were very aiiperior ; the latter often gained prizes 
in the races of the Grecian games. His'tria, or la'lria, lay east of 
Vene'tia : it was once a part of Ulyr'icum, but was added to Cisal- 
pine Gaui by Augustus. The inhabitants were for a long time 
noted pirates. 

5. Among the chief towns of Vene'tia were Pnla'vium, the hirth -place of 
Livy[ Vero'na, tliu birlh-placo of CatuI'lua and Pliny the naturalisl; A'drln, 
from whicli (he Adriatic eea received ita name; and Alti'num, noted for itn 
wool. Ju'liura Car'nicuni was Uie chief town of Iho Car'oii. Nore'ia wan 
finned for ita gold mince, and for the defeat of Cne'iuiCatbobjUicCim'hri. 

6. Aquile'ia was, from its splendour, Bometimea oolled Roma Seeun'da; it 
was strongly fortified, and was lon^ tlie chief defence of Italy in this 
qoorler. It withstood a siege against Mojiimi'Dni, A. D. S3B, who, on 
ncoount of his cruelty, was elain by his own soldiers betbre its walls. At'- 
tila, A. D. 459, took and razed it to (he ground, Tergeg'te was a Roman 
colony, and gave its name to (he gulf on whicli it stood. In His'tria were 
j£gi'da, Puren'tium.andPola; Uie Wter contained a Roman am pbi theatre 
of BUfficicDt size to accommodate 20,000 epcctators. It still exists, and is " 

(olerable presi 

( 

^^^b 7. Liotr'BiA lay along the Ligus'tic gulf, from the river Va'rua to 

^^f^tts Ma'cia. The inhabitants were Ion? determined enemies of 

^^^^ome, and joined the arms of Han'nibal, after he had crossed the 

Alps, They were only subdued by the Romans after a war of 80 

i, Describe the position of Venetio. What is said of the inhabitants 7 The 
soil and climate? The cattle, &C.7 Depcribe the position of Histria. 
What was it added to! By whom 7 5. What ia said of Patavium 7 Ve- 
roDB? Adrial Julium Comicum T 6. What was AquJlcJa sometimes 
called, &C.T Against whom did it stand a niegc? What was bis &.tel 
What did AtlJIa do 7 What ia said ofTergeste I Name the chief towns in 
Hietria. What did Pola contain? 7. Describe the position of Liguria. 
■j said of the inhabitants? What did the Ligurians posses!? 




AmpbiUKBtre ol 




108 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

yeora' dui&lion. The Li^'rians possessed all the courages and 
hardihood usual with mountaineers, but were said to be vain and 
deceitful. 

6. On t)ioCOiutofLini'mUyNic(e'B,aMiteaiiin colon;! Foi'tiu Her'cntiB 
Mnnce'ci, fbundsd by tur'aults; Al'biutn Inteme'lium, tlie chief town of tlie 
Intcme'lii, and Al'bmm tngBu'num, the chiof town of the Ingau'ni. Gen'oa, 
s( tin heiid oftheLifui'ticguir, was burnt by Migo during the Bi;coDd Punic 
wu-, but was rebuilt by the Romane : it ii now Genoa, noted as the birth- 
place of Calumbua. 

9. North of tho Apenninee wb« Augustii Vagicnno'mm, the chief town 
of the Vagic'ni, nnd Cebii, noted for ila cihccso, Polleii'tia was femous for it* 
wool : here the Romsna, under Stil'icho, wero dcfentEd by tlio Goths, Al'ba 
Pompe'ia was the birth-ptace of llie emperor Per'linax. Derto'na and Fotuid* 
Ful'vii were Roman coloaies. Flacen'tia was burnt by Hamil'car, at the 
end ofthe second Punic war. In its vicinity, on the banki of the Trc'bia, 
HannibaJ gained hia aecond lictoiy over the Romana. 

10. Par'ma was famous for its wool ; here Cua'sius Sere'iua, the poet, and 
Macro'bius, the critic, were born. At Mu'tina, D., Brutos waa closely be- 
sieged by Antony, until tlia latter, on tiia delcat at Forum GaJIo'rum, raised 
the liege. Forum Gallo'rum waa noted for two baltles on the same day 
Iboght near it, one of which waa between Antony and tlie conaul Panaa, 
advantageouB to the former j in tlie second, Anluiiy wus defeated by the 
consul Hir'tius. Bono'cia suffered much in the civil wars, but was after- 
wards leatored by Augustus. 

11. At Re'gium Lep'idi the elder Brutus was put lo death, ai^r his sor- 
render, by Pompe; . At Faven'tia, Carbo'a party was defeated by Syl'li's. 
Spi'na was once rich and flourishing, and presented more valuable ol&ringa 
at Del'phi than ajiy other city. Raieu'na became the chief naval station on 
tho Adriat'ic, until Augustus constructed a new station, called Por'IusClBs'sis. 
Wlien Rome was occupied by the barbarians, Ravea'na became the resi- 
dence of tlie empcrora of tho west 

Map ffa, 4. — Point out the towns menlioDcd in the text north of the 
Padus river. The towns in Venetia. In liiktria. The towns south of the 
Padua. What towns lay on the Ligustie gulf? On the Adriatic sea? 
Point oat tha Raudian Plains. Ticinns river. Trebia river. When were 
battles fought at those places t Also at Augusta Tauriooruni ! PoUentia ? 
Bodriacum ^ Verona 7 Over what part of tha Alps did Haiuiibal paas 1 
At what period J How many years since Uiat time ? Name the heighla 
.,f tha different sections of tho Alps — OB tho Matitima Alps. &c. The 
Apennines. What is tho length of lake Verbanus 7 Lariuef Sevinus? 
BenacuB? What is die length of the Padus river ? TheAtheaisT Name 
the chief tributaries of the Padus, 

S. What towns lay on the coast of LiguriaT What ia said of Genoa? 
U. What towns lay north of the Apennines ? What is said of Alba Pom- 
poia 7 Dertona and Forum Fulvii ? Placsutia 7 What took place on the 
hanks of the Trebia? 10. What is said of Parma? Mutina7 Forum 
GallorumT Bononia? 11. What occurred at Regium Lepidi 7 FaTcntia? 
What 13 said of Ravenna? 



1 




ITALY PROPER. 

1. Italy Proper extended southward from Galta Ciapftda'na 
to the rivers Silau'ris and Fretito. Its divisions were Etru'ria, 
La tium, Um'brio, Pice'num, Campa'nia, Sam'nium, and the terri- 
tory of the Sabi'ni, or Sa'bJnes. la remote times it wtis inhabited 
by Tarious nations, who were nearly always at war with each 
other; but, in process of time, they all became incorporated with 
the Roman people. 



2. Etro'ma, now Tus'cany, the country of the Etrus'cans, was a 
highly cuUirated district. The inhabitania were distinguished for 
their early civilization ; and, at the lime when the surrounding 
nations were sunk in barbarism, they had attained a respectable 
eminence in the arts and sciences. 

3. The Etrtis'cRne ibrmed a con federation ortwelve citioE, cnch of whicli 
was a. republic witKin iteelf Bv their skill in war uid DuTignlion they 
{^iDCd, ior I liiUB, u great aBCendincy over the neighbouring' States; but, 
boconiing at length disunited, Ihej were overpowered hy the Romans. 
Main of tlieir eciilptiircd gemH, vases, and paintings, still exist: they aro 
liiglilf prized by arlista and antiquaries, and, in some respects, haTa never 
been surpassed. 

4. In the eastern part of Etra'ria, on the banks of lake Trastme'nus, Han- 
nibal vanquished the consul Flamin'iua. Near the coast was lake Pri'Iig, not 
far from nhich the Gauls and Ges'atia were itefcated by the Romans. La'na 
woa fiuuouB fbrltB cheeaa and i\a fine marble. Pi'aie was celebrated tor ila hot 
springs. Volater'rs was the birth-place of the satirist Per'seus. Near the 
iaHei the EtruE'cans were defeated by the Romans ; the city afterwards SUR- 
tjjnad a two years' siege against Syl'la. 

5. PopQlo'niam was the chief naval arsenal of Etru'ria. Tarquin'ii was the 
birth-place of Tarquin'iue Pria'cus. Cii're, or Agyl'lo, was noted for the hos- 
pitality shown by tlie inhabitants la those who iled hither from Rome, when 
it was besieged by the Gauls. At Peru'eia Lu'cios Anlcnius was besieged, 
and finaHy starved out by AugUHlus. Clu'sium was the capital of Porsen'na, 
king of filru'ria. Veii sustained a aioge of ten years against the Romans. 

6. Fale'rii was token hy Camil'lus : during the sioge he won tlie conGdancc 

Q. 1. How 6r did Italy proper eilend southward 7 What were its divi- 
sions! How was it inhabited in remote times) 2. Deaeriba Etniria. 
What is said of the inhabitants ? 3. What did the Etruscans form ? What 



lake Tnuimenus? Near lake Frtlia7 What is said of Lan 
Volaterne 7 What took place near the latter city ? 5. Whal was Populo. 
niun? Tarquinii7 What is said ofCiere? Perusia7 Clueium? 6. Bj 
n was Falerii taken 7 What occurred during the eiege 7 What is 




CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



inhsbiloDts by placing in their haJids a treacheraui preceptor, 
lo deliver to tlie Ramiias tbo sana of tho principal men of the city, 
ere hi> papila. At PtsU/ria, Cat'iline was defeated and kilted. On 
ist oi'Elru'ria was the island of Ilva, famona for its iron mines, and 
, in modem times, ae the place to whicli the emperor Napoleon wai 
Capra'ria wan noted for its goals. To Plana'sia, Pos'thumUB Agrlppa 
jiiahed by AuguaLus. Urgoa and Igiriiun were islands that belonged 



^ 



7. Um'bru derived its name from the Um'bri, who are supposed 
lo have been amongst the earliest inhabitants of Italy, and are 
believed lo have been of Celtic origin. The Etms'cana, Sa'bines 
and Lat'ins, were their descendants. The Sen'ones, a Gal'Uc tribe, 
drove the Um'brians into the mountains, but the Boraans finally 
conqupred the disirict. 




8. Among the principal places in Umliria were Sar'sinn, where Flaii'tiu, 
Ike comic poet, wob horn, and Artm'inuin, the Erst eit; taken by Cffi§ar 
after he passed the Itu'hicon. It was by croanlng this strenm, the boondary 
of his goTemmont, with an armed force, that Cmsnr disobeyed the comiDandii 
uf the Senate, and began the war between himself and Foonpey, which 
resollcd in his ae<iuiring the supreme aathoritj in Rome. 

9. Some of the other towns were Nocc'ris, famed ibr its manufacturas of 
wooden vessels. Mcva'nia, the birth-plaee of Proper'tiuB, a noted poet, and 
Inlerara'oa, where the historian Tae'ltus, and n]»a the emperor of the simo 
name, wefc bom. Near Fonim Seiiipro'nii, As'drubal, the brother of Han'ni. 
bal, then in command of a strong reinlbrcement, was defeated and slain by. 
the Romana, E. C. 207. His head was severed from his body, and wai 
thrown, a lew days aikrwards, into his brother's camp. 

■aidofCamiUua? Fistoria? Ilva? Capraria? Planasia? T.Fromwhom 
did Umbria derive its name 7 What is said of their origin T Deseondants 7 
TheSetinonesT 9. Who was born at Sarsinal What is said of Arimin- 
um! Of Ceesar crossing the Rubicon 7 9.0fNuceria7 Meranla? Inter- 



u^l 



sabi'ki or sa bines. 

10. The Sabi'm, or Sa 'bines, derived their name from ihe god 
Sa'bus, their first leader or progenitor. Their country lay north- 
east of Kome, and between tne Apennine niountaicis and the 
Tiber river; it was fertile in pasturage as well as in oil, fruils.and 
wine. 

11. These people were brave and hardy, and were noted for 
their honesty and simplicity of manners. They were among the 
liist who look up arms against the Romans, which they did to 
avenge the rape of their women.* The Sa'binea had subsequently 
many contests with them, hut they were at length conquered by 
the Roman general Cu'nus Dcnta'tus, B. C. W2. 

IS. Among Ihe tovna of the Sa'binee, Nur'sis wsb noted for tho cddnen 
of its otaation, and Cutil'is for iu mineral wntece, Bea'te waa ailualed in a 
pleuant, fertile vallej ; its luxuriant meadows bore iha nsme Ro'sei Cunpi, 
■nd are Btil! caUed La Koae. Cu'res was the birth-place of Nu'ma Pompil'iiu. 
N omen' turn waa famed for its wioo. Near it was ths little liver Al'lia, 
where llie Gauls delbated the Roniang, sod then look Rome. 

13. Fido'nie vras remarkable for its perseverance in resisting the Roman 
yoke. AquaoAl'buloa was noted for ilB Bolphur springs. Cornic'ulum was 
the sopponed birtli-ploce of SerViua Tul'lius. Antcm'nE was one of the fiiat 
towns that resisted Hie ropo of the Sabine women. Near it waa Mount 
Sa'cer, whither the Romui populace retired, in a turmoil which caused the 
election of Ihe tribunes. 

jUaiiJVii.^.— PointonttheMacrariFer. TheRubicon. Silauris. Frcnla 
Tfaeae rivers were the north and south boundaries of Italy Proper, on the 
Adriatic and Tyrihennm seas, Where is Etrurial Latium? Umhrial 
Ficenum T Campania 1 Samnium ? Sabini I Point out the Arnui riTer. 
TheUnibro. Tiber. Clanis. Where is lahe Trasimenua T Late Prilia 'f 
Isake FucinuB? Point out the towns in Etruria mentioned in the text. 
I'oint out Pisloria. FeesulE, Picffi. Florenlia. VolatcrrK. Arretiam. 
(Jortona. Cluaium. Peiusia. Vulainii. Falcrii. Veil. These were the 
twelve confederated cities of Etruria. Pomt onl the towns in Umbria men. 
lioned in the teit Id Picenuiii. In Uie Sabini territory. When were 
battles fonght at lake Traslmenus 7 Pistoria ? Forum Sempronii 1 

amna? What occurred near Forum Sempronii? 10. From whom did the 
Sabini or Sabines derive their name ? Desciibe the poaition of their coun- 
try. 11. What was the character of these people! What were they among 
thefiratlodo7 What ia said of the Sabines and RomansI IS. What is 
Hiiid of Nursia 7 Culiliffi 7 Reate? NomentumI What occurred at the 
river Allia? 13. What ia said of Fideniel AquaeAlbutiB 7 Corniculum7 
AnteniDS ? Mount Sacer 7 

■ Al fint, IKa EoiDifH "8™ wiihoul niisi, a ddlcieMj whldi Baninlai nwolisd tompDlrhr 



1 



112 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



PICE'NUM, SAM'NIUM, AND CAMPA'NIA. 

1. Pice'rum lay southeast of Um'bria, and between the Ap'en- 
nines and the Adrial'ic sea. It was inhabited principally by the 
Pice'ni or Picen'tea, a branch of the Sa'bine nation, who gave 
their name to the country. It was one of the most fertile regions 
of Italy : the northern districts were famous for apples, attd the 
southern for wine. 

S. Anco'ni, which retains its nncienl name, wai the chief town of Piee'- 
num ; it wai ■ great naval Btatinn of the RomBm. The harbom wu im- 
proved bf Tri'jan ; snd the gratefiil citiienB erected to him, in retum, & 
triamphal arch, which is still standing. As'colam Pice'nnm wu an im- 
iwrlant town, and was taken bj Fompejr^ after a long siege ; it was cde- 
Isriled (or its lampls of Veniin, and its inanafsolure ofparple dye. Ha'dria 
uas much esteemed tor ila wine. Sul'mo was the biTth-plice of Ov'id, aod 
Amitcr'num, of Sal'tust. Corlin'iam was the capital of the Pelig^kL 
Among the other towns ware Fit'mimn, Alern'ur ' — =' •-- 



m wi^^ 



3. Sam'nium lay in the interior of Italy, east of La'tium 
Campa'nia ; it was the country of the Sam'niles, a people similar 
to the Sa.'hines. They bore an inveterate hatred to the EiomaBs, 
but were finally conquered by them, in the time of Syl'la, afler a 
war of 70 years' duration. 

4. The Sam'nites cnllivaled varioue arts and maniifaclnres, which they 
borrowed, as well as their laws, from the Grcoka. Their form of govem- 
inenl was democratic; and, at the oommencement of a war, they were 
Accustomed to chooas a common general U> command the armies of the djf 
ferent tribes. 

5. Among the towns of the Sam'nitea were Sam'nis,the capital, and Bens. 
ven'tum, near which Fyr'rJius, king of Epi'rus, who came to aasiat the 
Sam'nites afainat the Romans, was totally defeated, & C. 374. Alli'fe w« 
noted for its pottery. Cau'dinm gave name to the Fur'cffl Candi'nffi (Cau'- 

le Forks), a narrow defile between two mountains : here a Roman army 
s compelled to pass uoder the yoke, by the Sam'nites, and the Romans 
.. : obliged to make a djsgracefiil peace, B. C. 331. 



Q. 1. Describe Ficenum. The inhabitants. Ila fertility. 2. Wliat ia 
niidof Ancona? The inhabitants 7 Asciilum ?iccnuni 7 Hadija! Bnl- 
nio t Amitemam 7 Name the otlier towns. 3. Describe tlie position of 
Samnium, &>c. What were the ieelings of the Satnnites towards the Ro 
mans? What occurred to them 7 4. What did Ihty cultivate T What did 
they botmw from the Greeks? What was their form of govemroant? 
What did they do at the commonceraent of a war 1 5. What town WM 
their capital 7 What is saidofBeneventum? Allifa:? Caiidium 7 G. De. 



r 

^^> 6. Campa'nu h 



the rivei Li'iis to tLe Sirania ; it was a beautiful and fertile dis- 
trict, and is still described as the moat charming province of Italy. 
Many of the most distinguished Romans resorted thither and built 
themselves splendid country houses. 

7. It underwent more frequent changes of inhsbitsnta, in early limea, 
than anj othor part of the peninauln.. Attracted b; the lertllitj ofxhe soil, 
the beauty of the climato, and ita commddiQui hnvenB, BUcceasiso invudefB 
poured in and diBpoaaoasod each other, until the superior ascendancy of 
Rome left her the undisputed mistress of Uiia garden of Italy. 

8. Cap'im was the chief city of Campa'nia; it declared in Avour of Hnn'- 
nibal; but its voluptuouB pleasures ruined his veteran soldiers, after thej 
had vaDqnisbed all Iho armiEs of Rome. On its subsequent BubmissioD to 
the Romans, many of Uib citizens were punished with death, or sold inlu 
■laveij. Close lo Cap'ua was Casili'num, whicli endured such citreme 
bmine daring its siege by Hannibal, that a mouse, it is said, sold for SOU 
deoarii — about S30 of our money. 

9. Vena'fium was famed for its olives, and Mount Mas'slcus for its wine : 
neu it were the vineyards which produced the renowned Faler'nian wine, 
■o boasted ofby the voluptuous poets of Rome. At Liter'num, Seip'io Afti- 
ra'nns lived in exile. Bai'ce was noted for its warm springs and bathe; the 
Romans viewed it as the most enchanting spot on earth ; it was crowded 
with the villas of their great men. Here was the academy of Cic'ero, the 
&Tourite haunt of Vir'gil, and the palace of Lucul'Ius. 

10. Neap'olia, or Parlhen'ope, was a beaufjful city, of Greek origin ; the 
inhabitants were eSeraiuate and luxurious. Near the city was the lomb or 
Vir'gil, whose remains were brosght lienco from Brundn'sium, where he 
died. A few miles from Neap'olia was Mount Vesu'vius, the only volcano 
in continental Europe, and one of the most active in the world. HercuU'- 
neum and Pampe'ii, cities which lay at the base of the mountain, were both 




scribe the position of Campania. What is said nf it? What is ita iireieni 
description? What did many of the Romans do? T. What is said of it* 
changes 1 What attracted invaders 7 What is said of Rome 7 8. Of Ca- 
pua 1 Hannibal, &c. 7 What occurred on its subsequent submiaaion? 
WhatissaidofCasilinumT 9, Of Venafrum 7 Mount Massicua? Litcmum? 
BaiiE 7 10. Describe NeapoUa and its inhabitants. What was near the city 7 
WlutiaaaidofMount Vesuvius? Of Herculaneum and Pompeii ? ll.How 



10" 



H 



114 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

o»er«iielmcd by an eruption of ashes and Inva, A. D. 79, The elder Pliny, 
(I tfaa SBmo time, loal his hfe b; Teotoring too neai (lie Tolcano, 

11. Thtae eitUa remained unknown Ibc rnorc Ihnn aixltcn centuries, but 
were st length diwavercd, Hcrcula'neura in 1713, and Pompe'li in 175D; 
the latter has been nearly all uncoTcrcd, and travetlers may dow walk 
through a great citeot of Uiis ancient town. It cihibila the fiill picture of 
what a Roman city wai, habitatioaB, temples, balhs, the shops of the diffei- 
enl trades, the iaiplumcnla they mcd, mid even the maleriala on which they 
were euiployed. 

IS. Nu'la trsB a Blrongly furtiRed city ; here Han'nihal was repulsed E>y 
Marcol'IuE, and hflre, subsequently, Augustus died. Bells were eaid to have 
been invented and first Deed in No'la, Saler'num was an ancient city; the 
hilts in the vicinU; were limied for their nine. Off (he coast lay the island 
^na'ria, named from tho earthen casks made in it. Ca'preis was the 
scene ofthe infamous debnucheilcs of Tibc'rlus. It is now a great resort 
Ibr quails, and is called the bishopric of quails. 

Mop Na.4. — What sea bounded Picenum on (he east? What mountains 
onthewestT What river formed its north boundary? Soutbam ? Pdnt 
out Ancona. Aseulum Picenum. Hadria. Sulmo. Amilernnni. Cor 
tinium and the other towns. What districts lay west of Sanmiuml 
East! What river separated Samnium, in part, from Campania? Ptrinl 
out Samnis. BencTentam. Alhfm. Caudium. What sea bounded Cam 
pania on the west 7 What river separated it from Latium I From Luca. 
nia? What river, in part, from Samniuni ? What islands Uy off the coast 
of Campania 7 Where is Mount Vesuvius? How high is it ? Where is 
Mount Mnsaicus? Where is Capua ? Venafrum? Litornum J Bai"? t 
Noapolis? Hereulaneum? Pompeii? Nola? Salemiim? On what 
gulf are Neapolis, Hereulaneum, and Pompeii? On what gull' is Salemom T 



LA'TIUM. 

1. La'tium lay on the west side of Italy, between the rivers 
Tiber and Liris ; in early times it was inhabited by the Lal'ins, 
Au'sonea, Ru'tuli, Sa'bines, Vol'sci, and other petty tribes. The 
name was derived from Lati'nus, one of ita first inonarchs. It waa 
the original countiy of the Romans, and contained the metropolis 
of their empire ; it varied in extent, at different times, but it pro 
bably never exceeded, in area, the Slate of Rhode Island. 

3. The empire of Ronie was the most potent that ever existed : 
Its power was feared by all the surrounding nations, and the title 

long did theso cities remain unknown? When were they discovered? 
What Is the present state of Pompeii 7 12. Whatis said of Nohi7 OfSaler- 
num? The island of JSnaria? Caprere? 

Q. 1. What is said of Latium ? The early inhabitants 7 The name 7 
Of what people waa it the original coiinlry 7 What did it contain T Wliat 
was its eitent? 3. What was the empire of Rome 7 What is said of its 



ITALY. 115 

of a Roman cilizen was, for hundreds of years, regarded as n high 
and envied distinction. The foundation of the empire commenced 
with the building of the city of Rome by Bom'ulus, E. C. 768. 
It flourished fitstasakingdom,for a period of 244 years; secondly, 
as a republic, for 479 years ; and then as an empire, for 506 
years. Its duration was ISiJfl years, ending A. D. 476, with the 
extinction of the western, or Roman empire proper. 

3. The eoKtern, Byzan'tine or Lower Greek ein|:Hre, was, in reality, a 
continuation of the Rom bh dominion, butwilb diminiBhed extent and power. 
The Adriulic Sea was its weitein limit, and its capital naa ConBtantinople. 
It commenced A. D. 39S, when Theoda'sius divided the Roman empire 
bstKeen his two sons, Arca'diua and Huno'iiua: tfie first bcCBme emperor 
oftheeoet, and the other of tbe west Tlie eastern empire continued until 
A. D. 1453, ConstaQtinople was tlien captoied bj the Turks, and a new 
Slate was (bunded on the ruicB of tlie tbrmer. 

4. The authority of Kom'uius extended, at first, only about five milea 
fiam the wails of the eilj he had built: but lie and his successncB soon en- 
larged their territories. During the republic, the bounds of the State were 
rapidl; increased by (he canquesls of its victorious ^nersls, and finally, a 
large portion of the bnowa world was subjected to tho sway of Rome. 

5. Under Augustus, the empiro had reached the summit of its power ; but, 
in the time of TrBjan, it was still &rther enlarged in extent It iJien omo. 
prised the lincit portions of the eastern eonlinent, including all Earope. fi-om 
tbe Atlantic to the Eux'iiie sea, SDUtli of the Rhine and the Danube; in Asia, 
the entire region fi-om tbe Cau'casus mountains and the Eui'ine to the Red 
s}ta,Bnd from the Mediterranean to the river Tigris; in Africa, Egypt, and 
bU the other countries north of the great desert, besides every island in the 
Mediterranean sea. The whole was nearly equal, in extent, to modern 
Europe, with a population estimated at 13U millions : but the latter was 
probably much greater. 

a The warlike character of the Romans, for which they were distin. 
gTiished ftom their first origin, contributed to their sucoese as conquerors. 
Unriralli^d skill in military cierciscs, and pre-eminent ability in their com- 
manders, served to render tliem superior to tiie nations around them. War 
and agriculture were their chief emptayinonts. A large portion of tlie people 
was djTcclly engaged in the militurj service. The proportion of soldiers, 
Gompaied with the whole population, was often as high as one to eight. 

7. The most esteemed reward of a victorious Roman general, was a trium- 
phal procession. It formed a splendid spectacle, consisting of the senate, 
the citizens, and the victorious array, which, marching through the princi- 
pal streets, proceeded np tho Via Sacra, or Sacred Way, to the Capitol. The 

power f The title of a Roman eitiiEnf When did the empire commence, 
&C.T What was it at first T Secondly 1 Thirdly) What is said of its 
duration? When did it end? 3. Describe the eastern empire. Its woat- 
em limits, &c. When did it commence ? Who was emperor of the east ? 
Of the west 7 When did the eastern empire terminate ? What then oc- 
curred 9 4. Wliat is said of the authority of Romulus 1 Of tho republic ? 
5, Of the empire under Augustus 7 Trajonl What did lbs empire then 
coOTwise? Whatis said of ilsextenl? Population? G. Whot is said of 
tlie Bomans t Their skill, &,c. ? Tbcir cmploymcDts ? What proportion 
Midlers ? 7. What is said of a tiiumphal procession 7 Describe it. 




CLASSICAL GEOGBAPHY. 



quered provinccB Hod cii 
chtiiiB. Eveiy Roman 
oomidered it the highcB! 



B, followed by the captiTB princes and generals in 
mmander sspiredlothe honour of a trianiph,Bnd 
ietinction to be thoug'ht worthy of it. 




TrluBiplial Proceulon. 

8. The Komani were, iller the manner of the Atheniaas, separsled into 
•everal classes. Rnm'ulus divided them into three tribes ; I. the Bomana i 
S. the Sabines ; 3. the other fbretgncrs. Sci'vius Tailing aflerwardB dirided 
the ciliienB mto six c1aascB,ficcDrdiiie to amount of property, TbeaeclaBKH 
wore subdivided into 193 centuries. In order to preserve this distribution, a 
eeoBus and valuation was taken every five years- 

9. Each of these classes had arms peculiar to itself, and a certain place 
in the army according to the valuation of (heir fortunes. Those ofthe first 
claaa were called CUs'sici ; all the others ncrc said to be infra Gas'sem : 
hence Clas'aici anctores for the most approved anthora. Thefostdass com- 
prised 100 centuries, and fiimiahed more icen and money for the pnblio ser- 
vice than all the rest of the Stale besides. They bad likewise a, predomi- 
nant inflnence in the assemblies ofthe people. 

10. Another divisica of the Romans was into Patricians and Plebeians. 
The former comprised the moat wealthy and poweriiil familicB.and were the 
descendants ofthe senators or fathers (Patrea, hence Patricians) appointed 
by Romulus. At first, the Senators amounted to 1 00 in number, afterwards 
200. then 300. On the fall of the repubiio, the Senate consisted of lOOO 
meiibera, but tlie emperor Angustns reduced it to 600. The Plebeians 
comprised the farmers, mechanics, merchants and snldiers, as well as the 
poor, who lived principally by the largesses mode by the Stale, or by tbu 
rich. The Plebs rustica comprised tho agricultijral classes ; the Plebs ur- 
bana, the residents of cities and towae. 

The viotor, &.e. 8. How were the Romans divided by RomnlasT By 
BerviuaTulliosT Whatwcrs the suhdivi^ions, df^c. 7 How was the order 
pre»er>ed7 9. What is said ofthe arms and position of each class? What 
was the first called T Tho others? What did the first eomprise? What 
did they furnish? What is said of their influpnce? 10, What other 
diviaion eiistcd ? What did the first comprise ! How many senators wero 
ttero at first? Afterwords? What did Augustus do? What did tha Pl»- 
:- , jjjjj p,g^ rustica I The Pleba urban* J 



ITALY. 



117 



Mop Ki>. 4.— What sea bounded Lalinm on Uie west and aoutb 1 Wh«t 
rivsr sepnmlcd it from Elruria? From CampaniB.? What ialonda lay 
aanthwest? What mountains on t)ie east? What promontory qr cape 
aoulh T Where arc the Pontino marsbes 7 Many attempts hare beoa made, 
wltbin the last SOOO years, lo drain these marshes by the constmction ol' 
oanalB, &c. through thom, but they still retain their ancient character. See 
Map Vicimly of Some. Point out the Via Appia. Via Lalina. Aurelia. 
Claudia, &C. TJiese were the Tiie or roads con itruclod by the Romans ; they 
commenced at (he Ferum, in the centre of Roniie, were carried throughout 
Italy, and thence branching out in all direcliens, were extended to the fron- 
tiers of Iho empire. They were of great solidity, and had mile-stonee placed 
on them. These roada Were among the most uscfnl and remarkable works 




. The cin" of Home was the capital of the Roman empire; it 
n called the Eternal City, and was for 2000 years, more or 
less connected with everything great and memorable enacted in the 
civilized world. In its days of prosperity, its magnificence and 
luxury were unrivalled ; it was enriched, by its generob, with the 
spoils of a hundred nations, and l]ie vfealth of the most potent 
monarchs was poured into its colfers. 

3. Rome ia on the east side of the Tiber river, 15 milea from (he sea ; it 
viaa bnilt, at first, on two, but afterwards, chiefly on seven hills ; hence it 
was called Septicollie, or city of (he seven hills. The city was surrounded 
by walls, first by Romulus, (hen by Scrvius Tnllius, and atlerwards by Au- 
lelius and Uonurius. The walls of the second were probably about nine, 
and those of the latter thirteen milea in circumference. The galea of the 
city were thir^ in number. The suburbs, beyond the walls, were eiten- 

Q. I. What is said of Ihe cily of Rome, fltc, 1 What was it for 2000 
years T What is said of its days of proEperity 7 By whom and in what 
way was it enriched 7 S. Describe its poeition. On what was it firat built 7 
Afterwards what naa it called 7 Who surrounded it with walls 7 What 
WM their circamterence 7 Wfiat is said of (he suburbs? The c: 



^ 



118 CLASSICAL GEOGHAPHY. 

iivB, afti donaely peopled. The circ 
the jen A. D. 350, was estimitlcd a 
three lo roui millionB. 

3. Some, at tbu time, contained among \U public buildings 4S0 temples, 
five theatres, two amphitheatres, Bcvcn circuses, of Tost extent, and sixteen 
public baths, built of marble. Some of tlie latter were immense structures. 
irere lumiehed with ererj conTenience, and could accommodate 3000 bathers 
it the same time. From the aqueducts a. prodlgioUB number of fouatsiria 
were supplied with water ; man; of these were remarkable lor their arcbi- 
lectnral beauty. The palaces, Iriumphsl arches, calumns, porticoes, and 
obelisks were almost without number, and were, for the most part, elagsnl 
ipeciinens of art 

4. The architectural splendour of this grfiat city properly dates 
from the reign of Augustus, who boasted that he found it "brick, 
and left it marble." The chief aim of Augustus and the empe- 
rors, his successors, in the construction of the splendid buildings 
which they erected for public amusement, seems lo have been to 
compensate the people for the loss of liberty by the magnificence 
of their shows and entertainments. 

5. Among the chief ornaments of Komc was the Capitol ; it was built on 
the Capituline hill, the highest part of the city, and was approached fiom the 
Forum by lOU sleps. The gates were of brass, gilded, and the whole build- 
ing was so copiously adorned in the same way, that the Romans cslled it 
the ISoIden CapitoL On the Bouthwest side of the hill is llie Tarpeian rock. 
Notorious criminals were often put to death by being hurled from its sum. 
miL Tlie Forum was the chief place of public assembly ; in it were the 
temple of Janus and the Senale-IIouse. The gales of the first were never 
closed during war, and so incessant were the contests in which the Romoiu 
were engaged, that they were shut only three times in the course of eight 
hundred years. 

G. The Senate-House was the grand legislative hall of the nation ; it was 
copiously adorned with the statues of eminent warriors and statesmen. 
Here, at the fbot of Pompey's statue, Julius Cffisar was killed bj Brutus, 
Cassius, and other conspirators, B. C. 4i,in the 5Gth year of his age. This 
great general, historian, and statesman, though he usurped the supreme 
power and overthrew the liberties of his country, was the ablest luler who 
ever wielded the destinies of Rome. 

7. The CoUse'um, an immense building, though much dilapidated, still 
remains j it is a third of a mile in oireoroference, is more than a hundred 
feet high, and had room for 100,000 spectators. In Uie arena were eihibited 
the cruel fights of gladiators, in which tlie Romans took a pleasure, equally 

the city and environs 7 Population 7 3. What is said of the public build- 
ings I The baths 7 How many could bathe ut the same time ? What is 
■aid of the aqueducts 1 Palaces 7 Triumphal arches, &.c. 7 4. From what 
lime does its architectural splendour date? Of what did Augustus boast? 
What was hischief aim,&.c. 7 S. Describe the eapitoL Its gates, &^c. The 
Tarpeian rock. What was the Forum 7 What did it contain 7 What is 
said of the temple of Janus 7 6. Of the senatejioose 7 What occurred at 
the fbotof Pompey's statue? Whendidthiseienttoke place7 How old was 
C[esar7 What is said of him 7 7. Describe the Coliseum. For how many 
spectators had it room 7 What was exhibited there 7 8. Describe the Pan- 



ITALY. 



119 




infamous and eilravagarl, tog Ui w'lh ihb T i 

maJs und curubats of wild bo ts 

8. TJie Fan'theon, or lemp 
all the goda, is now s Chii ban 
cburch ; it is the best prese d 
ancient building in Rome, and ig 
ualTersally admired for ita fi 
dome and ita beautiful column 
It ia 150 ftot high, with wnl B 
feetthiclij tJiereare nowiod ws, 
but an opening in the roof^ S5 ce 
in diameter, aervea to ligh th 
interior. 

9. Oe'tia, at the mouth of the 
Tiber, was the port of R m Tli F H* n. 
Southward, on the coaat, w Lan n num and La n um th lallcr 
received ita namo from its g by La m m was unded by 
■Sne'aa, and wae named after hta wifb Lavinia. Ac dta was, lo early 
timea, the chief city of the Bu'tuli; here Camil'lua remnLDcd in eiile till 
the siege of Rome bj the Gaula, under Bren'nua, wbcn he bo nobly contri- 
buted to the delivery of his country. 

10. Lanu'vium was the birth-place of the three An'tonineB, of the actor 
Roa'ciua and others. Alba Longa lay on the east side of lake Alba'nus ; it 
was long tha rival of Rome, but was destroyed by Tul'Iua HoBtiriua ; the 
soil around il waa celebrated ibr its fertility. Vel'itrB was the birth-place 
of AngOBtua, and Tus'culum of the elder Cato. Manj of the wealthy Ro- 
mans had villoB at thia place, among whichlhevillaTusouIa'numof Cicero 
may bo named, 

11. At Gi'bii Rom'uIuB and Re'mua were educated ; near it the Gaula 
were defeated by Camil'lus, after they had sacked Rome. Colla'lia ia memo- 
rable for the death of Lucre'tia. Tibur waa a fevourito place of residence 
with the Romans, who used it, at one time, aa a place of baniehmeTiL Sy'. 
phax died here in captivity, and here Zeno'bia, queen of Palmj'ra, spent 
the latter years of her li&. 

12. Aqui'num was celebrated lor ita purple dye; it waa the birth-place 
of Ju'vcnal and llie emperor Pcseen'niua Niger. Tcrraoi'na was a noted 
naval station ; In the vicinity the emperor Galba waa born. For miiE, in 
the southern part of La'tium, was a favourite residence of Cicero, and hero 
he was murdered by order of Antony. An'tium waa, at firat, a Volscian 
dty ; it was the residence of (ikiriola'nuB, aAer he left Rome. In the tioie 
of the empeiora it was a noted town ; Augustus, Tiberius and Caljg'ula all 
resided here for a time, and it was the birtli-place of Nero. Arpi'ni 



them 
hisle 



n of boUi Marina and Cicero ; the latter often alludea to il 



theon. 9. What was Ostium? What ia said of Laurenlum ? Of Lav i- 
nimnT Ardca? 10. Who wereboro at Lanuvium 7 What ia said of Alba 
Longa? Velitrffi? Tuaculura? 11. Who were born at Gabii ? What 
occurred near it 7 What is aaid of ColkUa 7 Of "Kbur 7 Who died there? 
What queen resided there? 13. What ia said of Aqbiniun 1 Temciiu' 
Fonnias, ice. 7 Antium, &c ? Arpinuni ? 



F 



120 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

_ BB hills on which Homo was chiefly built Point out Ihe Tar- 

peisn rock. The wslla of Servius Tullius. Of Aurelius and Honorius. 
Where is the Coliaeum J The Pantheon? Tlie Forum 7 The Cireiu 
MaiimuB J Of Nero ? Of Adrian I The baths of Diocletian ? Of Titm J 
Of AnloninuB Caracalla? The mausoleum of AugHBlus? Of Adrian! 
The cotumn of Trajan I Of Antooiae ? Whcra is the CnmpuB MartiuB 
(Field or Mara) 7 Here the mlliUr; rDViewa, the election of the magiatrateB, 
and the registration or cenaas of the people were held. Is Rome in north 
or south latitude ? Which of onr large cities is Tcrj nearly on the same 
parallel ? See Map Fictnily iif Rome. Where la Oitium 7 Laurentioum 
and the other towns mentioned in tlie text t See Latiam. Point out Aqni- 
num, Teilacina. Formiu. Antiuui. Arpinnm. 

47 

MAG'NA GR.iE'CIA. 

1. The southern part of Italy was settled at an early period by 
colonies from Greece, who brought tvith them the arts and institu- 
tions of that country ; hence it was called Mag'na Gre'cia (Great 
Gireece). Its divisions were Apu'ha, Cala'brio, Luca'iiia,and Bruf- 
tia. It was long the seat of ieaining, industry and wealth, but it 
is now, for (he most part, sunk in ignorance ; the interior districts 
are almost unknown, and the inhabitants are amongst the most 
barbarous in Europe. 



2. Apu'lia ky on the Adriatic Sea, and south of the river 
Frento ; it is supposed to have been named after Ap'ulus, an an- 
cient monarch of the country. It comprised two divisions, viz., 
Dau'nia, in the north, and Peuce'tia, in the south: the whole 
region was famous for its wool. 

3. Among the towna of Apu'lla was Can'nte, noted (or the victory gained 
by Hannibal over the Romans ; the latter lost 50,000 men. After the battle, 
the gold rings of the iidien Roman knights were collected, and several 
bushels of them sent to Carthage. Canu'sium was famous for its mano. 
fectures of cloth [ hither the remnant of the Roman army fled, ailor tire 
defeat at Can'nie. Vcnu'sia was the native town of Horace. Neai thii 
place Marcellua was killed in a skirmish against Hannibal. Luce'ria was 
noted for its fine wool. At Aa'culum, surnamed Ap'ulum, a severe battle 
WBH fought between Pyr-rhus and the Romans. North of Apn'Ua lay the 
Diomede'K islands; to ono of these, called Trem'iti, Augustus banished hii 
granddaughter Julia, who died there. 

Q. 1. What is said of the southern part of Italy, &c. T What wu it 
called 7 Its difisions 7 What was it once I What is it now 7 % De- 
scribe the position of Apulia, di^c. What did it comprise? What was it 
famous for J 3. What is said ofCanntB ? What occurred after the battle T 
For what was Can us in m lamoas7 What is said oi'Venusia? Lucoria? 



4. Cala'bria, called also Japyg'ia and Messa'pia, occupied the 
easlenimo&t portion of Italy; it was fertile, abounded in cattle, 
Iruits of rarioua kinds, and excellent honey. The early iuhabit- 
aotB were the Cal'abri, the Messa'pi, and the Japyges, 

5. Taren'lum wu once Ibe must important cl(j in Mug'na Gne'cia ; tljc 
people were wealthy aod luxurious. I'heir wnra witli tile ItomiinB brouglil 
Pjrr'rhua from Greece into Italy as their ally. This placa was, for a lime, 
thtt reudence of FyUiag'oraB, who iiiBpired the inhahilants with a love of 
virtne, and thus mads them superior to tlicir noighbaurii. Hydmn'tum wob 
the nearest town to Greece, Heto Pyr'rliua, and afterwards Varro, modi- 
UUed the bnildiog of a bridge ocrDU the Adriatic, here 47 nutes in breadth. 

6. Bnindu'sium was a naval station ; from hence the Romans sencrslly 
embarked Jbr Greece. Dyrracb'ium, on the opposite coast, and 100 miles 
diitant, was the chief point of intercourse. VirPil died at Brmidu'sium, 
when on his journey irom Athens to Rome. At Mandu'rim, Archid'amue, 
king of Sparta, was killed in a buttle between the Tarentinea sjid Luci'- 
oiaiu. fiu'diie was the birth-place of Ea'niuB, the fiiuiid of Scip'io A^ca'- 
anf|>Dd the &tlier of Latin poetry. 



7. Ldca'nu lay south of Apulia ; it derived Jts name from the 
Luca'ni, a Sanmite tribe, who overcame the Greek colonists pre- 
viously settled in that part of Italy, and gave their name to the 
country. After the Roman conquest, it is said to have been less 
flotirishing than previous to that event, 

8. Metapon'lum was one of the principal cities, Pythag'oraB is supposed 
to have died here. At Faa(Io'sia,F;r'rhiu gained bis first victory over the 
Romans. Syb'aiis was noted for (he weultli, luiury, and voluptuousness of 
the inhabitants. It was demulished and rebuilt five diS*erent times, bat it 
was at length destroyed by the people of Croto'na. The term Syb'arite is 
still used to denote an effeminate voluptuary. Syb'aris lay between the 
rivers Cra'thia and Syb'aris ; the waters of the fonner were said to give a 
yellow CDlDur to the liair and beard of those who drank them. 

9. Pes'tum or Fosido'nia was famed (or its beautiful roaes, which bloomed 
twice a year. Not far distant was E'lea, the city of Parmen'idca and Ze'na 
The sehooi of philosophy which they founded was called the EleaVic At 
?Jamui'(i'a,Marcel'lus detealod HonniboL At lieiacle'a Ihe congress of l)w 

Aacntum, &1C.I 4. Describe the ponilion of Calabria, &c. Name the 
early inhabitants. 5, WhatissaidofTarentum.dcc? Wlio resided there? 
Whst is said of Hydruntuni, &.c, T G, What was Brunduaium I Dyrra. 
chium? Who died at Brundusium T Who was killed at Mandurie ? 
Who was born at RudiatI 7, Describe tlie position of Lucania, Sic. Its 
cooditioQ after the Roman conquesL 6. What ia said of Metapontum, &C.T 
Pondosia? Sybaris? How uften was it demolished and rebuilt? B; 
whom was it finally destroyed? What docs the term Sybarite denote? 
Where did Sybaria lie ? What is said of tiie water of the Cratbia ? 9, 
^VfaaissaidofFKStum? Elca? Numistro? Heraclea) Siris? PyiusT 

E 11 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



^^ 



Ililo-Greck colonics BBsemblRd. Near Si'cii u battle wsa fought betveni 
Pyr'rhns and tha Romana. Pyx' as wns founded by a colony ftom Messa'ns. 
At Foteu'da Tibe'rius Grac'cbna was tTeachcioiuly skin. 



10. Briit'tia or Brut'tium formed ibe soiitheramost division of 
Italy. The inhabitonls were culled the Bru'iii or Brut'lii ; they were 
saia to have been slaves and shejiherds of the Luca'nians, who, in 
process of time, became sufficiently powerful to subdue the Greek 
colonists. 




rulf : on Iho o] 



n. Croto'na was tbe nnoBt bmona city ID ttiLir part oFItaly, stvnalait 
the residcnca of Pythag'oraj, and here he establiahed hia school of philoack 
pby. It was the birth-place of the phyuclan Democs'des, and of Mile, tbo 
wreotler ; the latter was ftmoua for his prodigjons strength. Near Caa'lon 
the Croto'nianfl were defeated by the Lo'crians. Tcm'csa was noted, in 
mines, Scyla'cium gave name lo the Scyla'cian 
It was the gulf of Tcrina : the space between the 
iwoguirawas mo narrowest part of Italy; Han'nibal ontrenahed hiia«elf 
here against the Romans. Consen'tia was the capital of the Brut'lii. Sej^la 
stood at the entrance of the strait between Sicily and Italy ; near it was the 
rock Scyl'Ia, so dreaded by ancient mariners. Rhe'ginm, an important 
city, was founded 700 years B. C, by tho Greeks : it was often serioosly 
injured by earthquakes, to which its neighbourhood was subject. 

Miip JVo. 4 — What districts lay north and west of Apulia ? What sob 
east of Apulia and Calabria? What sea west of Lucania and Bruttia? 
What gulf between Lucania and Calabria ? What aaa easl of Bruttia! 
What mountains in Apulia eastward of tiio Apennines ! On what river was 



Potentia? 10. What ia said of Brullia? >Vhat were the inhabitants 
calledT What is said of thcm7 II. What is said of Crotona? Who 
lived there, &.C 7 Who was bum thero 7 What was the latter 7 What ia 
■ud of Caulon? Temeaa! Scylacium, &c 1 Coiisentia7 Scylla! El» 




Ua! Ell». I 

J 




ITALY, 123 

■n what riven was Sybaris ^ What river separated lues, 
ma and CaJubria T What promonlotiee or capca on the const of Apulia. 7 
Cnlabria? Lueania! Eratlia? Which was tlio moat aoulhern capo of 
Italy? Southeustetn 1 What lowna lay on the gulf of PBstum ? Laiia? 
TerinaT Tarentum ? Soylncian gulf? Where are Cannffi and the other 
chief towns of Apulia ? Point out the chiflftownB of Calabria. I.uconia. 
Brultitt. When ware the Komana defeated at Cannto ? At Pandosia ? 



ITALIAN ISLANDS. 

1. Sicily is tlie largest of the Italian islands ; it is also the 
largest in the Mediteira'nean sea : from its triangTiIar shape it was 
called Trina'cria : it was celebrated for its fertility, and was ac- 
counted one of the granaries of the Roman empire. The Phceni- 
cians, and then the Greeks, settled various colonies on its shores. 
The Carthaginians afterwards became its masters; but the Romans, 
during the Punic wais, drove them out, and retained possession 
of it tmtil the downfall of their empire. 

S. Sicily is separated Irom Italy by the Fre'lum Sic'uluui or Sicilian 
strait, in wliioh were the whirlpool Charyb'dia aiid the rock Snyl'la, the terror 
of the ancient mariners; hut they arc not now reckoned dangerous. Icttha 
eastern part of the island is the noted volcanic mountain .^'na, the tabled 
ibrge of Vulcan, and where he employed tlie Cyclops in forging thnnder- 
bolta far Jupiter. The giant Tj phoe'us was ilibled to be buried under Sicily, 
bis hande being kept down by the promonloiieB Pelo'rum and Pachj'num, 
his feet by Lilybsi'um, whilst Mount .Xt'iia pressed upon hia head. -. 

3. Syracuse, tlie ancient metropolis ofSicily, was, at one time, aacountiu.*^ 
the largest ci^ in the world; it was founded by (he Corinthians B. C. 733; '. 
it consisted of five distinct sections, and hence it was called Pentap'olis (the 
Eve cities]. Though lis territory was circumecribed, its influence oyer the 
neighbouring States was eiteneive. The Roman general Mareel'lua cap- 
tured it, after a siege of three years, B. C. 313. Several distinguished men 
were born here, among whom was Archime'des, a moat prolbund genius, 
and (he most renowned of the ancient geometricians. During the aiege he 
constructed various machines by which the Syracusai^s greatly annoyed (lie 

4. In (he northeast was Messa'na. the birth-pkce of the. hietorian Eube'. 
merus. Lconti'ni was noted for ita wine; Hjb'la, for its honey. (ilo'Ia 
was the birth-place of the poet Apollodo'rus; near it .^'diylus waa killed 
by an eagle letting fidi a tortoise on hiahead. Agrigen'tuiii was a renowned 
city, and once contained 200,000 inhabitanta ; it was the residence of the 
tyrant Phal'aris. Heracle'o, surnamed Mino'a, waa the reputed birth-place 

Q. I . What ia said of Slcity, &c. ? Of the Phcenicians and Greeks ? Car- 
thaginians 1 Romans ? 3. What separates Sicily from Italy ) What ia 
said ofCharybdisandScylla? What noted mountain? What ia said of 
Typhoeus ? 3. Describe Syracuse. By whom and when was it founded 7 
Ofwhal did it consist, 4.C. J What is saidof its capture? Of Archimedes 7 
r4.What issaid of Mesbona? Leontini? Hyblal Gelal Agrigentum? 




121 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

of Uie painter Zeu'iiB. Seli'nus wns 1 1 urge and flauriBhiug citj ; it denved 
it* name Irom the parsley which grew tliere ia ihundance. 

5. Lilybas'utn was a noted gtronghold of llie Csrtliaginians ; it was be- 
sieged by the Romani for ten years, during tlia RrBt Funic war. At Dicp'. 
annm Anchi'scs died ; noar it Adhcc'liiil detbabed a Roman arm;. Pinor'- 
mns wsB one of the Carthaginian ulrongholds ; licrs Aa'drubal was defeated 
b; Metel'Ius. In Mf 'Is Poi'tus or ba; the CarUiaginianB were defeated by 
the Roman coneul Duil'ius. In the centre of the island wus Agyr'iuni, the 
nalire town orDiadn'ruB Sic'utuii. 

6. Nartb or Sicily were the fo'lian or Vnlca'nian islands, the fabled 
doQiaiiiB of ^olui, the god of the winds. Lip'ara, the largEst, was noted 
for its fioe ftuita and its mineral waters. Near Drep'auuin were tbe Mgif. 
dea islands ; here the Romans defeated the Carlhaginiins in a great naval 
engagement, which pnt an end to the first Punic war. North of Hyc'cais 
is UEti'ca or OBte'odGs, bo called from tho bones of 6UIHI mercenaries, aban- 
doned there by the Carthaginians to starvation because thej were clamorouB 

7. Southward of Sicily was Mel'ita, famous (or its wool, and its cotton and 
linen ikbricfl ; here St. Paul was cast away, though some are of opinion that 
Merita on the Illyr'ion const was tho scene of the Apostle's sliipwrecli. 
Near Melita lay the island of Gau'Ios. 

8. Corsica and Sardinia were, next to Sicily, the largest Ila- 
liaa islands ; they were both settled, at an early period, by Greek 
colonies ; the Carthaginians afterwards acquired possession of them, 
and subsequently, the Romans ; the latter used Corsica as a place 
of exile, and Sen'eca was, for a lime, banished tMther. 

9. Corsica was called Cyr'nos, by the Greeks, and also Cor'si, whence its 
name ; it was noted for its extensive woods, and its bitter honey ; the bees 
derived the latter from the yew trees, with which the island aboniided. The 
longevity of the inhabitants was escribed to their using this honey as part 
of Uieir food. In the time of Plinj, Corsica was prosperous and well peo- 
pled. Maria'na and Ale'ria were the chief towns; some of the others were 
Fal'liB, Cenlnri'nnm and Urcin'ium ; the latter is now Ajaocio, tho birth- 
place of the Emperor Napoleon. 

10. Sardinia was a rich and fertile island ; it yielded large quantities of 
grain, wool,and salt. The climate, except among the mountaina, was con- 
sidered so unhealthy that tho Romans seldom kept a standing force there ibr 
any length of time. A species of wild paisley grew in abundance, which, 
if eaten, contracted the nerves of the face, producing painfiiland involontary 
iila of laughter, and often causing death ; hence the eipreesion Sardonicos 

Heraclea 7 Selinus ? 5. What ia sold of LilybiEum ? What occurred at 
Drepanimi ? What is said of Ponormus 7 What took place in Mylio For. 
tual Who was born at Agyrium 7 6. What islands north of Sicily! 
WhatissaidofLipara? The JEg^deal Uslica7 7. What lay south of 
Sicily? For what was it fiunous 7 What occnrred there? What is th« 
opinion of some I 8. Describe Corsica and Sardinia. Their settlement, 
&,c Who was boQished to Corsica? 9. What was it called? For wliat 
was it noted? What is said of the inhabitants? Of the island in the time 
of Pliny? Mariana, &c? 10. Describe Sardinia. The climate. What 
grew there? What was its efiect if eaten? What did the Greeks call 
Sardinia? What is said of the inhabitants 7 Name the chieftowns. 



ind gave no 
Uie chief lot 



Sardonic grin, far a horrible or hideous Isugh. The Greeks called 
id Ichna'sa. or Sutdolio'tiB, liom the reBembluics of its outline to 
B of a foot or eandal. The JabBbitunts were the Sor'dii orSurdo'iiiJ, 
iaiand. Car'dis, Ol'bia, and Tor'ris Libis'eonia were 



Map JVb.4. — Point out the western cape of Sicily. The norOicKMern 
SouthcsBtern. What small txlandB la; narlh 7 Sonth! West I What 
two large islands northwest? What mountains in the western part of 
Sicily I In the eastern 7 What noted volcano 1 How iiigh is it 7 Wherti 
i« Sjracose 7 Moaaana and the other towns mentioned in the toit T When 
waaABdrubal defeated at PaiiorinuB? The CarthagioiaiiB at the ^g^de* 
ialanda 7 When was Syracuse taken I What strait aeparales Sicily from 
the continent 7 Where is Charjbdis7 ScyllaJ What parallel of lalilude 
pasBBB through the northern part of Sicily J To which of our Slates doea 
the northern part of Iho island correspond ! The southern 7 How long and 
wide ia Sicily 7 What atrait separated Corsica and Sardinia 1 What paral- 
lel of latitude passes through Corsica J Sardinia 7 To what part of our 
Union do™ Corsica correspnnd 7 The northern part of Sardinia? The 
southern? What mountains in Sardinia? Corfiea? How high are theji' 
What is the length and width of Sardinia 7 Of Corsica 7 



^ HISPA'NIA. 

1. HisPA'miAor Spain included the whole of the large peninsula 
occupied by modem Spain and Portugal. It was called Ibe'ria 
from the river Ibe'nis, and Hespe'ria Ultima (the far west} to dis- 
tinguish it from Italy, which had once been colled Hcspe'na. Thf 
name is supposed to be derived from the Phcenic'ian word for 
ralihil, because great numbers of those animals were, at first, found 
here. 

2. The first luiown inhabitants were Celts and Ibe'rians,, toge- 
ther wilh the Celtihe'rians, a mixed race, descended from both 
nations. The whole were divided into numerous tribes, all of 
whom were noted for their indomitable courage. At a remote 
period the Phcenic'ians, and afterwards ihe Carthsginiana, estab- 
lished colonics in Spain ; and the latter, in process of time, ac- 
quired possession of nearly the whole region. The Greeks also 
phinted several colonies. 

3. During the second Punic war, the Romans drove out the Carthaginians, 
and divided the country into the two great proTincBs,HiBpa'niaCite'[iorand 
Hispa'nia Dlte'rior (Hither and Further Spain), Hence this country war* 
sometimea called the Two Spaios. 

q. I. What did Hiapania include 7 What was it called, &c 7 From 
what was the name derived T S. Who were the firet known inhabitants 7 
What were they noted for 7 What nation established colonies in Spain 7 
What did the latter acquire 7 The Greeks 7 3, What occurred during the 




r 



CLASSICAL GEOGBAPHY. 



:eived thcnameorTar. 
e protiDCea of Bn'tica 



4. In Uia timH ofAugUBtas, Hiapa'niB. CiW'rioc 
coiien'sis ; tho other provinca waa divided into Ite profiaeea 
id LuBita'tiiii. The first look its numa from Tar'nico, the i 
cond, froni the river Bs'tis ; uiJ the third, from the Liisila'nii 

priDoipal Iribcs. Hiapa'Diii wu fiunous for iU silver, which was bo nhnn- 
duit thiit the moat common ulanails were mide of it. During the timeB of 
ths Romana, 40,000 men were cmplojred in the minea. 

5. Spuin wia (he firat country beyond Italy that submitted to the Romam, 
but ita final conquest baffled the offorta of the ableat oommandera for olmaat 
half a century. Under the away of Rome it became populoua, and ths peo- 
pie cultivated learning and the arta with aucoeaa. T)ic Scn'ocaa (father and 
son), Mar'tia.l, Quiiitil'ian, Lu'can, Mela, and othci learned men, were 
Soman Spaniard a. 

6. Tai'iaca woa Ihe capital of Roman Spain; it was grcatlr improved by 
theScipioe. Iler;da waa noted for ita brave defence a^ainatCtBgar by A&a. 
Diaa and Petio'uiua, the lieutenants of Fompey. At Bil'bilis the poet Mar' 
tial was born. Oa'ca was noted for its public achools, established by Serlo'- 
rius: here the latter was afisaaGinaled bj; Fetpen'na and othera, B. C. 73. 
Numan'tia, though without walla, and with a very inferior force, bravely 
withatood the Romans for fourteen yeara. 

7. Calagur'ria was besieged by Pompey during the Sorlo'riuD war, wben 
the inhabitants were forced to feed on their women and children i whence 
the Romana were wont to call any grievous fiimino Fames Calagunita'na, 
Quintil'ian was born here. Sagun'tum, a Greelc colonv, was noted for its 
clay, of which beautiful cups were made. The inhabitants were strongly 
attached to Rome, and withstood a aiege of eight months against Han'nibal, 
till, urged by famine, they destroyed Uicmael 
a C. S19. This siege was the cause of the a 




9. At Sego'bi 

second Punic war 7 Hew waa the country divided 7 4. What waa Hiapa- 
nia Citerior called? How waa the other province divided? From what 
did the lirat Uke its name 7 The second ? Third 7 For what was Hispa- 
nia famoua T tlow many men were employed in the minea ? 5. What is 
said oflhesabmiaaian of Spain! What did it become, &c7 Who were 
Roman Spaniarda? 6. What is said of Tarracol Ilerdal BilbilJsT 
Osca? Mumantia? 7. What is aatd of Cala^urris 7 Who was bocD there T 
For what was SaguDtum noted 7 What ia said of the inhabitants 7 What 
did thia siege cause 7 8, What ia said of Segobia? Carthago Nova 7 



SPAIN. 127 

and is one of tbe beet preacrved anuient BtruclureB extant. It consiBta of 
159 arcliee, la half <L mile long, and 94 lest bjgb. CutliH'go Nova waa 
fouDiled by Aa'dtubal ; from Iicqcb HannibiJ let out with bia army, fi. C. 
313, on bU celebrated Italian expedition. Mon't^a is nov Madrid, tbe 
cspital of Spain. From Carie.BrPortuaCane, the name of Portugal is raid 
to be derived. 

9. Cor'dubawas the capilaJ of Bffltica i the two Sen'eeaa, and also Lu'ean, 
were naliveB of tliie place j it was filmed lor its eicollent oil. At Cue'luJo, 
ImircD, the wife of Han'nibal, was born. ltal'icua.waB the native town of 
tbe empororBTra'jan and A'driun,aQd the poet Sil'iua Ital'iriis. His'palia 
was a Roman colony. Ga'dca, on an ialand of the same name, was founded 
by the Tyr'ians, ISUO years B. C, and bocamo agreat commorcial emporium : 
it feu into the liande, firat, of Iha Carthaginians, and tlieiiofthe Romans, 
Cal'pe, a rock, now Gibraltar, was one of the columns or pillars of Her'cu- 
ies; Ab'yla, the other, stood on tbe opposite coast of Africa. At Miin'da 
Cnear obtained a victory over Labie'nus and llie two sons of Fompey. It 
was the last battle in which Ci£sar commanded. 

10. In Luflita'nia was Olisip'po, now Lisbon, tho capital of Portugal. 
Elroer'ila Augusta, the capital of Luaila'nia, waa founded by Augustus, and 
Mttled by discharged veterans : it waa famous for its scarlet dye, and its 
eicellent olives. At Nor'ba Cresare'a was a fins bridge over the To'gus, 
dedicated to Tia'jan. Some of the other (owns in this province were ^a- 
man'tica, La'ma, Conim'briga, Scal'abis, Cetob'rigo, Mirob'riga, Pojt Ju'- 
ha, and Osson'aba, &c. 

11. The Balea'rea Inaulffi, or Baloar'ic lales, wore included in the pro. 
vince of Tarraconen'sis. The inhabitants were noted for their skill as 
slingers. To render their youth also expert, their food, it is aaid, was with- 
hold from tliem in the morning, ootil they had hit a certain marlc witli a 
itoDB. Ma'jor and Mi'oor sre now Major'ca and Minar'ca; Ma'go, the 
chief town of the latter, was named aiUr Ma'go, tlie brother of Hannibal. 
The Pityu'eoj islands were so called from their pine trees j Eb'uaui wai 
Kmous ior figs ; Ophiu'aa waa infested with serpents. 

ilbpJVb.S.— Wbatoceanlies west ofSpain? What sea north? East? 
What Bcparatea Spain from Mauritania? What mountains from Gaolf 
Point out the five largest rivers. Their lengths. In what direction do tfiej 
flow? What mountains on the north coast? On tho south 7 In the inte- 
rior ? State the heights of those that have figures attached to them. Which 
waa tlie most northern promontory ? Northwestern! WEstern 7 Southern! 
Eastern! Southeastern 7 Which was the largest protince! T. The 
■mallcst! B. Point out the provineiaJ capitals. The towna mentioned in 
the text What ialanda lie east of Spain I What town corresponded lo the 
present capital of Spain ! OfPortugal? Which of our large cities is on 
nearly tlie same parallel as Mantua ! What port of our coast corresponds 
in latitude to soutliem Spain ! What part to the straits of GadeB or Hercu- 
les! When did tho siege of Saguntum occur! OfNumantia! Tbe battle 
ofMunda! 

Calle? 9. What is said of Corduba, &.C.? Caatulo! Italious! Gades, 
&c! CalpeT Abjla? What took place at MundaT 10. What ia said 
of Olisippo! Emerila Aoguata 7 Norba Ctesarea ! Name the other 
towns! 11. What is said of the Baleares It.sulte 7 Of tbe inhabitants 7 
iWr voulh? Major aud Minor! Magol The Pityueie islands I £bu- 
• Ophiuan! 



i 



r 



CLASSICAL GEOGBAPHY. 



GAUL OR GAL'LIA. 



1 



1. Gaul or Gal'lia extended from the Rhine to the Pyrenees, 
and from the B^ of Biscay to the Alps. It included the whole 
of what is now France and Belgium, with parts of Holland, Prus- 
sia, BaTaria,Bnd Switzerland, and was of greater extent than mo- 
dem Gaul or France has ever been, except when under the 
dominion of Napoleon. 

2. By the Greeks this country was termed Celto-GaJa'tia, to 
distinguish it from Gaia'lia in Asia Minor. Tlie Romans called 
it Transalpine-Gaul (Gaul beyond the Alps), in contradistinction 
to Cisalpine-Gaul (Gaul williin the Alps), which occupied the 
northern part of Italy. 

3. The earliest inhabitsnts were CelU ; they were divided into three great 
trilwfi ; the Bo1'g», in tbo north ; the Cel'tte, in the centre ; and the Aquil«'- 
ni, in ths Houth. These were again subdivided into many smaller tribes or 
duis. They called themselsBs Gael : whence the naniH Gaal or Gal'lia was 
derived. The Bcrgai were intermingled, to some extent, with the Gormans 
of the oppositD side of the Rhine : they were noted for their praweas, uid 
were the most valiant of all iho Gallic nations. 

4. The Gauls were a warlike and enterprising' people ; they once poBsessed 
the whole of northern Italf, sacked Rome itself, and penetrated into Greece 
and Asia Minor. Though subdued by Ceesar, the graalest of Roman con- 
querors, (hey msde a long and obstinate resistance tu his arms, and were not 
entirely subjected until after a war of ten years' duration, luid the Ion of 
half a million of lives. 

5. When first known to the Romans, the Gaula, though stiU, in many 
rrapccts, barbarous, had made some steps towards civilization, and knew 
something of the arts. They were, in Ibrm and complexion, like the other 
Cel'tic nations, and wore their hair of great length ; hence the country was 
often colled Gal'lia Coma'ta (Long-haired Gad). At first, the Gaub dis- 
dained the use of defensive armour, as being ta compatible with Ime caura^e, 
and even sometinies engaged in battle divested of clothing. 

€< Under the Romans, Gaul comprised four great districts or provintsea, 
called the Foor Gauls; namely, Gal'lia.Bel'gica, Gai'lia.Lagdnnen'ii« or 
Cel'ticit, Gul'lia-Aquita'nia, and Gal'lia-Narboiien'sis. These were divided 
into seventeen smaller provinces. 

Q. LHonlar did Gaul extendi What did it include, &cT S. What 
was it called by tlie Greeks, and why 1 What did the Romans csJI it, and 
why ? 3. Who wore the earliest inhabitants 7 Hotv were they divided, &c ? 
What did they call themselves 7 What is said of tlio Belgai J 4. Describe 
thet^uls. What did they possess? Who subdued them 7 How long did . 
they resist } How many lives were lost 7 5. What was the condition of the 
Gauls when first known to the Romans 1 What is said of their form, cain- 
plexion, &.e. 7 What was the country often called 7 What tlid the Gauls 
disdain ? S. What did Gaul comprise, under the Romans ! How were the 



^ 



GAUL. 



13« 

la (Ger. 



T. The eastern part of BGl'g'icii wni called Germa'nia Cisrhena'i 
■niuiy within tlie Rhine), to diBtinguish it from Gernn'nia Tranarhci 
Magna (Germany beyond the Rhine or Great Gonnany) ; Gal'lia Nnrbonon'- 
■is was also oallfd Gal'Ua Bracca'ta (BrtechBd Gaul), bccaiiBe tiio inhnliilants 
wore a kind of leggings ot breeches made ora striped aichBckecedstulf, like 
the tartan of the Scota Highlandem. 

8. Tltc chief towna in Bd'gica were Lugdu'num, SQTnamed Batavo'rum, 
to distingw'h it from another city of the same name, Augunls-Trcvcro' rum, 
Moeunli aeum, Noviomngus, Veaon'lio, and Colo'nia-Agrippi'oa. It ius- 
PoAm was the place ut which CoiBar Bret embarked for Britain. Gesori'o- 
CDin or Bono'nia was one of the nearest porta to the same country, whence 
■hips ware conatontly Bailing. 

9. Lugdu'num, now Lyons, was the principal city in the province of the 
same name: it was long an important place. Augualodu'num waa cele. 
farB.led foi itB BChools, iu which the Gai'lic nobles were educated. Alc'aia 
was noted for its licge by CiEBar. Lule'lia, afterwards Parls'li, a amoil 
Tillage ou an island in the Seq'unna river, is now Paris, the renowned caiH- 
tsl of France. Neat Durocalalau'num a sanguinary balUo was Ibnghl 
between the allied Gotlis and Romane, and the Huns, under At'tila. 

10. Burdig'ala, the capital of Aqulta'nia, woa the birth-place of the poel 
Auso'niua. UxcUodu'num was the laal city in Gaul thai held nut sgalnirt 
the Romans. Avar'icum, Argcntoni'ugna, Lapur'duni, Clim'berria, L imo'- 
num, Mediola'num,a]id Gergtfvia, were all towns of note ; tlio latter long 
resisted the attacks of Cssar. 




II. Nitr'bo was the capital of Narbonen'sis, and also of the whole of Ro- 
man Gaul. Nortlieast was Ncmnu'sis, now Nismea, a noted city j in thevici. 
nily is a Roman aqueduct, called the Pont da Gard ; It passes over the small 
river Gar'd on, and consists of three tiers of arches, in good presewalion i the 
upper tier is near 900 feet long ; the whole is 157 feet high. Hossil'ia and 
Nice's were Greek colonies ; the former, now Marseilles, was a celebrated 
commercial emporium. A'quee Sei'liie was noted for its mineral waters, and 
also (or a great victory gained by the Roman general Ma'rius over the Cim'. 
bri and the Ten'loncs. 

riislricls divided T 7, What was the eastern part of Bclgioa eilJed, Jtc ? 
Gallia Narbononsis? 8. Name the chief towns in Belgica. Where did 
CicBar embark for Britain 7 What is said of Gesoriacum 7 S. What wax 
I.ugdunumT Augiutodilnum ? Atesial LutetiaT What ocurred near 
Durocatslaunum 7 ID. WhatwasBurdigala? Uiellodunum T Avaricum, 
ikcl 11. What was Narbo? What is near Ncmausis? Describe the 
^Ipt du Gard. What were Massilia and NiemaT For what was Aquffi 



130 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



^ 



19. Vionna, Aiel'stc, Arau'eioiiind Fo'rum Ju'lii were Roman colonics; to 
lliefintiuuncd, bing-Archdu'iis, surnamcd llcrod, whs biinielii.'d bj Aueustan 
t^ his cruellies ; itnd, at the lant, the emperor Agrjc'oli was born. T^lo'si, 
iinw Toulousp, waa Burnamed Palla'dia becauao learning was there greatly 
1 iiUivstcd. From Gene'vi llie Murua Cieaaria (Qtaar'a wall) commenocd. 
it was built to restrain the inciirsiona of the Helve'tii, It eitendod west. 
ward about twcaty miles. At Mons Sclcu'cus tbe tyruit Magnen'tios was 
dtlealed bj ConaliuitiaB, 

Map No. 5. — V/ 
r.itod Gaul from B 

I.iuu formed the southern bound.jry? VVlmt mounUins lay near tbs river 
Rhenus 7 Near the Rhodanus T W)ut province lay in Iho north 7 West? 
What two in the aoutli? Which were (lie live chief rivers 7 State the 
length of each 7 Which of lliese flowed south 7 In what direction did the 
.-Ihora flow ! Point out the islands Riduni, Bamia, and Cmaarea, Tliess 
are now called the Norman islands. '1 'hough vcrj near the coast of IVanee, 
they Ixlong la Great Britain. What islands lay on the west coast 7 Poial 
ti\il the towns mentioned in the text in Belgics. In Lugdunensls. Aqaitania. 
Narbonenais. When were tbe Cimbri and Teutoues defeated at Aquie Set 
ts 7 When wu AtlilB defeated at DurocatalaunoiD 7 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 

1. The British islands comprised Britan'nia and Hiber'nia (now 
Great Briiain and Irelaml), with the smaller islands attached to 
(hem. Britan'nia was called, at first, Al'hion, signifying the white 
island, and afterwards, Britain. It was the largest island known to 
ihe ancients, and was noted for its tin. It was considered, hy the 
Romans, as a distinct world hy itself. 

% Britan'nia was inhabited by Cel'tic tribes, who resembled the 
Gauls in their manners, laws and religion. They subsisted mostk 
byhunling and raising cattle, and clothed themselves in skins, to 
add to the ferocity of their appearance, they painted their bodies 
of a bluish colour. Their habitations were huts made of wicker 
work, and covered with rusbes. 
3. The Britons were remarkable for their stature, exceeding, it was said. 






e Druids, 



le persons wei 



held Bi 



:red. The bi 



SsriiB noted, &C.7 12. What were Vienna, Arelate, Arausio. &c. Who 
ivasbanislied to Vienna? Who was born at Forum Julii 7 What is aoid 
of Tolosa 1 The Maros C^aaris 7 What occurred □□ Mons Seleucus 7 

Q. 1. Describe the Bntish islands. What was BHlannia Srat called ? 
AflerwDrds? What was it noted for, &.c,1 S. B/ whom was Britannia 
inhabited, &c.7 How did the Britons siihuisl, ftc.l What ja said of their 
baUialions? 3. Duscribe tlie linluus. Wlial is said of tlio Druids, &.K.1 



BRITISH ISLANDS, 

pheta were ilso highly rGspecled; the IbrniEr composed he 
proifie oflhe chief warriorB; uiid the lutter rorelold Tuture evi 
the onllnBry iDiplcnienta of war, ths Britons had armed c 
Ihey managed with great dexteri^. 




4. Britain wbb not known to the Homaos, eicept bj report, nnldl the time 
of Ca'sar. Thai conqueror landed an army on its shores in Ihe year 55 B. 
t', and defeated the inhobLtatits in several battles. He soon, however, tell 
tlie istond ; but succeeding eetierals subdued the whole region, aa far north 
«s the Friths of Forth and Clyde. The Romans maintained their pte-emi. 
nence until the GAh century, when the decline of their power obliged them 
to withdraw their Ibrcea from the islojid, to deleod the more vital portion! 
uf their empire. 

5. In Cai'sar's time the Britons were tiniled in a political union, of which 
Caasivelan'miawaa the head. aubsequently.Coiac'lacuaandQiioen Boodice'a 
endeavoured to throw off the yoke of tlieir conquerara ; but thoogh thoj 
fought with a. courage worthy of succees, they could not rcaiat the disci- 
plined legions of Runic. 

6. The Romans called that part of the island under their government, 
Britan'nia Romano'rum (Roman Britain), and the more northern part Britan'- 
nia Bar'bara (Barbaric Britain). To resist the invaaiona o." the northern 
Iribea they constructed, at different periods, three forlifiad walls, or lines of 
tbrta, across the island. The most northern was built by Antoni'ntis, A. D. 
HO, and was forty.two miles long. The others were only a few yarda 
apart, and were sevenly-itii miles long. A'drian'a was built A. D. 130, and 
that by Scvo'rna, the moat southern, A. D. 210. 

7. or the thirty tribes of barbariana among whom Roman Britain waa 

the DOitli; the Corita'ni, Ice'ni, Coma'vii, Catieuchla'ni, and Trinoban'tes, in 

What did tire Britons use with dexterity! 4. When did Britain beoome 
known to the Romans? What is aaid of Cffisar? Of succeeding gene, 
ralsf The Romans? 5. What is said of the Britons in Cffisar's time? 
Who endeavoured to. throw off thoyokeT What was the result 7 6. What 
did the Romans call that part of Britain under their government 1 The more 
northern part 7 What was done to reaiat invasion 7 What is said of the 
most nortijcrn wall ! The clhcrs ? 7. Which were the most r<,ni.idcrab]s 



132 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

the centre ; the Can'tii, Atrchi'tii, Bel'gffi.and Dumno'nii, in the wrath ; and 
the Otdov'i(xe and Silu'rea in Cam'bria, 

8. All these tribes acquired, under the awaj of Rome, a coniiddrable de- 
gree of civiliMtion ; but they had become bo imwurlike, that when the Ho- 
muu left the iaUnd, A. 0.448, they were unnble to defend tbemsclicg ngabel 
the uBsulta of the Scots and Fiats. To maintain their poaition, the Britons 
innted to their aid the An'gli or Angles and Saxons, two renowned GSermau 
nations, who repelled the iuTaderB, but eelied on the country tor themselves. 
and drove the Britons into the mountainous districts of Ctm'bria or Wales. 
They then eetahlished the^^n distinct kingdoms called the Heptarchy, all 
of wbich were united A. ItBST, under Egbert, king of England. 

9. Roman Britain was Erst diiided into two, but afterwards into five pro- 
rinces : l.Tslen'tia; S. Max'ima Cmsarien'eis ; 3. Fla'via Cmsorien'sis ; 
4. Britan'niaFri'ma; and 5. Britan'nia Secun'da. The Gret comprised Scot- 
land as far north sj the Friths of Forth and Clyde ; the second, third and 
fourth, the northern, central and southern districta of England ) and tbe fidh 
Coroprisod Oam'bria. 

10. When the Britons were invaded by the Romans, their lew towns con- 
■isled of irregular collections of small wicker cottages, enclosed by ram- 
parts of logs, and surrounded by a ditch. Londin'ium, now London, was the 
largest town : in tlie days of Tac'itUB, A. D. GO, it was noted for its com. 
merco. In the third century it wis considered the metropolis of Britain. 

11. Eber'acum was an important military post; it was, for a time, the 
capital of Roman Britain, and also the residence of the emperors A'driau, 
Seve'cns and Constanti'nus Chto'ius : tlie two latter died here. Rutu'piai 
was tbe chief landing-place from Uaiil ; it was famous Ibr its oysters, which 
were sent even to Rome. At Por'tna Lema'nis Cs'sur landed, when he in- 
vaded Britain. Du'bria, situated near the narrowest part of the Gallic strait, 

13. Camulodu'nnm was the first colony which the Romans established in 
Britain ; it had a theatre and a temple dedicated to the emperor Clau'dius- 
Queen Boadice'a was defeated there by Sucto'nius Fauli'nus, A. D. 61. 
De'va, now Chester, was a military station ; (he Roman walls and fortifiea- 
tions Btill eiisL A'quie So'ljs, now Bath, was noted for its mineral waters. 

la The Caaeiter'Idcs or Tin laknda were noted for their trade in tin, 
which was brought, most probably, flrom the adjacent ehorca of Britain. 
The Romans banished man; criminals hither. The boats of the islanders, 
in which they braved the roughest seas, were of wicker-work, and covered 
with skins or leather. Mo'na Tac'ita, now Anglesey, was the chief seat of 
the Druids. Mo'na Cffis'aria or Monce'da was nearly equidistant from 
Britain and Hiber'nia. Vec'tis In'sulie, now the Isle of Wight, was resorted 
to tor tin, in which the natives traded. 

tribes in the north? Centre 7 South 7 In Cambria? 8. What did the 
tribes acquire? What did they become? What did the Britons do? 
What is said of the Saions 7 Of the Heptarchy, &c. T 9. How was Ranun 
Britain divided 7 What did tlie first comprise 7 Second? Third 7 Fourth? 
Fifth 7 10. What is said of the towns? Which was the largest? When 
was it considered tbe metropolis 7 11. Wliatissaid of EboracuraT Who 
died there ? What is said of Rutupite ? Partus Lcmanis ? IS. Name Ibe 
first colony established by the Romans. Who was defeated there? What 
was Deva ! Aqum Solis 7 What has been discovered 7 13. For what were 
tlie Cassiterides noted, &C 7 Describe the boats of the islanders. What ii 
said of Mono Tacita ? MonaCcsaris' Vcctis? 



CALEDONIA. 133 

JMop JVii.5. — What Uy north of Britaiiniat EistT South P West? 
What Ben nest of Cambria ? What strait saiitlii!at<t 7 Wliat ia its modem 
name 7 Hon wide U il I What ky between Britannia Prima and Secun. 
da 7 Which oro tho three chiflf riveiB' What i« the longth of each? 
What ielEuids lay west 7 Southwest 7 What ieloud eouth 7 Whicb was 
iha lugest proTince 7 Tlie Bmultest? Point out the tribes. The towns 
mentioned in the text Alata-Castra. Luguvallum. LoDgoTicam. Man- 
cuniimi. Lindum Colonia. Camboricum. Duiobrivn and Dubris. What 
■j.ie the modem names of these towns 7 What district was baunded on the 
north by the wsU of Antoninus 7 What by tho walla of Adrian and Seieiai 7 
*• 

^V <^LEDO'NIA AND HIBEENIA. 

^H|k Caledo'nia lay north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, and 
comprised about three-fourths of the country now occupied by the 
kingdom of Scotland. The nanio is beUeved to be derived from the 
native lerm Gael Dun (Gael of the mountains, or Highlanders). The 
inhabitants were a lierce, warlike mce, and resisted with success 
all the eflbrts of the Romans to subdue them. 

3, On the west coast were the Ebu'dea or Hebu'da; islands, now 
the Heb'rides : beyond the northern extremity of Caledo'nia were 
the Or'cades, now the Orkneys : still ferther north were the Shet- 
lands, the snow-covered Thu'le, seen by Agric'oia on his vovage 
around Britan'nia ; and, being considered by him the most northern 
region of tho world, receivea the appellation Ul'tima. 

3. Agric'oia, about A, D. 76, and afterwarda Scve'r us,, penetrated with 
their legions to the foot of the Gram{naD hills ; and tho former fought a 
great battle there, trlth the Caledo'oi&na, under the comiuand of Gal'gacns, 
a noted chief, in which he was not without difficulty defeated. 

4. About the same time, the fleet of Agric'oia explored the shores and 
islands of this part of Britaiu, and, for the first time, determined it to bo an 
insufar rc^on. The remains of various roads and statioua, constructed by 
the Romans, sljll serve to trace their progress northwards, in their attempts 
to anbdue the Caledo'nian^. 

5. The intertoi of the country was covered with dense forests, of which 
the most noted was tlieCaledo'tiiaSJl'va.; it stretched across the island from 
southwest to northeast, and was a great resort for wild beasts. Bears were 
frequently caught in it, and sent thence to Home, to be exhibited and do- 
stroyed in the bloody spectacles of that city. 

& About the middle of the fifth century the Caledo'nians first received the 
names of Piets and Scots; the latter, called also Dul'riads, emigrated Irom 

saiTof the i 

&€. 1 The OrcadEH 7 What lay fartlier north 7 3. What is said of Agri- 
cohi and Severua"? What did Agricola do? 4, What was performed by 
liU fleet! What is said of the remains of roads, &c.7 5. Describe the 
interior of tlie country. The CalednniaSilva. What animals were ciuglil 
(here, &.C.7 C. Wh:it occurtiJ Eb(.ut tlie middle uf the fi:l!i century ( 

13 



134 CLASSICAL GEOGKAPHY. 

the Dorth oFIrtland, sfttlcij on the weateni coasts nr Caledo'nin, and finallf 
g-ave tjieir name tu the country. The Pic'ti or Picts (pninted), bo nnmed 
became they [lainted their bodies on going to battle, inhubited the eastern 
districts. Their country was called Picl'laiid, until Kenneth Mncalpine, 
becoming loveretgn of both nations, A. D. B43, assonied the title of king of 
Scotland. When the EomitiB finally lell the island, the PicU and Scots 
ravaged the southern provinces with hre and aword, unlil driven within thDir 
own frontiers b; the Anglei and the Salons. 

7. Hibek'nia, now ftiand, waa, next to Britain, the laj^eat 
island known to the ancieots. The PhiEnic'ians and Greeks be- 
came acquainted with it at an early period : the latter called it 
ler'ne, and also Juver'na. The Roniana called it Hibq^ia (winter 
land), because when first known to them, they imagined it to be 
cotistantly covered with ice and snow. The natire name is Erin, 
which signifies the West. 

8. Though the Komana never invaded Ireland, jet they acquired bo much 
inlbrmalion concerning it from the traders who visited its shorBB, that we 
find the map of that country by Ptoreniy to be less defective than the one 
which he made of Scotland. Ancieut writers meution various tribes resi- 
dent in Hiber'nia, as well as tlie towns in which they dwelt. Oftlie former 
notliing is known but their names : among tlie towns, Ebla'na is BQpposed 
to be Dublin; Ro'gia Al'tera, Limerick; Mcna'pia, Wexfiud; Dunnm, 
Downpatrick ; Re'gia, Clogher, &,c 

9. The inhabitants ate, by some, supposed to be deaoended from a colony 
of Milc'sians, who emigrated from Spain aboot 500 years B. C. ; but others 
believe that tiiey were of Cel'tic origin, and passed over from Britain. The 
Sco'ti or Soote, one of Die chief tribes, occupied the northern part of the 
isUnd ; and from them it received, tor a lime, the name of Sco'lia ; having 
emigrated to Caledo'nia, they eventually united with the Picts, and formed, 

10. During the fifth century, the Christian faith and literature were intro- 
duced into Ireland by St. Patrick, and contributed greatly to its peace and 
prosperity ; learning was now encouraged, and many monasteries wero 
founded, the inmates of which became noted over almost all Europe for 
their piety and knowledge. Some of the most noted scholars at the oourta 
of the Saion kings, as well as at that of Charlemagne, were Irish. 

11. The Danes or Normans, during the heiglit of their power, raTaged 
the shores of Ireland, and conquered all the eastern coast, making Dublin 
their capiUL About the year A. D. 1000, Brian Born or Brian Vie Great 

What is said of the Soots? Oftlie Picts 1 Their country? Kenneth 
Macatplne ? What took place whan the Komans Icfl the island ? 7, What 
was Hibernia? What is aaid of the Phoinicians, &.cT What did the 
Greeks caU tho island T The Romans ? What was their ideaofit ? Wbal 
ia the native name, tc, 7 8. What did the Romans acquire ? What is said 
of Ptolemy? What is mentioned fay ancient writers ? What is said of the 
tribes? The towns? 9. What opinions are entertained of the origin of 
the inhabitants? What is said of the Scot! or Soots? To what country 
did they emigrate, &,c7 10. What occurred during the fifth century? 
What waa the result? What is said of learning, &c.J Of some of tho 
moat noted acholara ? 11. What is said of the Danes? What wae their 



SCANDINAVIA 
Eipelled ths nartbern inviiderB, and, u 






U., & 



1? Ea»l7 Wliatiea north? 

le. This namo the ancients 
gave Id the most noilhiim eounlry with wliich tJiey were acqiiainlpd. Il 
wa* applied to diScrcnl rpgiona in tbo north, Ths Thulo of Agiicola vnm 
Shetland ; the Thule of Fyllioas wna not bo pgsitivclj known ; some sup. 
posed il to be Norway, and some Iceland. Wliat ocean west of Hibcmia 1 
Til nbat part of America doci Hiberaia correspond I TJie Orcades T 

Sap JVo. 5. — What sea Ilea between Hibernia and Cambrial Between 
firituiDia and Hibernia? What island in the Hibernian sea ? Point out 
the towns mentioned in the text What ia the name ot' the [argest river in 
Hibernia ? Point ont Ibe Burcum Fr. Notium Pr. What are thoic mo- 
devi natues 7 What ia tlie length and width of Hibernia 7 

m 

SCANDINA'VIA AND GERMA'NIA. 

1. Scandina'via or Scan'dia comprised Sweden, Norwuy.and 
Finland, It was so imperfecilv known to the ancients that they 
believed it to consist of seTeral islands in the Codo'nua Si'nua or 
Baltic Sea. Some authors include Denmark in Scandina'ria, but, 
in ancient times, il was usually considered to belong to Germany. 

3. The earlie'st known inhabitants were the Hillevi'oDcs, the 
Gu'lBE, and the Sui'ones, in Sweden ; the Sit'ones, in Nerigo'nia 
or Norway ; the Fin'ni, in Finnin'gia or Finland ; and the Scri'lo- 
Fin'ni, probably in Lapland. The latter were noted for the ra- 
pidity with which they traversed the frozen surface of their counlrj- 
on skates or snow-shoes. 

3. The HLllevi'onee were a iiumcroua people. The Gu'tea were afterwardw 
called Goths; they wore long hair and beards, and dressed in furs. The 
Sui'onos were skilful navigators, and had many ships ; among the Sit'oncs, 
the Bovorcign power was frequently conferrsl on females. Fytli'eas, an 
ancient navigator, twice visited the shores of this region, which he oallud 
Thu'le : he ia behoved, by some, to havo ciplored the coast ne far as the 
North Cape of Europe ; but others are of the opinion that he did not pro. 
ceed beyond the Baltic 

capital? What occurred about A. D. 100U7 Of what did Brian Born 
become king? What occurred in Uie following century 7 What ia said 
of the English? Of Henry II.? 

Q. 1. What did Scandinavia comprise t What did the ancients believe 
it to consist of 7 What is the opinion of some authors in regard to Den- 
mark, &c? 3. Who were the earliest inhabitants? What is said of the 
Scrito-Finni ? 3. What is said of the Hillevionea 7 The Gutat 7 Suiones ? 
Silones? OfFytheas? 4. By what people was the Cheraonesua Cimbrica 



^H Denn 

■ bythf 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



The Chersone'sus Cim'brica, now Jutland and Sleswick, in 
Denmark, waa inhabited by the Cim'bri, and the adjacent ishinds 
by the Teu'lones : these two nations, about a century before Christ, 
penetrated to Gaul and Italy> and mode the Romans tremble for 
the safely of their capital; but they were at length defeated and 
driven back lo their own territories by the conaul Ma'riua. 

5. All the Ibrcgoing lijbes, both of Scand ids' via iiid Cim'brica, wi 



niUr t< 



the G 



1 dreEi 






equally fierce and wsrlika. Onlhodecline of llie Roman power.lbea 
under the oameB of Gotbi, Vandals, Her'ull, Lom'barde.&c^ left tbsirihizeii 
legiana, and, with the other rude nations of that time, aaaiated in devaatating 
lud dismembering the empire. 

G. During the ninth and tenth centiuiFB, nnder the conuDanil of their 
Vikingr or Sea kings, they ravaged, with their piralical fleeta, all the coaats 
of Europe, Stom the Baltic to the Adriatic sea. At that period thoy were 
known by the name of Normaas, Danes, and Eadterlinga. 'lliey founded 
the kingdom of Naplca snd Sicily, in Italy, and eatablished tlie dachy'or 
Normandy, in France. Many of the Danes settled in England, and three 
of their princes became kinga of that countiy; but they were expelled 
thence tiy the renowned Aliied, and othol British ■oiereigos. 



OERMA 



OERHANY 



7. Germany extended from'the German ocean and the river 
Bhine, eastward, to the Vistula ; and from the Baltic, southward, 
to the Danube.* By way of distinction, it was often called Ger- 
lan'nift Magna (Great Germany), and also Gtrma'nia Transrhena- 
na (Germany beyond the Rhine). The name was derived from 
the word Ghar-man, which signifies a warrior. 

8. Ancient Germa y n n d ne vast forests, of which the 
Hercyn'ian, the large nd d f m the Rhine to the Vistula, 

ngtl The country was occupied by 
■ variance 



ixty days' journey 
numerous independe 
with each other, but th 
and oAen formed pow 

9. The principal tribes v 
the Choius'ci and the Chai . 
nant, and sometimes another, 
were the Saxons and the Angli, the proj 



ed against foreign 






:s of Che Anglo-Saioa ni 



later times. 



inhabited? ITie adjacent islands? What is said of these two nationsT 
5. To what people were the foregoing tribea similarl What occurred on 
the decline of the Roman power I 6. During the ninth and tenth centuriei? 
% what name were the; known? What did they Jaond I Establiili? 
What did three of the Danish princes become ? 7. How far did Gemmny 
extend 7 What was it called by way of distinction T From what waa the 
name derived, &c.? 8. What did aneient Germany contain, &e.f Bv 
what was the country occupied? What is said of these tribes? 9. Which 



's ioL^aded in OBrmui] 



J 



GEBMANY. lin 



Ihs Franks, of Iho French, &c. From the AlaToan'ni tba Froncli namo Al- 
l<iaiB.goe, {or modem German;, is (ieTived. 

10. The Koman writers describe the Germans as the fiarcost and bravest 
of all the tribes of bsrbatmns. A robust frama and gigantic stature, with 
bright blue Eyes and deep jellow hair, were the prevailing cliar DC leri sties 
of theee people. Inured to cold and fatigue, Ihey scorned every restraint — 
considered indepcodcnGe as the moGt precious blessing, and war as the most 
inanly occuputioa. 

11. Tlieir lenta or movabla huts waro diapersed singly, or a ftw together, 
over tlie country ; there were no cities, and no permanent buildings, eicept 
al the places where the Romans had forts and Etulions. Women were 
trenled, by the Germans, with great respect, and even something of a sacred 
character was attached to the sex. The memory of tlieir renowned heroei 
and ancestors was highly venerated, and songs were sung, st the national 
feasts, in tlieir praise. The government was a pure democracy ; all public 
affairs were determined in o general assembly of the people, in which every 
man, able to carry arms, was entitled to a vote. 

IS. The Germans were nlmost the only people who resisled the Honiana 
witb BQceesa, when at the height of their power. In the year A. D. 9, the 
army of Va'rus, aller a battle of three daye, was entirely destroyed by Ar. 
min'ius or Her'man, a chief of the Cherus'ci. 

13. Cssar, Dru'sus, Gemian'icus, and other noted captains, acquired 
glory and renown by their victories over the Germans ; but the Romans 
were never able to niolta any permanent iinpreasion, and considered them- 
selves Ibrlunate if Ihey could preserve inviolate the boundary of the Danube 
and the Rhine. During the RlUi ceiilury, these long-guarded barriers were 
piBscd, and tlie German nations overran liie western empire, carrying their 
conquering arms as far as Spain and Portugal. 

Map No. 1.— What ocean lay west of Scandinavia 1 What sea northwest T 
What promontory north 7 What gulf east? This part of the ocean is, in 
ancient geography, called indifferently a gulf and a sea; another name for 
it, besides the one in the maps, was Mare Suevioum, or Sea of Suevia. 
Where is Nerigonia? What mountains in it7 Point out Finningia. 
WhatguIfsoutJi! Point out Uie tribes mentioned in the lert. When did 
Pytheaa sail along tJie shores of Scandinavia T 

MapNB.5. — What ocean west of Chersonesus Cimbriea! What gulf 
nst? Whatnaticns south I What promontory nortli 7 What nations in. 
ubited this peninsula! The islands east? What ocean northwest of Ger- 
many? Sea north! Country east 1 River west 7 South! What conn- 
tries lay around Germany 7 What rivers flow into the German occao 7 
Into the Codanian sea 7 Into what sea doea the Danube flow 7 What is 
the lenglli of these rivers I What mountains in Germany I How high are 
the Budetie! Near what rivers was Varua defeated! When did that 



were the principal tribes, &.c. ! The smaller tribes ! 10. How did the Eo. 
man writers describe the Germans ! What were their provaiLng tharaclcr- 
i»lics,iM!.! 11. What is Biiid of their tents, cities, &,c7 The women J 
Their renowned heroes 7 Describe the government, 19. What is said of 
tbeGermans,inregardtotheRomans! What occurred A. D. 9 7 13. What 
is said orCffisor, &.e.7 What were the Romans unable to do, &c 7 What 
)t place in the fiilh century 7 




hi 



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



HELVETIA. VINDELICU, RILETIA, ETC. 

I. Helte'tia, a wild, mounlainous region, comprised the chief 
part of what is now Switzerland ; it was inhabited by the HeWe'- 
lii, a bold and warlike people, of Cel'tic origin. The women were 
noted for iheir courage ; ihey often engaged in battle, and fought 
side by side with their husbands, fathers, and brothers. 

3. After tnanj deaperale contests wiLb the n&tivEB, Ccsur at length *nh- 
jectcd Helve'lia to the daminioD of Rome, and included it in his goTerninont 
ofGaul. Subaeqaendy severai Roman cotoniea wera Ggtabliahed, of wliicli 
Tnr'iouni and Avan'ticum were tbe chieC 



VIKDELIC lA. 

3. ViMDELic'iA or Rh^'tia Sbcun'da, as it was sometimes 
called, lay between the Danu'bius and (E'nns rivers. It comprised 
a. part of what is now Bava'ria, Wir'temberg.and Ba'den. 

i. The lake Briganli'nUB, now Inks ConeUnce, wu parily in this teiritarj 
and partlf in RJiie'tia and Ilclve'tiiL. On this like Tibe'rius built a fleet, 
when at war with the Vindclie'Lans. Augus'ta Vindelioo'rum, the caitilal. 
wa9 a Raman colotij, and was a town of considerable importance. Kc^'na, 
on the Daau'biua, waa a atrun? Ibrtresa. 



6. Rh^'tia lay southward of Vindelic'ia, and included portions 
of the region now occupied by Switzerland, the Tyroi, and mo- 
dern Italy ; the upper sections of the rivers Rhe'nua, tE'nus,and 
Aih'esis traverse and water the country. The chief mountains 
were the Bhs'tian Alps. 

6. When first attached to Rome, it included Vindelic'ia i but it was after- 
watda divided into Rhm'tia Pri'ma and Rhir'tia Secun'da, The inhabitant, 
both of Vindelic'ia and Rlipa'tia were originally EUua'cana, who fled from thr 
Gania when that nation invaded Italy. They were auhjectcd to Rome by 
Dru'auB and Tibe'tiua Neio. Triden'tum, Brjgan'tia, and Cu'riu weri 
chief towns. 

NOR'lCtm, 

7. Nor'icum comprised the chief part of the present Austrian 
provinces of Upper and Lower Austria, Carinthia, and Styria. li 
was watered cniefly by the Dra'vua and Mu'nis rivers, and was 

CI. 1. What did Helvetia comprise! By whom was it inhabited 7 What 
ia said of (he women 7 2. Who conqacred Helvetia? What was then 
eatabliahed ? 3. What is said of Vbdelicia 7 What did it comprise, &.C. ? 

4. What is said oflake BriRantinusT Of Augusta Vindelicorum 7 Re 
ginaT 5. What is said of KhEtia 7 What rivers traverse the country 

5. What did it include when firBt attached to Rome 1 What waa it after 
wards divided inlof What is aajd of the inhabitants! Name the chie 



■ NORICUM. PANNONIA, ILLYRICUM. 130 

DoundeJ on the north by the Danube. It was conquered by the 
Bomana in the lime of Augustus. 

8. This country waa noted for its iron and bIpcI ; weapons, mnda of tlio 
latter, were in liigh repute, and the term "Nor'icus ensia" was used fur a 
sword-bUde of remarkable temper. Boiodu'rum, the capital of the Bui'i, 
ws> situated at the moutli of the (E'dub ; Lauri'aeum, on the Danube, wua 
tlie alatioa of a Ramiui flotillit. 

famno'nia. 

9. Panno'nia was bounded on the nonh and east by the rifer 
Danube ; west by No'ricum, and south by Illyr'icum. It was 
divided into Panno'nia Superior and Inferior. The inhabitants 
called the Panno'nii were of Cel'lic origin ; they were attacked by 
the Komans, during the reign of Augustus, but they were not 
subdued until the time of Tite'rius. 

10. Panno'nia comprised thai port of Hungary whioh lies west of the 
Danobe, with portions af the provinces of Lower Aiutria, Stjria, Croatia, 
and Sclsvo'nia. Vindobo'na (now Vienna) nnd Carnun'tum were both Impor- 

the emperor Pro'buswas slaio. Mur'aa was tJie station of the lower Danu'- 
bian fleet; near it Magneii'tius was defeated by ConsUm'tius. Sopia'iia 
WHS the birth-place oftbe Emperor Maxjnii'nus, and Clb'olis of the Emperor 
Gra'tian ; a( the latter Licin'ius was defeated by Con'slantlne, 

illyr'icum or ILLYR'IA. 

11. Illtr'icom lay along the eastern shore of the Adriat'ic sea, 
and extended southward from Nor'icum and Panno'nia. Atone 
period it bordered on Epi'rus; but the lower districts were added 
to Macedonia by Philip, the father of Alexander, and obtained the 
name of Illyr'icum Grie'cuiii ; the remainder was then called Bar- 
baric Illyr'icum ; but, on its conquest by the Romans, the name 
was changed to Illyr'icum Romano'nun. 

13. The soulheaBtern ranges of the Alps eitend through the interior of 
the country, and Ihe coast, for a distance of 350 milee, is studded with nume- 
rous ielands. DalmaliaandLibur'nia were the chief divisiona; the former 
still retains its ancient name. The Libur'nians were skilful abip-builders ; 
their fast-sailing galleys were used by Aagustus to great advantage, in the 
memorahle bottle of Ac'lium. 

13. Se'nia was a Roman colony, between which and Pola there was con- 
towns. 7. What did Noricum comprise, &e.! 8. For what wasitnoted.&c. 7 
What is said orfioiodurum? Lauriacom ? 9. Describe the boundaries of 
Pannonia. How was it divided? Of what origin were tlie Pannonii? 
What is said of their conquesl 7 10. What did Pannonia comprise 7 Name 
tlie important towns. What is said of Aquinoum? The other towns? 
1 1. What is Baid of Illyricum, &.c! Who included a part of it in Macedo. 
nia? What was the litter called ? Tho remainder 7 To what waa the name 
dianged 7 1^. What mountains extended through the interior i What is 
■Bid of the coast and Us ielands? Which were the chief divisions? What 
wcrelhoLiburmans? 13. What is said of Scnia? Who was wounded at 



d 



w. 



I 



140 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Al the liegt or Met'ulum, Octiviui Caiaar vias wounded. 
Scirdo'na. wa.9 thu oliief city of Libiir'nia. Sido'nawas tho capital of lUyr'- 
igumj II was the birlh^piace of Uie Emperor Dioclc'liun, vrlio, after bis 
ubdiuBtion, retired to Spa.la'UiiDi, la Uie □eighbourhood, and built tbcre a, 
■pteadid pJacc. Epidau'rui w&b a Rumaji coIodj i Sco'dra waa tbe real- 
duncB of the Illyr'iaji king Gen'tius. 

14. Tbe lUyr'iana wera noted robbers aad pirates, and treated their pri. 
Boner« with great cruelly ; they were frequently at sarianca with the Mace- 
donians, tiad afletwards with the Romans, by whom they were couquered 
about 300 yeaiB B. C. They were a kindred people with the TliracianF : 
both natiaiu, at an early period, tattooed their akiiia, and were eimilar iu 
moBt of (heir barburoiu mannera and cuatoma. 

Map No. 5. — What river north of Helvetia! What lake norlheist? 
%Vhat river bounds VindBllclj, Noricuin, and Panaonla an the north 7 Pao- 
nonia on the east 1 Into what river do the (E'nus, DraYUB.and Savus rirerg 
flow ) In what mounlams do tliey take their riscT What lakes in Pau- 
nonia? Wliat country north of Helvetia, Viodelicia, and Noricum ? North 
LindeaatofFannonial South! What towna lay on the Donubiua river 7 
OatheDravusI SbtusT What sea west of lUyricuml What countrieB 
cast 7 What country north I South t 

Xtrp No. 4.— What islands extend alon^ the coast of Illyricnni7 What 
was the northern groap called 7 The middle 7 Southern ? Which ia tho 
largest island of each group? Tha most southern? Tbie island is, by 
aome, supposed to have been the scene of the apostle Paul's shipwreck, but 
the conerai opinion is in favour of the Italian Melita. 



P 



M(E'SIA, DA'CIA, SARMA'TIA, ETC. 

1. MiE'sii comprised the country which, lay between the Dii- 
nu'bius or Is'ter river, and the Has'mus mountains ; it ejttended 
westward from the Eux'ine sea to the river Dri'nus, and corre- 
sponded to the modern provinces of Ser'via and Bulga'ria. 

2. This region was itihahited, at an early period, by the Scyth- 
ians and the Ge'tEE. It once formed a part of the dominions of 
Philip of Macedon, and afterwards of the Romans. The westam 
division was called Superior or Upper, and the eastern, Inferior or 

3. The Dri'nus, Mar'gus,and CEs'cus are, afler the Danube, the principal 
rivers. The H«'mus mountains, which formed the aoutbern boundary, 
were so called from Hm'mus, a Thracian king, who was changed to a 

Metulum ? What ia said of Scardona ? The otlier towns ? U. What ia 
■aid of tfie inhabitants, &.c,J To what nation were they aimilar 7 

Q. 1. What did Mcesia comprise I To what modern provinces did it 
correspond ? S. By what naliona was MiExia inhabited at an early period 7 
Of what did it once form a purl 7 Afterwards J Name its divisions. The 
prinaipal rivcra. What is said of the Hcemus mountains 7 The chief 



DACIA, 8ARMATIA. 141 

aspiring to diyiiiB honours. Nieop'olii, oneof the chisf towns, 

was built by Tn'jfln.to celebrate his vjclorks over Iho Du'cii. Sardica wsa 
faraouB for s council of the ehufch. Nsis'hub was the native placB of 
CoD'slsntine the Great. Msj-ciiinop'olis waa named nflcr Marcia'na, the 
EJEter of Tra'jan. Ta'mi, on the Em'tne ees, was the town to which the 
poet Ov'id was banished. 

DA'CIA. 

4. Da'cia was an extensive country, situated to the northward 
of the river Is'ter; it was about 550 miles from east to west, and 
400 from north to south. It included the chief part of what ia 
now Hungary, with Transylva'nia and Walla'chia. 

5. The inhabitants were, for a. long period, romidable cnomiBs to Home, 
bat were at length conquered, in the early pact of the second century, by 
the Emperor Tra'jan. He established a namber of Roman colonics in Da'- 
cia, which eiioled until the country was overrun by the Goths, and other 
barbarians. 

6. The Pons Traja'ni (Trojan's Bridge) was built by Tra'jan aeross the 
Is'ter, on his expedition into Da'cia ; it was a fine substantial structure, 
about two-thirds of a mile in length ; its ruins may still bo seen. It was 
broken down by tho Emperor A'drian out of cniy, under the pretence that it 
Biyoured tho incursions of tho barbarians. Ul'pia Traja'ni, the Roman 
capital, was a colony ostablishod by Tra'jan ; the chief of the other towns 
were Ulpia'num, Dtid'ava, Aziop'olis, Ap'ulam, &,c. 



^^nf. Sarma'tia was an extensive region, which stretched from 
^ne Coda'niis Si'nus, or Baltic Sea, to the river Rha, and from the 
Cau'casus and the Pa'lus MiEo'tis to the Northern Ocean : it com- 
prised the whole of Poland and Europpan Russia, and waa divided 
by the river Taa'ais into European and Asiatic Sarma'tia. 

8. The Sarma'tiana comprised many tribes, the whole of whom led a 
wandering life, plundering all who letl in their way. Like many other 
savages, Uiey painted their bodies, on engaging in battle, to make their ap 
pearanee as hideous and terrible as possible. Most of the Sarmatiau tribes 
lived under tents, but some lived in wagons; hence they were called Ha- 
niaxob'iii and some, it ia said, fed on milk mixed with the blood of horses. 

9. The Chersone'sas Tau'rica, now the peninsula of the Crime's, was, in 
early limes, inhabited by the Cimme'ri, and ailerwards by the 'Tiu'ri, a 
people noted for their eruelty to strangers ; all who fill into their hands were 
sacrificed to a virgin goddess thai they worshipped. 

towns 7 Of Sardica7 Naissua? Marcianopoljs 7 Tomi ? 4. Describe 
Dacia. Its extent. 5. What is said of the inhabitants 7 When and by 
whom were Ihey conquered T What did Trajan establish in Dacia, &c.7 
6, What is anid of the Pons Trajani ? What did Adrian do! What ia 
■aidofUlpia Trajani 7 The other towns! 7. Describe Sarmatia. What 
did it comprise? How was it divided 7 B. Describe the Sitrmalisas. Their 
habits. Mode of life. Food. 9. What nations inhabited the Chcreanesus 



I 



r 



142 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

ID. On the cooslB of the EuVine aea and Iho F&'lus Mieo'tis numeroiu 
colooieg were rounded ti; the Greeks, Ctem'al, on the Pa'lus Mma'tid, was 
the place where the Am'B.ionB are gaid to have landed when Ihej quilled 
Ann, Minnr, on their route to Sejth'ia. Cheraone'sus wa« long the at ' ■" 
'' " *'' ■"; formed hy tlie people of Hetucle'ii, s'^ ' "' 

Lho Eux'ine Sea- Tnn'aia, Ol'hia.and 
il the laat named Mitbrida'tea the Grei 



i 



11. Hyperbo'rban was the name given by the ancients to the 
unknown regions of the noilh, or, more properly, lo a nation or 
country beyond the dominion of the wind Bo'reas. They de- 
scribed that part of the eaith as the abode of darkness ana the 
reaJm of shades ; yet, at the same time, by a singular incongruity, 
they imagined it to contain the paradise of the sun, and the reai- 
deoce of llie blessed. 

IS. The inhabitanlB of theee fahled legiona were reported to live ia a. de- 
lightful climate, to enjoy a happy [emperament of mind and body, and lo 
attain to the age even of a thouaand years. No disease affected them; bat, 
without labour and without caie or stiilc, they lived happily and enjoyed 
the favour of the gods. 

13. Aa the northbeoame belter known, the country of the Hyperbo'raana 
waa placed more and more remote. Some sought it east of the Hyper, 
bo'rcan mountnina, in the centre of .^aia ; while others thought it la; west- 
ward of that range. The entire bypothceis originated, probably, in the 
traditions of the golden agr, when man eiiated in primeva] bappinBaa, Bod 
enjoyed those blessings of edstence, the remembrance of which woa b^uis. 
inttted from generation to generation, among the nations of the ancient 
world. 

Map No. 5. —What river acparaled Miesia and Dacia 7 Below the month 
oftbeSavus river this Btream waa called the later; above it, the Dannbias. 
What sea east of MtEsia and Dacia T What mountains aoulh of MceriaT 
What formed the western boundary T Point out tho towns named in the 
ten. What country lay nortli of DaciaJ West? What river formed 
ilB Bonthern and wealem boundary? Eastern 1 What rivera ran into the 
later J TheEnwneaeaf What people inhabited Dacia? What mountains 
in the north? What river separated Sarraatia from Germany? From 
ScythiaT Asiatic Sarmalia? Dacia? WhatSarmatian rivers llowedinio 
IheCodaniansea? The Euiine ? PaJus Mieotis? Caspian? How long 
are each of Ihese rivers? Point out the Bastamra. Jazygca and other Sar- 
matian Iribea. Point out PanticapiEum. The other lowns in Taurica. 

Map JVo. 1, — Where are the Hyperborean regions placed 1 Hyperborean 
raountaiua ? What ia the modern name ofthia range J 

Taurica? For what were they noted? 10. What people founded cdonies 
lheEujineBei»,fltc.? What isaaidofCremni I Chersoneaus? Tanais? 
Olbia? PanlicapiBum ? What monarch died at the latter place ? Il.Wbit 
is said of the name Hyperborean? How did the ancients describe that part 
oftheeirth? What did they imagine it lo contain? 19. What is said oT 
tiieinbobitantB, io.7 J3. What ia aaid of the regions of the north, &0.? 
Ill what did the hypolhcsia originate? 



.LJi 



^^|p& BAl 



BARBAROUS NATIONS, 



BARBAROUS NATIONS WHICH DESTROYED 
THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 

1. For more than five hundred years the swoy and influence 
d( Rome was predominant in the civilized world ; hut, about the 
end of the fourth century, its power becon Tisihly lo decline; a 
succession of barbarous tribes from the North and the East then 
commenced their inroads on the empire, and in the course of the 
succeeding hundred and fifty years they overthrew the Roman 
power, and changed entirely the condition of the civilized world, 

a. or these naliona, the most powerful were tho Golha, the Hun9,ond the 
VaDdalaj umong t!ie less impottunt were the A'lans, Gcp'idic andller'ulij 
beaidcB wham were the Loin'biLrdB, Burgun'diaus, Suc'vea, An'gli and Sox'- 
nne, FrankB, Alemui'iii, Sic. All tlicau nationa were reroeioua uid warlike ; 
in their incuiaioiu the; apuj-od neither age nor sex, und inflicted on the 
countries thej ravaged the moat terrible cslamitiea. 

3. The Goths were first settled in Scandina'via, but they left that 
country, and founded an extensive kingdom in Sarma'lia. About 
A. D, 370, internal dissensions divided the nation into Ostro or 
Eastern, and the Visi or Western Goths. Being driven from their 
I'ossessions hy the Huns, the Os'trogoths aeltled in Panno'nia, and 
ihe adjacent regions, while the Vis'igoths proceeded southward 
and invaded Greece and Italy. 

i. Al'aric, their noted leader, was the least tmrbarona of all the eanqner- 
org who raiaged the Boman empire. He commandcil, A. D. 395, Ihe 
Gothic Buiiliariea who were united with the Komans under Theodo'siiu to 
repti the Huns, than oboat lo invade the wcBli:m empire. This alliance 
(iisclosed to Al'aric the weakneaa of the former maalera of the world, and 
inspired him with the resolution of making war upon them, and confjucring 

5. The dissensions of the Romana suon enabled tlic Goths to invade Italy 
with success; they traversed the entire peninsula, from one end lo the 
other, and captured Rome three difierent times ; firat in 40S, when Alaric 
was induced lo spare the city, on receiving a ransom of 5000 pounds of gold, 
and 30,000 pounds of silver, besides a targe amount of other valuable!. 

6. The city was agaiu taken in 409, and then in 410. At the last cap. 
ture it was given up to plunder lot sii daya, but all the churcFies, and moat of 
the works of art were spared. Al'aric died the same year. The Romans 
celebrated this event witli public rejoicings, but the work of deaolation was 

Q. ]. What is said ofSomc andlts inQuencel Its decline? What then 
oecnrred ? 2. Which were the most powerful barbarous nations ? The less 
poworfid? What others are named 7 3. Wha( is said of the Gcths? Their 
divieional 4. Of Alaric 1 What did this alliance discloae T 5. What is 
■aid of (liB Romans ? The first capture of Rome ? 0, The second and third 7 

Khen did Alaric die ? What did the Romans do in consequence 1 7. What 



144 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

soon renewed, as the barbarians had learned the road to Rome. AFaric had 
taught them the weakness of the former queen of the world. 

7. After his death the Vis'igoths established themselves in Gaul, and then 
in Spain, where they were conquered by the Moors. Rodcric, their kinof 
(called the last of the Groths), was killed A. D. 712, in battle against that 
people. The Os'trogotbs invaded Italy A. D. 489, and defeated Odoa'cer, 
king of the Her'uli, who had become king of Italy. Thcod'oric, the Os'tro- 
gothic ruler, then assumed the title, and founded a new kingdom, whicli 
existed about sixty years. 

8. The Huns or Hun'ni were a Scythian nation from the banks 
of the river Rha or Volga: dissensions among themselves in- 
duced great numbers of them to emigrate westward. In their 
progress they encountered the Alans and the Goths, whom they 
drove before them ; they then traversed various countries, produc- 
ing, by their numbers and aggressions, a general movement among 
the rude nations resident along the frontiers of the Roman empire. 

9. Their ferocious ruler, At'tila (the Scourge of God, as he called himself), 
was the terror of his nge. In the course of a few years he extended his* 
power from the Caspian to the Adriatic sea. The emperors of the East und 
the West paid him tribute, and many of the Van'dals, Os'trogoths, Gep'idff, 
and Franks served under his banners. 

10. At'tila advanced, A. D. 450, to the banks of the Rhine, for the pur- 
pose of invading Gaul,' when whole forests were cut down to furnish boat;: 
for transporting liis immense host of 700,000 men across that stream. At 
Durocatalau'num, now Chalons, he was routed by a conjfederate Roman and 
Gothic army, when 200,000 of the Huns were slain. At'tila, however, soon 
recruited his forces ; he then invaded Italy, and was about to march 
towards Rome, but was diverted from his purpose. His death, which oc- 
curred A. D. 453, put an end to the incursions of the Huns ; they retired 
eastward to the Pa'lus Mso'tis, and their name became lost to history. 

11. The Vandals (Wanderers] crossed the Baltic from Scandina'- 
via into Germany, and emigrated thence to Sarmatia ; returning to 
Grermany they joined the Alans and the Sueves in an invasion of 
Gaul, and then of Spain, where they founded an important State. 
The territory on which they settled, in that country, was called 
Vandalit'ia, now changed to Andalu'sia. 

12. From Spain many of the Vandals passed over into Africa, and estab- 
lished an extensive kingdom. From hence their king. Genes 'eric, invaded 
Sicily and Italy and captured Rome, A. D. 455. In that city his army 
committed such outrages, that the term Van'dalism has become proverbial 
for any wanton display of barbaric atrocity. On the death of Genes'eric, 
the power of the Vandals in Africa was overthrown by Belisa'rius. 

occurred afler the death of Alaric ? What is said of the Ostrogoths ? Of 
Theodoric? 8. Of the Huns? Their dissensions ? Progress? What did 
their pumbers, &c. produce ? 9. What is said of Attila ? What sovereigns 
paid him tribute? What nations served under his banners? 10. What is 
said of the invasion of Gaul ? Of Attila's defeat ? What did he do then ? 
To what did his death put an end ? 11. Describe the course of the Vandals. 
What was their territory in Spain called, &c.? 12. What did many of the 
Vanduls do ? What is said of Geneseric ? 



t 



BARBAnol'S NATIONS. 



a Asiatic nslion, and resided near the Cas- 
pian Sea. ; being attacked by the Huns, they retired westward, and 
in A. D. 407 joined the Vandals and Sueves in their invasion ' 
of Gau] and Spain. The Alans then settled in Lusitania, and 
were afterwards incorporated with the Vis'igoths. The SueVes, a 
German nation, united with the Aians and Vandals, in the before- 
mentioned inyasion, when, separating from their confederates, they 
settled in the northwestern districts of Spain. 

3. The Alemnji'iii and Uie Franka eompriBcd powerful confederaEies of 
German IrLbea, rather Ihaji distinct Dationa, The Fruoko (Freemen), A. D. 
4UU, passed Uie Ithine into Gaul, drove out tbe Rainana, and foutided Ihe 
pteaont kingdom of Franco. Tlieir king, CIotjb the Great, crowned him- 
self with his own handa, at Rlieima, A. D. 496. The Aleman'ni (or All 
Men, aa Iha namu implies) overran vuious parts of Iho empire, and had 
man; conflicts with the Romuns ; they iiftcrwarda sctlkd both on (he east 
and west sides of tho Rhine, bnl were cipellcd from the latter by Clovis. 

3. Tib Gej^idK left Scandina'via, and settled first on tho river Vialula, 
tnd then aa Uie Tan'ais. Becoming tributary to the Huns, man; of tlicm 
accompanied At' tj la into Gnut'and Italy: altcT hia death they resided in 
Da'cia and Blyr'iCB, and were finally destroyed by the Lombards. 

4. The Her'uli emisrrated from Scandina'viit to the vicinity of the Fa'tuv 
Msio'tiB; but, after the daath of At'tQUn Ihey returned wcstwarJ, made 
repealed attacks on the empire, and deposed the last emperor, Rom'ulua 
Aagus'tulDs. Their ruler, Odoa'cer, then became (he first king of Italy, A. 
D. 4T6, fiom which period is dated the end of the western empire. 

5. The Burgun'diana, a nation fiom tbc banks of Ihe Vistula, invaded 
Gaul about A.D.410,and eeUiblishcd the kingdom of Burgundy, which 
vras afterwards incorporated with the French monarchy. The Lombards 
(Longobardi, or Long beards) were of Scandinavian origin j they crossed (he 
BaKic, csUbliabed themselves first on Ihe Vistula and then on tho Danube, 
whence they invaded Italy, and launded Ihe kingdom of Lombardy. 

6. The Angles and Baions wore warlike German nations, whom the 
Britons invi^d to tlieir aid against (he Scots and FIcts. They landed A. D. 
449, nnder the command of HengisI and Iloraa, repelled the aggressors, and 
tben torned their arms against the Britons, whom they conquered alter a 
war of ISO years' duration. I>uringthis period the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, 
called the Heptarchy, were established. From the Angles the name Angle- 
land, now Kugland, is derived. 

7. During the seventh century the Saracens or Arabs, the followers of 
Mahomet, commenced Iheir career of conquest. In A. D. 71S they passed 
from Africa ii^ Spain (where Ihey wr:re called JVIocrsJ, overthrew Ihe 

Q. 1. What is said of the Alans I Their onion with the Vandals and 
the Sneves ? Describe the course of the Suevea. 2. What Is said of the Ah- 
rosmii,&c.! OftbeFrenks? OrClovia7 What course did tho Alemanni 
purfflie J 3. What is said of the GepidiB ? 4. Of the Heruli 7 Who did they 
depose ? What did Odoaecr become ? S. Wliat is said of the BurgTindians 7 
The LQmbards7 G. The Angles and Sanons? What name was derived 
from the Anj^lcs 7 T. Describe Ihe progress of the Saracens. When 
13 K 




146 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

kingdom or the Vis \ga\hs, and eBUhliefaBd s MahomBtan empire, fthich in- 
cluded Itic whole jfeniasula, except thu province of ABtoriaa. This State 
eiiatud until the lime ot'Calumbua, when the Moois were drircn froni Spain 
bf Ferdinand, lbs hinbimd of Isabella 

S. The Danes ind Normana or Northmen inhabited Den m ark iknd Norway, 
juid lived chiefly by piracy. About A. D. 800 Uiey begin their incaraions 
bf BCa, Bpreading [error and desolation along nearly all the coasts of Europe 
for more than a hundred years. The Normans, at length, founded it new 
kingdom in Italy, and a new duoby in France, and throe oftlia Danish kings 
become sncccasivcly aofcreigns of England. 

9. The Danes and Normana were the last of the barbaroua nations of the 
dark ages. At the period when their depredations ceased, the variouB little 
Statoi which rose oo the ruins of the Roman ompira, had gradually merged 
into a few groat moiiuicbiea, which, in tlie general ouUioe, have continued 
to the present day. 

10. The feudal sfatcm was now gradually introduced OTor the greater 
part of Europe, The king, being regarded aa the owner of the territory he 
governed, divided the lands amongst his lords and harona; the latter, pos- 
■easing almost despotic sway within their own limits, reduced the people 
to a statu of comparative slavery or vassalage, waged numerous private wara 
agoinat each other, and practiaed various robberies and extortions. 

11. During thia turbulent period, all reSned arts and pursuits languished, 
and ignorance was general ; men bC the highest rank were unabis to read 
or write, and the limited degree of knowledge then existing was eoniiuGd to 
the monaslerioB, and known only to their inmates, tlie monks and the clergy. 

13, The institution of chivalry, which arose during the leudal ages, bf 
introducing a higher aeuse of honour and a re^nement of manners before 
unknown, operated favourably upon the world. The Craaades, also, those 
memorable expeditiona to the East, undertaken for the conquest of the Holy 
Land, though accompanied with much extravagance of conduct ajid loss of 
life, tended, on the whole, to the improvement of European society. 

13. In later ages a euocession of remarkable events, the overthrow of the 
feudal power, the revival of learning, and tho invention of printing, have 
produced wonderful improvements among all the nations of Europe j their 
intercourse with each other is much more liberal and enlightened; the 
terocity of war haa been diniininhed ; the arts and sciencea generally carried 
nearA to perfection, and tlie g'reat moss of the people placed iu a position 
for above what the same class occupied in ancient ^mes, * 

Map No. 12.— Which three nations were Asiatic 7 Which were Soondi- ' 
navianT German? What nations croaaed the sea to Britain! What 
nation to France 7 The Mediterranean 7 What nations crossed tha Baltie J 
The Straits of Gibraltar 7 What three nations formed a union in Germany 1 
Whore did they separate 7 What nation came from beyond the ri "' ' 
Beyond the Tonaif ' "" " " ■ 

they driven fVom Spain 7 8. What is said of tlie Danes and Normana 1 When 
'did they begin their incuieions, &c, 7 9. What were the Normans, &.C I 
What woa the state of tilings, in Europe when their depredations ceased 7 
10, Whatissaidofthefeudalsyatem? The king 7 The lords, J^c 7 Con- 
ditioDoffhepeople? 11. Describe that period. Menofrank. Tlie degree of 
knowledge then enisling, &e. 13, What ia said of chivalry and ita effecM ? 
The Craaades 7 Their^ndency ? 13, Wtiotoccurred in later ages ? Whal 
did theae events produce, &c, 7 




SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 



INTRODUCTION. 

1. Sacreh Geography ts a description of those parts of the 
earth that are mentioned in the Scriptures of the Old and New Tes- 
lamenl. It refers more partifcularly to Palestine or the Holy Land, 
and may be said to commence with the creation of the world, 

2. Like all the nations of antiquity, the Ismelites conceived the 
Burfece of the earth to he an extensive plain, " over which the 
heavens were spread like a curtain ;" beneath was supposed to be 
a deep pit, " the abode of darkness and of the shadow of death." 

3. The Greeka, Phffini'ciana and other cbjIj nationa, regarded the $iirlh 
u comprising one gruat ielncd, lurroundcd on every aide b; the ocean ; but 
nothing ia known as lo the views of tlie Hehrewa on that point To the 

■ west, the remotest object for tltem was the aea, viUi its isles atai oW; but 
to the east, wliere land viae seen indcGnilclj exlpndlng, the; formed the idea 
of an inland termination of the earth, without being able lo attadi to it an; 
precisB limits. 

4. The great divisions, Europe, Asia and Africa, are not men- 
tioned in the Bible. Asia is spoken of in the New Testament, but 
is believed lo refer to the Roman proconsulship or province of 
Asia, which occupied the western part of Asia Minor. 

5. Several parts of Europe are named in Scripture, but, except as con- 
nected with the illuBlration of the travels of the apostle Paul, thai part of 
the world baa scarcely any connectiao with sacred geography. Egypt, 
-Ethio'pia, and other African countries are spoken of in the Old TestamcEt, 
und Lib'ya or Cyre'ne in tiie New, but no general nuno lor Africa seems to 
have been known. 

6. Being ignorant of the great oceans, tho Israelites regarded the Medi- 
terra'nean as the largest collection of water eiisling, snd hence called it the 
Sea or Great Sea. Tho other seaa known to them were llie Red Sea, the 
Dead or Salt Sea, and the Sea of Galilee. The two last, though called seas, 
in Scripture, are property lakes. 

7. The Enphra'les and Hid'dckel, both mentioned in the description of the 

Q. 1. What is tflcrcd geography 1 To what does it refer, &.C. 7 2. What 
did the Israelitas conceive 7 What was supposed to be beneath the earth T 
3. How did tlie Greekis and others regard tlie earth? What were the 
opinioDB of the Hsbrewa with respect lo the went 7 The east 7 4. What is 
■aid of tbe great divisions? Of Asia7 5. Of Europe 7 Egypt, fr-cJ 
LHoW did the Israelites regard the Mediterranean? What other seas 



148 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

gtiden of Eden, Gen. ii. 14, tie the dnlj large rWers expressly nanied in 
Ihe Bihb that arc now known. The drst, which btill bears, with ub, llie same 
name, .the HchreWH cilled, by Waj of cminanoc, "thaGieiit River," Doul. 
i. 7, and contidered it to ho one of Iho grand boundariee of the earUi. The 
Hid'dekel is no* called the Tigris. The Nile is not poiitively mentioned, 
but is alluded Id, in Scripture, as " Ihe river," Gen. xli. I. The GihoQ and 
Pisoii, rirera of Edan, are unknown ; some autliors euppose Itis first la be 
the Araxes, and tlie other, the Fhaais of claBaical geography. 

B. The nations residing in the immediate vicinity of tho children of Is- 
rael were the Fhilii'tiaeB, the people of Tyre aDdSidon.and anutliern SttIb; 
the Am'mon ilea, Iho Mo'abites, the E'domite8,the Amal'ekites and the Mid'- 
iaoilcs; fiirtlicr distant were Egypt, the districts of Central anil Southern 
Arabia, and Northern Syria; alill more remote were tlie ABsyr'tans, the 
Sabylo'niani or Chalde'nns, the E'lamites or Persians, the Medea, and the 
flhio'pians. Tar'shish, Cphir, and the Isles, Gog, Magog and tlie North, 
are also alluded to by the Hebrew writers, as placed at the &rlhesl limit* 
of their linowledge. India was not linowa to the Israelites until the tinw 
of tlie Babylonish captivity. 

9. The only credible account which we have of the orida of 
the world is contaiued in the Bible ; there we are informed, thai 
when the Lord God had created man, he placed him in [he garden 
which he had planted eastward in Eden, to dress it and to keep 
it :■ this garden waa also called Paradise, and here our first parents 
iivetfin a state of happy innocence, until they were driven from it 
for disobeying the commands of their Creator. 

' 10. Thositaation of the garden of Eden is unknown, and vnrjous o[Nninns ■ 
arc held rtspcoling it ; some believe that it was in that part of Asia in Vthich 
the Euphra'tcB, the Tigris, and several other rivers talie their rise; some 
ne|r tlie OoniJoonce of those streams; and some atill lirtlier eastward. The 
Hindoos say that the spot that waa occupied by the garden of Eden is now 
the delightful valley of Cashmere. 

11. The first occupations in which men engaginl were husbandry and 
pasturage. Cain was a tiller of Ihe ground, and Abel a keeper of aheop. 
SubBcqucntly, music and the working of metals were discovered ; and, doubt- 
less, all Ibe common mechanio arts were practiflod. The Land oTNod (Gen. iv. 
16), to which Cain retired after the death of Abel, was on tho oast of Eden . 
here he founded tho first recorded city, and named it Enoch, after his first- 
born son. Here, also, ho became the progenitor of a reprobate race, called, 
to distinguish them fi-ora tho reet of mankind, tlia Children of -Men, 

were known to them ? 7. What is said of the Euphrates and HIddekcl T What 
did the Hebrews call the fifA? What is said of the latter ? Tho Nile? The 
Gihon, &.C.1 8. What nations resided in the vicinity of tho children of IbtbeII 
Fartherdistantl Stillmorerenioto? What is said of TarshiBh, Jkc. ? Indis? 
S, What is said of the origin of the world 7 Where did man first reside ' 
For what porposo was he placed there ? What was the garden of Eden 
also called, a^c. 7 10. What is said of its situation 7 What opinions aru- 
hdd rospeeling it 7 11. What were the first occupations of men I What 
was Cain 7 Abel 7 What was invented subaequentiv ! What is said of 
tho land of Nod 7 What did Cain found here 7 What did iie also- U. 



I 



SETTLEMENT OF THE EAETH. 



SETTLEMENT OF THE EARTH AFTER THE FLOOD. 

1. TuE flood or universal deluge, which occurred 165fi years 
after the creation, or ai48 years B. C, is the most remarkable , 
physical event that has occurred within the knowledge of man. 
Tma awful catastrophe covered the surface of the whole earth with 
a waste of waters, rose above the highest mountains, and swept 
away and destroyed every living creature except those that were 
saved in ike Ark. 

3. It ia beJieved, by same, Ihatlbe earth, at tlie time of Dig Hood, wae very 
populoua ; and we Icom from tho sacred recarde, that the inliabitaiilB had 
became bo wicked, that ILc Almighty determined to destroy all mnnkiad, 
except the icw individuals composing the fumily of rightoocs Nouh.' 

a As tlie waters of the flood subiided, the Ark rested on the summit of 
Monnt Ar'arat, aappoaed to be tile high mountain in Arme'oia that has 
always borne that nume ; hot, by some, it is imagined to have been an cle- 
II (hat lofty rouge in which the Indos, tllo Ganges, and other great 



1 




. Noah and his femily left the ark, and descended intt 
ns at the base of the motmtain, about a year after the com- 
of the deluge. Here the venerable patriarch built an 
altar, and offered up sacrifices unto the Most High, And God 
blessed Noah and his sons, and made a covenant with them that 
the earth should never again be destroyed by a flood, and set his 
bow in the cJoud as a token of the covenant. fGen. ix. 13.) 

Q. I. When did the flood occur 1 What is aaid of it 7 S. What iS be. 
lieved b; some 1 What do we learn IVom sacred record 7 a. What ia satd 
oflheaikT Of Mount Ararat ? 4, When did Noah and his family leavB 
the ark 7 What then did Noah do 1 What did Cod make with Noah ? 



f 



ft 



150 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

5. IrtKe course of Ihe firsl century nftor tho flood, the deacondnnta of 
Nosh had, no douht, wandered to a oonHderablo distance from their first 

, at UiD foot of Mount Ar'aral. At this timo. " the whole earth (or 
mankind) was of dub language and of one speech," Gen. x\. I, and "as 
the; journeyed fram the east, Ihey found a plain in the land of Shi'nar; and 
they dwelt there." 

6. And they said one to another, " let us build a city, and a tower trbofe 
top may reach unto heaven ; and let ua make us a name, lest we be acatteied 
abroad upon the face ofthe whole earth," But their projects were, doubtlesE, 
contrary to the divine will, foi" the Lord confounded their language, bo that 
they could not understand one another's speech. "So the Lord acaltared 
them abroad from thence iipoa the lace of all the earth ; and they left off to 
build the city. Tbercfoio is the name of it called BabeL" 

7.' About thia lime (3333 years B. C), Nirarod, the grandson of Ham, 
" began lo be a mighty one in the earth," and is called the mighty hunter 
belbre the Lard ; Gen. i. S. He is supposed to hare been the first warrior, 
and probably tho first conqueror who substituled the monarchical for the 
patriarehal form of governmenl. He foundod the king-dom of Babel or 
Babjlon. ConLompursry with him were Aeshur, who estubtiehcd the Assyi'- 
ian, and Miz'rntm, the second son of Ham, who laid tlie fijundations of 
the Egyptian monarchy. 

8. Noah, the second falher of mankind, was about 600 years 
old, at the time of the flood, and from his three sons the whole of 
the human race are descended. Ja'pheth was the eldest aoa of 
Noah ; Shem the second ; and Ham ihc youngest, 

9. The posterity of Ja'pheth are sQppased to have peopled Europe and the 
nor^em regions of Asia. Gomcr, his eldest son, is thought to hnve been 
the ancestor of the Celtic nations ; Magog, of the Scythians; Javan iv Ion, 
of the lonians and the other Greeks. 

10. Eliaba, Tar'ahish, Kit'tim.and Dod'anim were grandsons of Ja'pheth. 
By these, we arc told, that the Ules of the Gcntites were di.ided or aetUed. 
The regions uliuded lo were doubtless tlie islands ofthe Mediturra'neaii sea, 
as well as the almost insular regions of Spain, Italy, Greece, and perhaps 
Asia Minor. According lo the prediction of Noah, God iiau enlarged Ja'- 
pheth ; his descendants hare for ages comprised, and do 'now comprise, tho 
moat powerful nations in the world, and his posterity eierdsea dominion 
over more than one-half tiie globe. 

1 1. To Shem and his sons, it is probable, Ihst the nations of the central 
and Houlhem parts of Asia owe tboir origin. E'lam was the ancestor ofthe 
E'lamilea or Persians; Lud, of the Lyd'ians; and Aram, of the Arame'ana 
or Syrians. From Arphax'ad, who settled in JVlcsopotn'mia, the Hebrews 
and Arabians derived their descent through Abraham. The early poslerity 

5. What probably occurred during the first century after the flood t What 
was tne elate ofthe eorlhatthia time, &c.? 6. What did they say one to 
another ! What is said of their projects J What was the result 7 7. What 
is said of. Nimrod 7 How many years is it since he lived ? Who were 
eonlcniporary with him 7 S. What is said of Noah 1 Of his three aoni? 
Which was the oldest sonT The second 1 The youngest? 9. What is 
said of the posterity of Japbelh 1 Who was the ancestor of tho <%llic ■ 
nations 7 Of the Scythians 7 The Greeks 7 10. Who were grandsoim of 
Japhelh 7 What regions did they aettle 7 What is said of the predictionii 
of Noah, &.C.7 11. What is said of Shem and his sons? What did the 



ORIGIN OF THE ISRAELITES. 151 

of Sham leem gcneriUlj to have adopted a pantoral life; and, in a portiori 
of his family, tlia true woraliip of God was prcaer'td for many agea, while 
■U (he reet of mDiikitid were sunk in heathen idaliitry. 

13. The deacendantB of Ham comprised some of the earliest civilized 
nationi of tho world ; Egjpl, Lib'ya, jEthio'pJn, Ca'nuan, FJiiEnic'iB, and the 
Boulhcin and castorn parta of Arabia were peopled by them. Babel or 
Babylon was uluo founded by Nimrod, the smndson of Mam. All the 
Qilions of tliia &aiily were, at on early period, noted lor Iheir wickedoDBa 
and (Icvolion to idolatry, and have generally sustained greater political 
changes llian those descended from llie otber sens of Nd«Ii. 

MopA'n.G. — Point out Mount Araral. Shinar. Assyria. Babylonia or 
Chaldea. |This couulry was called, at first. Babel.) Egypt or Miiraiin. 
Thetie countries were tho Iftat, of wliicli we have any account, thai ivero 
settled by the dtfcendanta of Noah. Babel or Babylon, Erech, Accod and 
Calneh, built by Nimrod ; and Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah.and Rcseu, built 
Iv Anhur; were the lirst ruties that wc!ra*founded after the flood. 



■ ORIGIN OF THE ISRAELITES, ETC. * 

1. Tke Hebrews, Israelites or Jews are the descendants of the 

fmtiiarchs Abraham, Isaac.and Jacob : they were called Hebrews 
rom Eber or Heber," the great gnmdson of Shem, from whom 
Abraham was descended ; afterwards they obtained the name of 
Israelites, from Jacob or Israel. On their return from Babylonish 
caplivily the term Jews, from Judah, was adopted, and has been in 
use unttlthe present time. 

a. This remarkable race wna aelecled by God himself; almost 4000 years 
■go, as a choaen people, who might preserve his worship uodeliled by the 
iAjlatry of the surrounding nations, and transmit hia ordinances to their 
posterity ; but, in oonaequence of their aius, they were long- sin^o driven 
irom their own land, and diaperaed amongst all lbs nations of the earth. 

3. Abrara or Abraham, the ancestor of the Hebrews and the 
Arabians, was born at Ur of the Chaldees, a town in Pa'dan A'ram 
or MesopotaWa, about 2000 years B. C, and was descended, in 
the eighth generation, from Shem, the second son of Noah. 

4. ThDU|i;h he lived amongst an idolatrous people, he carefully refrained 
fiom joining in their worship, and was a bright eiainple of faith und piety, 

early posterity of Shera adopt 7 19. What did the dcBOeudants of Ham 
compriae, 4.C. T What were the naliona of thjfl family noted for 1 

Q. 1. From whom are the Hebrews descended 1 From whom «#ro they 
called 7 What is aoid of their other names T 2. On what account was thir^ 
remsrkable race selected T What look place in consequence of their aina " 
3. WhutiasaidofAbram? 4. What is aaid of hia coQductI Of his obe- 



152 



SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 



Ill Dbedicncx: tu the command of God, he left Hnriui, wliere he resided with 
Teruh, bis father, acd removed to Caiiaau, that be might behold n caunliy 
Lh&l hie dei^ccDdants ehould inherit aller hitn. [6cd. lii.) This emigntian 
is known as the "Call of Abraham;" it took place when ho was about 
sevenlj-five joars of age, and in the year 1931 B. C. 

5. Ahrahani rosidod in scToral parts of Canaan, but chiefly in the South, 
near to Hebron, and alau at Geiar and Beor'sheba. Here he became rich in 
l^td, silver, and cutlle, and had a numcroua hauacbold. Ho bad at tliis 
time two sons, lahmael, the progenitor of Die Arabians, and Isaac, hia heir. 
The latter, at the jh/iaa command, be toak to the lop of Moont Moriah* f« 
the purpose of offering him up in sacrifice; bnt God, having tried ihe fiiitli 
and obolience of Abraham, provided a victim in place of the pious jouth. 




I 



G. The venerable palriarih iied at t}ie age of ITo years, and was buried 
with bis wifo Baiah, in the cave of Machpc'lah, near Hebron, by bis ■am 
Isaac and Islimael ; the farmer resembled his father in hia faith and steadbit 
obedience to the wiH of God, and resided in the same part of Canaan. Hia 
son Esau was tlie anoostor of tlie E'domites, while Jacob, whose name was 
aflerwards changed to Israel, was the E).lher of twelve sons, from whom the 
twelve tribes of Israel descended. 

T. The sale of Joseph, the beloved son of Israel, as a slave, by his en. 
viooa brethren, to the labmaelitcs, and his providential elevation, by which 
he became "ruler over all the land of Egypt," led to the removal of his 
father, then 13D years old, with hia family, iato that country, to escape the 
srievous famine that prevailed about the year 1 706 B. C^ in the land of 
Canaan. Here they settled, in the land of Goslien, a rich paslorat district 
on the eastern side of the Nile. 

dience to the command of God 7 When did his emigration occur I How 
old was Abraham at this time 1 5. What is said of bis residence in Canaan ? 
Of hisses 7 What occurred to Isaac? 6. What is said ofthe age and death 
" VbrabamT Where was be buried? What is saidof EsauT Jacob! 
t'hat is said of Joseph! To what did bis elevation in Egypt lead 7 
\ Where did llie IsraeliUM settle I 8. What were the EgypUans f What is 



:Ji3uloai 



snerwanii tnilll Ik 



EGYPT AND ARABIA PETS^A. 153 

8. Tha Egyptians were a groesly idolatrous people ; yet the deseondantB 
of Jacob, though living amotigBt Iheni, presi^rred Iha worship snd knowledge 
of the tiuo God, and grew and tiiultiplied grcalij. In procesa of time, a 
new king nroEo, who knew nut Joseph, who had no regard for liis ecrvicee, 
and no respect for hii kindred ; he therelbie reduced the iKntclilea to slavery, 
and employed tliem in making brick and in huilding cities. 

9. At length Moms, Ihe adopted son of Pharooh'a daughlor, was rinsed 
tip by Gud to deliver Ihe Israelites from their cruel bondage, and to lead 
tliem back to CanaaMrihe land promised to Ahraliam as their inheritance. 
After many wonderlol miracles had been wrought by Moses, they nera 
finally delivered from slavery, and leA the Isnd of Egypt. 

10. The country lying; eastward of Lower Egypt, and extending 
from the Red Sea lo the land of Canaan, is the region in which the 
children of Israel resided for forty years, after their departure from 
Egypt. It forms a part of Arahia Petrtea, and was the scene of 
many noted miracles and events, which, notwithstanding the lapse 
of ages, continue to excite the attention of all civilized nations. 

11. It is a dry, sterile region, composed of sandy deserts, rocky valleys, 
and rugged mountains, and is almost dcstitule of water. The desert or 
wildemcBB of Paran comprises a large portionof it, of which the section that 
liea between tlie eastern and western gulfs of the Red Sea is usually culled 
the Inthmua of Mount Sitiai. 

12. The principal mountains are Moimt Sinai, Mount Horeb, Mount Hor, 
and Mount Seir. Horeb is one of the peaks of Sinai. On Mount Hor, 
Aaron, the brother of Mosea, was buried. Mount Seir or Edom was the reai- 
dcDce uf the children of Esau ; westward of the latter dwelt the Amalekites, 
who.lought against the children oflsraelduringthe early part of their journey. 

13. Mount Sinai eanslsls of two peaks ; the most eastern is about EDOO 
feet high, and bears the name of Sinai ; the other is Mount Horeb : the 
former, in ancient times, was often colled the Mount of God; at present the 
.\rahB call it Jebel Mooea, the Mountain of Moses. There has been, for a 
long lime, o Christian monastery on Mount Sinai, which, for fear of the 
Arabs, is entered by a door tlrnt is placed at a distance of thirty feet from 
llie ground. Visitors, provisions, &c are drawn up in a basket attached to 
a strong rope. Tho convent is inhabited by about thirty monks. 

Jtfa;i JVo. G. — Point out Fadan Aram. Ur. Haran. Canaan. — Map No. 
S.— Point cut Shechem or Sichem. Beth.eL Ai or Hai. Hvbroii. Beer- 
Bliaba, Gorar. Those are the places mentioned in Scripture at wliich 
Abraham resided in the land of Canaan. Where is the Cave of Machpe- 
Idh I—Map No. 7.— Point oat Egypt. The Red Sea. The peninsula formed 
by its two gulfs. Point out Mount Sinai. Mount Horeb. Moimt Hor. 
Mount Seir. The wilderness or Desert of Paran. 

aaidoflJiedeeoendanlsofJacob? What look place in proecBs of time? 1^ 
what did he reduce the Israelites! How were they employod? 9. What 
is said of Moses 7 What was the result of the miracles wrought by Moses 7 
10. What is said ofthe country east of Egypt? Of what was it the scene, 
&c? 11. Describe this region. What does 'he Desert of Paran comprise T 
1^. Which are the principal mounlaius ? What is said of Mount Horeb 7 
Mount Hor? Mount Seir! 13. Describe Mount Smai, &c. What was 
it called in ancient times 7 What is its present name! What has been 
lor a long period on ]*Iount Sinai ! Wliat is said of it ? Visitors, &.C. ? 



JUI 



i 



aACKBD GEOGRAPHY. 



30UENEYINGS OF THE ISRAELITES THROUGH 
THE WILDERNESS. 



1, The Children of Israel left the land o^Egypt in the year 

1491 B. C, Eifter a. sojourn of 215 years ; nckoning from thtf 

e that Jacob and his family first took up their residence there. 



In that period they had increased, from a family of 70 persons, t( 
upwards of 600,000 men, with their wires and children. 

2. In order to prove his people, the Lord did not lead litem 
immediately to the promised land, but directed their march into 
the wilderness or desert ; and, during their wanderings, they dwell 
in tents, in which the tribes were arranged in the manner shown 
in the engraved plan of the encampment. [See Map No. 7.) 

3. Depsrtine from Ram'eacs, n oitj in the land of Goshen, in Egypt, they 
journeyed to Suc'oolh, and lhenc« to E'thEim, wliere the pillar of b cloud by 
d>y, and the pillar of liru by night, first appeared to direct tlicir mniob. 
Pueing onwnrriB to Pi-hnlii'rDlta, they airived on the coast of the Red Sea, 
opposite (o Baal-ie'phoD. 

4. Tkere ite waters were miraculDusly divided, snd (he laraelitea marcBed 
acroBB aa on dry land ; but the king of Egypt aud his army, who pursued 
them, in attiiinpting to fallow, were overwhelmed by Iho waters of the aea, 
and were all drowned. (Eiod. xiv, 27.) 

5. At Ma'mh, the first encampment east of the Red Sea, Ihs waters Ihst 
were bitter were made sweet. Proceeding to E'ltin, the Israelites toaod 
twelve wellsof walerand seventy palm trees.- They next pitched their tenli 
liy the sea-shore, and theooe journeyed through the wilderness of Sin, where, 
lor the fifst time, they were supplied with quails and manna ; s ininicic * 
that wag continued, without inlermission, except on the Sahbath days, ontil 
tbey entered tlie land of Ca'naan. (Exod. xci. 13, 14.) 

6. From the Desert of Sin, passing by Doph'kah snd A'lush, they reiobed 
Reph'idim, where there was no water, at which the people murmured ; but 
Moses, being directed by the Almighty, obtained a miraculous supply by 
striking the rock, in Ho'ccb, with his rod j the plaoe was hence called Mas'. 
■ah and Mer'ibah. Here the Anial'ekilcs attacked the Israelites, but tbey 
were deteated by Joshua with the chosen men of the host (Eiod. xviL) 

7. In the vicinity was Mount Si'nai, on the summit of which the law, 
containing the Ten Commandments, was given by God himscllj to Moiss, 
amid the thunderinga and lightnings and quaking of the Mount. Here 

Q. 1. When did tlie Israelites leave Egypt ? How many years since that 
period 1 What is said of their sojourn I Increase ? S. What did the Lord 
do to prove his people T How did they dwell in their wanderings ? 3. From 
what city did they take their departure, &c ? Whet first appeared at 
EthamT Where did they cross the Red Seal 4 What is said of that 
event? Of the king of Egypt, &0.T S. What was done at Marah? 
What is said of Elim 7 What took place in the vrilderaess of Sin ? 6. At 
Rophidini 1 Horeb 7 7. What oeourred at Mount Sinai 7 What, di^ 





JOURNEYINGS IN THE WILDERNESS. 155 

Aaron, while Moaes wnB nbBent on Ihi 
«lso,U]e Inbcmacle wns first set up. 
&thBt-in-law, Jeth'ro. <Eiod. iviii. «: 




S. Fiom Mount Si'nai the Israelites proceeded ncclhipard, towKrda Ci'- 
aaaa. Psssiug b; Tab'eral), Kib'roth.batta'arali, Haic'rotli und Ritb'mnJi, 
tliey arrived at Ka'doali-Bar'tica. From heuco Mosea sent oot spies to view 
the land ofCa'naan, who, on their return, reported the lohnbitantfl lo be war. 
liks and powcrrul. The laraelitos, tcrrilicd at this account, murmured 
sfBJDst Moses { it wan, in consequence, decreed bj God thnt all who were 
Ihon twenty years old and upwards shoald die in the wilderness, oicept 
Oilcb and JoeIjuil (Num. liv.) 

9. After a long sojourn at Ka'desh-Bar'nea, during wliicli the robellion of 
Ko'rah, Dn'thon, and Abi'ram look place, the host of Israel proceeded to 
Riro'mon.parEX, and thence, in succeesioo, to Lib'nuh, Ris'sah, Kehel'athali, 
Mount Shapb'er, Har'adah, Makhe'loth, Ta'jiath, Ta'rah, and various other 
places, to E'zion-ga'ber, at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea. 
From this station Ihej marched through the wilderness of Zin to Ka'deah- 
Mer'ibah, whe/e Miriam, Iho prophetess and sister of Aaron, died. Here 
Moses again obtained water lor the people, as at Ho'rcb, bj striking a rock. 

10. Proceeding to Mount Hor, Aaron also died, and was buried at Mo. 
ae'ia, on the summit of the mount, in the fortieth jear after the departare 
from Egypt. Journeying from Mount Hor to Zalmo'nah, tho Israelites were 
plagued by ^ery serpents, and many died of their bites ; the rest were cured 
by looking on a brazen serpent, which Moses was directed to sat up. 
(Numb, xxi.) 

■ r I. From Zalmo'nah they marched by Fu'non, O'both, rje-ab'arim, Di'bon. 
gad and Al'mon-diblatlia'im to Ja'baz, where Si'hon, king of the Am'oriles, 
opposed their progress; but his army was totally routfd,as was also ItlBt of 
the giant Og, king of Ba'shan, who was defeated at Ed'rei. 

Aaron do ? By whom was Mosea visited here T 8. Wliat took place at 
Eadesb- Barnes 7 What did the spies report? What was the result? 
9. Who rebelled at Kadosh-Bamea, A-c 7 Where did Miriam die ? What 
did Moses do at Kadesh-Mciibah ? 10. Who died at Mount Hor 7 Where 
was he bu[iei>7 What occurred at Zalmonah, &c T 11, What king was 
routed at Jabaz ? At Edrei? 19. What did Moses after that? Where 



156 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

12. While the Israelites remained on the east side of Jordan, Moses, 
having taken a solemn farewell of the people, and chosen Joshua to be their 
leader, vent up to the top of Pisgah to view the land promised to Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, and there, at the age of 120 years, he died. (Deut. zxxiv.) 
Moses was the most renowned of lawgivers and prophets, and the most 
highly favoured among the sons of men, in his intercourse with the Deity, 
whom he knew lace to face: 

13. In the year 1451 B. C, forty years after the departure from Egypt, 
the Israelites crossed the Jordan on dry land ; its rapid waters being divided 
for their passage. (Josh, iii.) This event, with the miraculous capture of 
Jericho, filled Uie Canaanites with terror and dismay ; yet it was not until 
afler a contest of six years* duration that they were finally subdued. 



Maf No. 7. — ^Where is Egypt? The land of Goshen? Rameses ? l^oint 
out the track of the children of Israel to the Red Sea. To Mount Sinai ? 
To Kadesh-Barnea. Ezion-gabor. Kadesh-Meribah. Mount Hor. Zal- 
monah. Jordan river. Jericho. Where is Canaan ? Edom ? Amalek ? 
Moab ? Ammon ? Th6 kbgdom of Sihon ? Of Og ? See engraved 
plan, "Form of the camp of the Israelites." What occupied the centre of 
the camp ? What was in the court ? What tribes lay on the east side of 
the camp ? West ? North ? South ? Where were the tents of Moses and 
Aaron ? Of the Gershonites ? Kohathites and Merarites ? The three 
last named were families of the Levites or priests appointed to perform the 
service of the tabernacle. 



THE LAND OF CA.'NAAN, ETC. 

• 

1. The region which the Israelites conquered under the com- 
mand of Joshua was cgJled, at first, the Land of Ca'naan, from the 
son of Ham, whose posterity settled in it at an early period. (Gen. 
X. 6.) It was afterwards called the Promised Land, because it 
was promised to Abraham and his posterity ^en. xvii. 8) ; and 
the Land of the Hebrews, from Eber, the ancestor of Abraham 
(Gen. xl. 15.) 

2. Other names applied to it were the Land of Israel, from Ja- 
cob or Israel (1 Sam. xiii. 19) ; the Holy Land, from being the 
land of God's chosen people (Zech. ii. 12) ; the Land of Judah or 
Judea, from the tribe of Judah (Is. xix. 17) ; the Lord's Land (Hos.' 
ix. 3) ; and the Land of Palestina or Pdestine* (Is. xiv. 29)., 

did he die ? How old was he ? What is said of him ? 13, What took 
place forty years afler the departure fi'om Egypt ? What is said of this event 7 

Q. 1. What is said of the region conquered by the Israelites? What 
was it afterwards called? 2. What other namps were applied to it? 

* Palestine was originally the Greek name for the Land of the Philistines, a small conntry in 
the southwest part of the Land of Israel ; it is now more generally used than* any other, except, 
perhaps, the term Holy Land. 



THE LAND OF CANAAN, ETC. 1&7 

3. The first known inhabitants wore the Avim, the Horites or dweller* in 

others. All (heae naliona were either driven out of the country by, or be- 
came embodied with, the Ca'naanitOB. The- latter founded a number of little 
rcpublids, of which ^lirtj-ooe were conquered by Joshua. 

4. Tlie Cn'oaanitoa comprised the Sido'nians ot Phpnic'iani, Iha HiCtitcs, 
Jcb'usites, Am'orilHB, Gir'gashiteB, Hi'vites, Ark'itos, Si'nilM, Ar'vadites, 
Zem'siites and Kam'alhites, Thcec were the families descended from t)ie 
eleven sons of Ca'naan. The GrsI six tribes occupied what was afterwards 
the land of Israel; tlie remainder resided &ither nortli. The Fsr'iziitfa 
(wandorers) are supposed to liare settled here at a later period than the 
Ca'naanitoa ; tlioy were also conquered by Joshna ; but a remnant of Ihera 
existed ontil the reign of Solomon. 

5. Before Iho lime of Abraham, many of the Ca'naaDitee worahipped the 
true God, btit afterwards they all became gross idolators, otTered human 
Bocrilicoa to their idols, and made their children pees through Ihe fire ti> 
Mo'loch. Their possessions wore therefore bestowed on the Israelites, in 
fulfilment of the promise made to Abraham (Gen. xii. 7), and also because 
of the denunciation uttered against Ca'naan and his posterity. (Gen.ii.aS.) 

6. Besides the Ca'naanites, there were, immediately adjoining the Land of 
Promise, several natinns, by some of whom the Israelites wore, at tiinoE, 
greatly oppressed. These were the Syr'ians, the Philis'tinea, the Amal'e- 
kites, the E'domites, the Am'monitcs, the Mo'afiiles, and the Mid'ianilee. 
These nations were spared from citcrminatlon in order to prove Israel, but 
most ofthem were finally subdued by David and Solomon. The Sido'nUn:: 
woro never conquered by the Israelites, and the Fhilis'tines, though fbr a 
time under their dominion, continued lu be a distinct people until the days 
of Judas Maecabo'-us. 

The Israelites look possession of llie Land of Ca'naan be- 



tween the years 1451 and 1445 B. C At that time ihey ni 
bercd upwards of 600,000 men over twenty years of age (Numb, 
xxvi), wsides Le'vitea ; from which data it is certain that the entire 
population was not less than two and a half miUiona. When Jo'ab 
numbered the people, by David's command, there were in Israel 
800,000 warriors, and 500,000 in JudaJi (2 Sam. sxiv. 9), besides 
tributaries and slaves ; the Hebrew nation, therefore, at that time, 
muEt have amounted to near six million souls. 

S. The tribes of Israel, before they had a king-, formed twelve separate 
rcpubties, each having speciRc bounds, and each preserving' its own Ghieri< 
and elders. The worship of Jeliovah, bonever, formed a comnion bond of 
imion, which united them into one federal Stole. At this time the national 
afTaira were administered by judges specially raised up by the Lord. 

3. Who were the first known inhabitants 7 Whalis said oflhemT 4.WhaI 
did the Canaanites comprise 7 From whom were they descended ? What 
U said of the first six tribes 7 The others ? The Perirailes? 6. What i* 
saidof the worship of tbeCanaaniles before ^e time of Abraham 7 Afler- 
Wards? On whom were their possessions bestowed? 6. What nation? 
nerethoreadjoiningthe landofCanaan? What is said of Ihem ? Of th-' 
Sidonious? The Philistines ? T. When did the Israelites lake possess ioE 
of the land of Canaan! What were tlieir nombers nt that time ! In David'. 
time? 8. What did the tribes of Israel form before Ihey had a king ? 



Jl^ 



I 



I 



158 SACRED GEOGEAPHT. 

ftr Womlbe dajB ofJoahus to Ihono of Saul, a Upio of 0.1)001 350 ytait. 
MM wars Kiarlccn judges, who exercised in sacceBaion the oEEce of chief 
-Jiglimte. This period ti&s been called the heroic age of lerael ; every miu> 
did wEat Bcemed good in his own eyes, and the nuliaa acknowledged no 
sovereign but Jchorsh. Porsonal courage sad militarj talents were the 
qusliliea then most esljemod in a mler, and the judges were the leaders of 
arinieB, rather than eipouudcrs of the liw. 

ID. Of these iodiiiduals the most renowned were OQi'niel, Gld'eon, Jeph'- 
thali, SaniBon,atid Samuel; the Erst delivered his country from the bondage 
of the Mo'abilcs; the second, from that of the Mid'ianiloB ; the third, ofuie 
Arn'moniteB, and the last two, from the Philis'tines. Samson nas noted for 
hiB prodigious strengtli; nearly all hie recorded teats are miraculous and 
superhuman, and ho is believed to be the original of the Hercules of the 
tireaks and other heathen nations. 

11. Samuel was the last of the judges, and was also a. prophet; he pari- 
fied the religious worship, refiirmed the manners of the nation, and drove 
out the Philis'tines. Uis last actof authority, and which he performed with 
reluctance, but at [he earnest wish of the people, was anointing and crown- 
ing Saul SB kiTig, 1(195 B. C, thus changing the government &om a com. 
nioDwealtli to a monarchy. 

ibp No. 7.— Where is the land of Canaan ? The land of the PhilistineB T 
Where are the countries of Syria 7 Ammon J Moah 7 Edoni 7 Midian ' 
Aiiialek7 Point ont the Hittitcs. JehnsiteB. AmoriteB. Hivitcs. Gir- 
gOBhttes. Sidooiatia. The foregoing eii naliena inhabited Conaao Proper. 
— Map of NoTthtrn Conaan.— Point out llie Sinites. Zomarites. Arkites. 
Arvadites. Hamathitcs. 



KINGDOMS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH. 

1. Ddrino the reign of Saul, and the succeeding reigns of Da- 
vid and Solomon, the twelve tribes were governed Dyone monardi: 
and hence they became more closely united. David, by his sldli 
in war, acquired large accessions of territory. Jerusalem was 
adopted as the capital, and the nation gradually gained power and 
importance. 

3. At this period the kingdom stretched far beyond the limits 
of (he land of Israel ; it included the whole of Syria, from the 
Orontes river eastward to the Euphrates, besides a portion of the 
noflhern part of Arabia. David compelled the Syrians, lie E'doro- 

What is said of tiieir bounds, tc.7 Of tlie worship of Jehovah? The 
national affairs I 9. The judges? What has this period been called? 
What was then the state of Ihinga! What were the qualifications mosl 
esteemed, &c. 7 10. Who were the most renowned judges? What ii aud 
ofSanuon? II. Of Samuel 7 What was his last act of authority 7 

:curred during Ihe reign of Saul, A.c.7 What is said of 
uBalcm 7 Of the nation 7 3. What is said of the kingdom : 




KINGDOMS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH. 

ites, and other naiions to pay him tribute ; he thus aiiiassei 
large atnoi nl of treasure which he left to hia son Solomon a 
sacred deposit for hu Iding' a nat anal temple at Jerusalem. 




3. Tlie reign of Solomon wis Oie gglden age of Israel. Hnd, under his 
govcnimcnt, the nation reached its higiiest atate of prosperity. The renonn 
of the eorereign extended far and wide, and liis name ia Btill prDivrbial tor 
wisdom, learning'.and nrngnilicence. The quees of Shcba, attracted by bis 
fmne, came to JeruBalem Trom tlie remotest parts of Arabia, with n numB- 
nioa train, laden with the clioiceet g'lftB of her kingdom as preaonta to Solo- 
mon; and, havii^ seen all hia wisdom and .all hie proeperitj, dBclaied tliat 
it lu snrpEssed what ahc had heard. (11 Cbron. li.) 

4. Solomon erected the splendid temple which his father had long eon. 
templatcd; when completed, it was dedicated, in a soleniQ testival, to tlie 
setrice of Jehovah, 1003 B. C. Daring his reign the meliopoliB iiecanie a 
magniScent cil; ; but, in the latter part of hia lifi;, the kiogriom doclinBit 
in Btreng-tb, and the people groaned under the heavy burdens laid on. them, 
while the increased intercourse with foreign nations dieposed tho sovereign, 
IB well OS the people, to favour their idolatrous worship and practices. 

5. Shortly after the death of Solomon, the injudicioua condnct of his son 
Rebobo'am ransed a division of the kingdom, 975 R C. That prince re. 
(ained the sovereignty of the tribes of Jndah and Benjamin, which took the 
name of the Kingdom of Judah. The other ten tribes formed the Kingdom 
oT Israel, and chose Jerobo'am as king. 

G. Although Israel was larger and more populoua, Judah was more ' 
wealthy, and retained poBsesaion of tlio chief city and the nutinnal temple, 
as wolf aa of the established prioathood. The power of the two Stales wa« 
nearly equal, and obstinate and bloody wars were often waged between them 

Wbnt did it inclodc T What nations paid tribute to David, &c. ? 3. What 
was the reign of Solomon? What occurred under hia government? What 
is said of the renown of the sovereign? Of the ftueen ofSheba? 4. What 
did Solomon erect ? When was it completed ? What ia sajd of the me- 
tropolia ? What occorred in the latter part of Solomon's life ? 5. After his 
death? OfwlmtwasRehoboain king? Jeroboam? 6. What is Gaid of 
Israel? Of Judah ? Of ti.eir power? 7. How long did Israel survive tlie 



w 



SACRED GEOGHAPHV. 

T. The Kingdom oflerael survived the division of the original inonarclif 
:i!i3 yean, and liad nineteen aucaeetive kings, evury oiie of wbom were 
Viiakcd nnd idoktroua. During tlint period tlie people graduull; lout all 
JiDOwlcdgQ of the true God, and became worsliippers of idols. At length 
&)iiilniaaG'zer, king of Assjria, made war against larael, took Samaria, afttr 
nBicgeofUireejcars, and lud the inhabitants away caplivo, in the year TSj 
B. C. This event is called the " captivity of tho ten tribes." 

8. The kingdom of Jgdah continued to be an independent Slate for 38G 

?Ear8 after the division in the time of Rohobo'Bin, or until the year 538 E. 
. At that time Jeriualcm wo* taken, tlio temple was demDliBhed, and the 
people wore carried away captive into Babylonish Captivilj bj Nebacbad- 
nez'zar, king ofBsbyton. 

9. Sevenly years afterwards, Cyrus, king of Persia, who had, in the mean 
lime, overthrown the Babylonish monarchy, eet the Israelites at liberty (now, 
fbr the iirst time, calkd Jews), permitted them to return to their native land, 
and to rebuild the temple and the city of Jerusalem. The latter, called the 
second temple, was consecrated to the worship of God in the year 515 B.C. 

10. From this time the Jetvs continued, fbr a period of 350 years, to be 
tributary, in auoceseion, to the Persionn, the Greeks, the Kgyplinns, and thf 
Syrians; Under these ditfercnt nations, the local government was fretjuently 



administered by the Jewish high priests; yet the people were often griev- 
ously oppressed. The Jews rose, at length, against the Syrians, under Ju 
IS Maecatue'us (the hainmsrcr], defeated them in various battles, and re 



gained their independenoe. 

II. At a later period Arislnbulos, a descendant of Judas Maccabse'ut. 
became king of the Jews, 105 B. C. His snocegBors were called Asmonc'- 
ons, Two brothers of this race having declared war against each other, 
the Roman general, Pompcy, interfered in the contest, during which he 
conquered Palestine, G3 B. C. Subseqaently Herod, an Tdumean, was 
placed on the throne of the Mac'cabees, but subject to the control of Rome. 

13. The reign of Herod was rendered memorable by the birth 
of the Saviour (Matt. ii. 1), and also by the moicier of the infants 
of Bethlehem (Matt. ii. 16). Sii years afterwards, procurators or 
governors were appointed over Judea, one of whom was Pontius 
Pilate, who condemned Christ to death. Samoxia and the other 
districts were governed by Herod's sons. 

13. Alter a time the whole of Herod's dominions were bestowed, with the 
title of king, on Herod Agrippa, one of hia grandBons, mentioned, in Acts 
xii. 1, as " Herod the king." Agrippa II., his successor, was ibe monarch 
before whom, and the Roman governor, St. Paul made his defence at Cebbb- 
re'a. (Acts ixv.) The continued oppressions of their foreign ruters, at 
length, escited the Jews to rebel against them, and B furious warfara eom. 

division? How many kings had it? What is said of Ihem 7 What did 
Shalmaneier do? S. How long did Judah continue 7 What then occarrod' 
9. What did Cyrus do ? What were the Israelites then called ? When was 
the second temple consecrated? 10. To whom were the Jews aflerwardF 
tributary, 4;c? What is said of the local government 7 What did the 
Jews do under.Judas Maccabeus I II. Whatissaid of AristobuIusT Whst 
were his successors called? What led to the conquest of Palestine by Pom- 
pcy? What is said of Herod? 19. For what was his reign memorable? 
What occurred afterwards 7 What is said of Samaria? 13. What is said 



GEOGRAPHY OP PALESTINE. 161 

IDcnced A. D. GG, which tcrminnted, fi™ jcurm aftcrffBrds, in Uic CTcnW 
vhich had been ^retold alike by Mosca (Dcut iiviii.) and by out Lord 
^Halt niv.), as the punisiiment of the rebellious houuc of Innicl, — the 
deitructioi] of the city and temple of Jerusalem, and the dispersion of theii 




3bp No, G. — Point oul Aram or Syria. Ammon. Moab. Israel, Edom. 
Aroalok. These countries eompriscd the kingdom of David and 5o1omon. 
with the exception of the email strip of territory on tiie Bca-B)^oro bulon^nfr 
to Tyre and Sidon. 1'he kingdom extended from the Red Sea lo the Eu- 
phrates, 60O miles, and inland Irom the Coast 150 to 200 miics— Map Nf. 
8. — Point out Ihc tribes of Ashor. Naphtali, Zcbulon, lesiinliar. Ma- 
niuBeh this side Jordan. Ephruim. Dan. Simeon. Manasseh beyond 
Jordan. Gad and Reuben. These ten tribes formed Ihc kingdom of Israel. 
Point out Judah and Benjamin. These tocmed the kingdom of Jndah. 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE. 



1 . Palestine or tlie Holy Land extends along the shores of the 
Mediterranean Sea, from north lat. 31° to 3^i° 30', and from long;. 
94° 2ff to 37° east fiotn Greenwich, a distance of 175 miles from 
north lo south, and from 50 to 90 miles from east lo west, 

2. In latitude, it coiresponda with the States of Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and comprises an area of about 
13,500 square miles, being nearly one-third as large as Pennsylvania. 

nfHerod'B dominions, &c. 7 Of Agrippa II.T What excited the Jews to 
rebel T What then occurred T How did these events terminated 

Q. 1. Describe Iho position of Pnioatinc. Its extent. 3. With wh;,t 
S;,.ie» docs it corrcfpoud in tatitudo) What is iU area? 3. What waj 




I 



SACKED GEOGRAPHY. 

3. In ancient times Palestine was a fertile and productive region, 
rich in grain, fruits, and cattle. Most parts of tiie ci>imtry were 
carefully cultivated ; the declivities of the hills were cut into ler- 
races, of which, in some places, the vestiges still remain, and were 
covered with plantationB of the choicest productions. 

4. Mcwea describes it as " a. land flowing with milk ^fid hoiiej" (Eiod. 
iii.8}; a. land of wbeat and b^ley, uf vines, %s, nnd pomegTanates, of oil, 
olivuB, &,(!., nnd whaie there is no lack of anything ; otlior iuBpired writers 
call it K pleasant land, a glorious land, and the glory of all lu]ds» 

5. The ocflidition ofthis once flivoured countrj is entirely chan^d. The 
deBpotism of the Turk?, and Ihe robberies of Iho Arabs, have made it aimoat 
a desert, and reduced the inhabitants to onc.tcnth of their fariner Dumbera. 
Its once noble cities are now poor *illttgca; and most of its Ibrmer towns 
are eilineL The curae, denounced for Iha ains of the Jews, has eomoupon 
it. "Fur thus hath the Lord auid, the whole land shall be desoUto." t^er. 
iv.27.) 

6. Palestine "Is a land of hiUa and valleys" (Deut. xi. 11} ; it is 
traversed by two ranges of motmtains, one on the western, and 
the other on the eastern side of the river Jordan. Of these moun- 
tains Leb'anon is the highest ; Her'mon, Gil'ead, and Car'mel are 
the next most noted. 

7. Leb'anon ia a magnificent mountain, and is always eovered with 
snow. Its heiglit and grandeur, and the fertility of its valleys, are ofUn 
altndcd to by llie Hebrew writers, It wae famed Ibr ita Gno cedar trees, 
but they are now, as predicted by the prophet (Isa. i. 19), nearly all de- 
stroyed. Ttiese trees were the resort of eagles (Ciek. ivil. 3), and Ihe la% 
summits of Lebanon, as well as the adjacent mountains, were the haunts 
of lions and leopards. (Sot. Song iv. 8.) 

8. Eastward of the Jordan are the mountains DrHer'mon,Ba'shan, Gil'ead, 
and Ab'arim. The summits of Her'mon, like those of Leb'anon, are covered 
with snow, of which, in ancient times, great quantities were carried to Tyre, 
and other cities, and sold as a Iniur;. Her'mon was likewieo known by the 
names of Sha'air, Sir'ion,Bnd Zion. (DeuL iii. 9 ; iv. 48.) 

9- Ba'shan and Gil'ead were famous ibr their rich paaturea, and the ohim- 
dance of their cattle ; the former, also, was noted for its stately oaka (Isa. 
ii. 13), and the latter for producing a medicinal gum called the Balm of 
Gil'ead. (Jcr. viii. SS.) On this mountain Jacob and Laban set up (he heap 
of stones aa a witness of the covenant between them. (Gen. xxxi. 4G.) South 
ofUil'ead were the Ab'arim UDunlains; on the highest of these, Ihe lop of 

Palestine in ancient times ? Wbat ia said of the country ? The hilla 1 
i. How did Mosca dcecribe it 1 What do other inspired writers call it! 

5. What is eaid of the present condition of Faleatino 7 Of the despotism 
of the Turks, &.C.1 Its cities and towns 7 What has como upon it! 

6. By what is Paleetine traversed T Which cf these mountaiiu is the 
highest ?- The ncit moel noted 7 7. Describe Mount Lebanon. For what 
wasit&med? What is said ofthese trees? Oflhe summit oflhe moon. 
tains? a What moontoins lay eaatward of the Jordan? What is said of 
Hermon ? By what other names was Hcrnion known 7 9. What is said 
of Bashan and Gilcad ? What did Jacob and Laban do on Mount Gilead 7 
Wiiat mountains lie south of GHcad ? What occurred on the highest of 




it Cu'mel is on the ua-coiut ; it web once noted for its fertility, 
bat ia now barren and rugged ; (jie curee denounced by Amoa bag fkllen 
upon it. (Amos i. 9.) On this mountain the prophela Elijah End Elieha 
ilwelt; nnd there, in the presence of Ahab nnd all Isriel, the Bucrifico 
uf Elijah WHS consmneil by fire jram hBnvcn. (1 Kings iTiii.) Tradition 
has preBGrvc<l a knoivledge of the pljiCD where tbe prophet pruyed for raiiii 
and where bia ■errant euw the cloud rise out of the sen. (1 Kings ivilL 44,] 
I'here was another Mount Cir'inel near tlio Dead Sea. 

11. Nearly east from 031*1001 ia Mount Ta'bor J on its summit, accordinff 
lo tradition, our Saviour's Iransliguralian took place. [Matt, xvii.] North 
ofTa'bor is the Mount oftho Beatiludeti, where Christ preached the sublime 
•liEcouric caliod the Sermon on tho Mount. (MatL v.) Moont Gilboa ia 
noted far its numerous springe, and also for the battle in which the three 
Boaa of Saul were slain; and wliera he died by his own hand. (1 Sam. 
»xii. 4.) 

12. Southward ofSamBriaatetheMoualBinBorE'phraim or Israel. On 
Gaaah, a hill l>ctonging to this range, Joshua was buried. (Josh, xx'iv, 30.) 
On Mount Quaranta'nia, situated between Jericho and Jerusalem, it is sup- 
posed, our Saviiiar was tempted by Satan (Matt. iv. S) : its name is not in 
Scripture i it ia known b; tradition only. 

13. Southward of Jerusalem are the Mountains of Judea; in many places, 
especially on the southern border, they are barren and deeolate. These 
inonotaiuB formed the hilt country of Judah er Judea. where the parents 
of John the Baptist resided. (Luke i. 39.) Near the Dead Sea ia Mount 
Carmsl, where Na'bai, the Carmelite, had his posseaaiona. (1 Sam. xxv. 3.) 

14. The Mount of Olives is on the east side of JerusBlem; between it 
and the city ia the Vale of Jetiosh'apliat and tbe Brook Ccdron. Hitlier 

these? 10. What ia said of Mount Carmel? Who dwelt there? What 
took place thereT What has tradition preserved! 11. What is said of 
Monnt TbLot 1 Mount of llie Beatitudes T Mount Gilboa T IS. What is 
gid of the mountains of Ephraim 7 Gaash ! QuaranlaniaT 13. What 
iDtaina lay southward of Jeiubalem 7 What did they form? What b 




3ACRED GEOGHAPHY. 



oar Lord ftcqucnlly reaurtcil, with liU dini 
1cm, and predicled its downfull, oiid fVom tl 
ifllo heaven. (Luke xxiv. 5(1, 51.J The bi 
of Corruption, bccaiiae on it Solomon bnilt 
goda. (3 KingR xiiil. 13.) 



here hft wept orer Jenisa- 

gc of BelJiuiy lie ascended 

I part WBi cntlcd the Mount 

illJirB for the woiabip of atrange 




^ 



Ithp A'b. 8. — What coutilry Inj northeast of Pakatine? Sonlheast? 
AVhit Gountriea south 7 What people eaet I Whatseawest? The Medi- 
terranean WOB called, by the iBraelites, the Sea, the Great Sea, the Sen afthe 
PhlliatlocB, and the Uttermost Soa, Point nut the mountains of Lebanon. 
Hcrmon. Bashoii. Gilead. Aharim mountains. Mount Carmel on thr 
aeajioaat Mount Carmol near the Dead Soo. Mount Tabor. Mount Gil- 
hoa. Mountains of Ephraim. Hill of Gaash. — Jtfaj No. 9, — Point oot the 
Mountain of the Beatitudes. Mount (^uarantania. The hill cooiitr? of 
Judea. 



^ 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE.— 
• [continued.] 

1. The principal rirer of Palestine is tlie Jordan; it rises atthe 
base of Mount Her'raon, passes southwardly through the country, 
and, after a course of 140 miles, floivs into the Dead Sea. It is a 
deep and rapid riTer, and is about thirty yards wide, in the lower 
part of its course. 

said ofCarmel ! U. Whal 

What WQB t).e Eonthern par 

q. 1. Which is tlieprinci 



RITEKS AND LAKES OF PALESTINE. 165 1 

2. ThiB atream is celebrated as the BCene of several miraculous I 
events. Its waters " stood, and rose up upon an heap," it> allow a I 
|>Bssagc for the Israelites, on their journey from the desert (Josh. ( 
lii. IKl; and they were afterwards divided by the prophets Elijah ' 
and Elisha. (2 Kings ii.) In the Jordan, at Beihab'ara, our 
Saviour was bapti;{ed by Jotin the Baptist. (Matt, iii, I'i ; John i. 

«■) 

3. Tlie Jab'boti, Gad'ara,and Heah'tion were tlie largest tributariea oriiio 
Jordan; the former wub the boundary bi'tween t)ie kingdoinB of Og and | 
SihoD. Jacob forded it, an his return from Pa'dan A'ram. (Gen. uiii. I 
33.) The Che'rilli waa the small brook on whiOh Elijah dwelt when he waa , 
fed by the ravens. (1 King! iviL 5, 6.} 

4. The Ki'shon, the Ka'nah, the Lebanon, and several other slreims, (low 
into Ibe Mediterranean Sea. On tlie banhn of the Ki'ehon, SU'cTi. was 
defeated by Ba'rak [Jncig. is. 7^15), and here, loo, Eliaha slew the pricets | 
of Ba'ai. (1 Kinga iviii. 30.) Tho Ka'nflh wob the boundary between tlio 

tribes of Epliraint and Manosaeli. (Josh. iiii. 0, 10.) From tlie fertile 
vallef of tlie Eeh'col, the spies onrried away a, bniich of grapes as a apcei- 
men of liie fruits of tLe land. (Num. xlii. 23.) In the vals watered by (he 
So'rek, Deli'lah, mentioned in the history of Samson, dwelt. [Judg. 3vl 4.) 

5. Tbe Be'sor was croBsed by Da>-id ui pursuit of the Amal'ckitea who 
had plundered and burnt Zik'lag. (1 Sam.iix.9, 10.) The Kiier of Egypt, 
.Shi'hor or River of the WildcrneEB, was the most Bonthem Etream in tbe 
Land of Israel ; it ia mcnUoned Ajnos vi. 14 ; Num. vaiv. 5 ; 1 Chron. 

liu. 5. I 

G. The Ce'dion, Kid'ron or Ke'dron flows past the city of Jernsaleni into 
tlie Dead Sea; over this brook David posaed when ho fled from Absalom 
l3 Sam. XV. 33), and our Lord also crossed it on the night in whieh he was 
betrayed. (John iviii. 1.) The At'non, called likewise tJie River of Gad 
(9 Sun. xxiv. 5), was the boundary between tho tribe of Reuben and the 
Mo'abitea. The largest only of the foregoing Btresms contaios water all the 
yuar; the others are dry during tbe summer. 

7. The Dead Sea is the salt lake into which the river Jordan 
discharges its waters; it is called, in Scripture, the Sea of ihe 
Plain, the Salt Sea, and the East Sea ; the Greek name is Lake 
Asphahi'tes; the Arabs term it Bahr elLout (Sea of Lot), It occu- 
pies the Vale of Bid'dira, in which stood Sodom and Gomor'rah, 
and the other cities that were destroyed by " brimstone and fire 
from the Lord out of heaven." (Gen. xix. 24.) 

8. The water of (he Dead Sea is very bitter, and so highly charged with 
salt, ihat persons bathing in it ean float with more ease than in any otlier. 

3ui. 



4. What is said of tlie Kishon, &.C. I What occurred on its banks ? What I 
waa the Kanah 1 What is said of tlie Eshcul 7 Sorek ? S. What ie said 

ofthoBeaorJ The River of Egypt ! S. What is saidof the Cedron 7 Who | 

passed it 7 Who crossed il 7 What was the Amon I What is ssid nf tbe ' 
foregoing streams 7 7. What is the Dead Sea 7 By what names la it 

called in Scripture? What is the Greek name 7 Arab name 7 What doei il 

*- J 



166 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

On tbe ibom of the lake acarcelj ■. Irec or hlido of graai ia lo be teen : 
both snimolB and birdn are extremely laie, B.nd Ihe whole region has an air 
of ulemn and death-Uke stillneBS ; whence iti nnitio of Dead Sea has been 
derived. 6j recent observation, the lurfaco of this lake ia aecerlained to be 
nearly 1400 Icet lower tban the aurfiice of Ihe Mediterranean. 

9. Tiie Sea of Galilee ia the largest oftba two fresh water lakes, through 
which Ihe river Jordunpaasea: it waa called the Bea of Gcnoea'aret (Mark 
- '3), and theSeaofTibe'rias. (John vi. 1.) Ita firat n ' " 



I apostles left their nets to heconie " fishera 
oi men" (Mark i. 17); but the fishery is now of little importance. 

10. The scenery around the lake is eicecding-ly beautiful, and the adja- 
cent countrj, in ancient timea, tvaa bo bighiy improved, tliat it was almost 
a paradise. Sudden atorma of wind aometimes arise, such as occurred when 
oar Lord was sleeping in the ahip. "Then he arose, and robaked the wind 
and the raging of the water : and they ceased, and there waa a calm." (Luke 
viii. 24.) On tliis lake, also, Christ walked on Iho water ; and here Peter, 
when about to sink, was saved by bis Divine Master. (Matt. liv. 31.) 

11. The Waters of Me'rom comprise a small lake north of the Sea of Gait. 
tee, through which the river Jordan ftowa. Early in the spring it Is filled 
with water, but, in summer, it is little more than a marsh, and is oveigrown 
with reeds snd nisbes, among which numbers of wild animals take refiige. 
Upon its banks the Israelites, under Joshua, defeated Ja' bin, king of Ha'sor, 
and bis allies. (Josh. zi. 1—7.) 

13. Tbe moonlaJnouB dietriclfl of the Holy Land abound in caves, which, 
in early times, were the abode of some of the native tribes; the Ho'citoa, of 
whom we read, were dwellers la caves. (Gen. xiv. 6.) These caves were 
also used as places of concealment, sometimes as places of voluntary resi- 
dence, and sometimes as burial-places: some of them were of great eitenL 

13. The cavea of Adul'lara and En'gedi sheltered David and bis hand; in 
the nrsc he bid hlmselfwith 400, and, in the second, with 600 men. (1 Sam. 
ixii.; ISam.uiv.) In the Cave of Obadisb a hnndred prophets were bid, 
(1 Kings xviii. 4.) Elijah and Elisba both dwelt in cavea, en Mount Car'mel, 
and the Cave ofMaohpe'lah, near He'bron, was the burial-place of Abraham 
and bis family. (Gen. xxiiL) 

JtfopWo. 8.— Pomt out the river Jordan. Ita riae. What paralieJs of 
latitude docs it cross in its course 1 What Iributariea flow into it from the 
east 7 The west 7 What streairis flow into the Mediterranean Sea 1 Which 
is the mostnorCherD of these 1 The moat soutliern? What river flowsinto 
the Dead Sea on its east side 1 

it occupy ! B. What ia said of the water of the Dead Sea J Describe its 
shores. What has been recently aaeertatned 7 9. What is said of the Sea 
ofGalilee? By what names is it caUed 7 What is said of the liver ? In 
what does the lake stilt abound, &,c 7 10. What is said of the scenery, &&! 
or sudden storms I What occurred on this lake? 11. What do the waters 
of Merom comprise 7 Describe lake Merom. What occurred on its banks ? 
la. In what did the mountainous districts abound? What were they in 
early limes? For what diflerent purposes were they also used, &c.? 
13. What is said of the caves of Adultam and Engedi7 Cave of Obadiab 7 
Elijah, A^c 7 Cave of Machpelab? 




I 



GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE. 



HYSIGAL GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE.- 

[COSTINUED.] 
PLAINS AND VALLEYS, CLIMATE, AGKICVLTURE, ETC- 

1. The leims wilderneBs and desert, mcl with in ihe Biblo, do nnt nlwiiya 
signify siindy dcserta or botrcn wastes, but are often applied to fields end 
by-ptacsB rcaerved for poeliiro; eucli wna tbe de»erl near Bctlisa'ida (in Pe- 
nea), where Jebub led [he tive thousand, and ofwliich it t« expreemly said : 
"notr there was much graas in the place." (Johnvi. 10.) The wilderncan 
of Jadeo, jn which "canio John the Baptist preaching" (Matt. iii. 1), Iny 
olong the west ebore of the Dead Sen, and was prolmbly, in moat parli, 
desert and barren. 

S. Amotie; the plains and valleys of Palestine, the Plain of Jezreel or 
Eidrae'lon has been long noted for its fertihty. It lies immediately eaat of 
the Kiaiion river, and is about thirty miles in length. It is one of the grenl 
battlB.ficldfl of Palestine, on wliich rarious noted confliots have taken placi'. 
Here wartiors of different nations have pitched their tents, and Jewa and 
Gentiles, Christiana and Saracena, Franks and Turks, have met in hostiU' 

3. Sharon or the Plain, which e.itenda along the shores of the Mediterru- 
neaa Sea, north of Joppa, wag once the most lovely and fertile district iit 
Palestine ; iU rich pastures fed nutneroua flocks. lU exeellencj ia aUuded 
to in Isaiah uii. 3, and its roses in Salamon's Song ii. 1. 

4. The plain or valley through which the Jordan flows is called, by thv 
Arabs, El Ghar [the deep valley). It was once of great beauty and fertility, 
and was inhabited at an early period, being the pasture-ground chosen by 
Lot, when he separatBil fium Abraham (Gen. xiii. 10) ; but it is now com- 
parativety barren. In ancient times it waa called the Plain of Chin'neroth 
{Josh. V. 2), the Plain of Jordan (2 Chron. iv, 17), and the " region round 
about Jordan" (Matt iii. 5). 

5. It extends from tbe Sea of Galilee to the Dead Bea. The banks of tbv 
river are covered with a luxuriant growth of tiees and herbage, whicii 
shelter wild animals of various kinds ; but, in tlie apring, they are drireii 
from their covorta by the rising waters of the swollen slrcam. To this cir. 
cumstance the prophet alludes (Jer. ilix. 19), "he shall come up like a lion 
from the swelling of Jordan." 

G. The Valley of Reph'aim or Vale of the Giants extends &oni Jerusalem 
to Bethlehem ; it waa remarkable for its excellent crops and its olive plan- 
tations, (leu. ivu. 5.) Westward lay the Vale of Elah, where David, Ih.^ 

Q. 1. What do the terms wilderneas and desert signify 7 What is said 
ollhedeaertofBetbsaidi? The wilderness of Judea? S. What pUin has 
been long noted? Describe its position. What is it, and what has taken 
place there 7 3. What is said of Sharon 7 lu rich pastures, &.c. 7 i. What 
is said of the plain or valley of the Jordan? What was it once, &,c.7 
By what different names was it called? 5. What is said of its eitent? 
Ol the bonks of llie river 7 What iiccura in the spring, &,a.1 6. Describe 
t)le valley of RBphaim. What is said of the Vale of Elah T The Valley of 




168 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

yontliful hoTo or Isricl, slew tliG gi^ntic Gali'uth, who hid " dafiad the 
irmici of the living God." (1 Sam- xviii, S—IO.) Tho hiook, whenoe the 
victor ohoM tlie five «mcwth slonea, etill flows throng-h the tbIo. The Vullcy 
nf Sail, where Ahith'ai slew 16,000 E'domilex (1 Chron. xviii. 13), Ib b level, 
tnmn tntct, at the loiithern extremitj of the Dead Be>. 




I, bnt it varies with Ibe aaiCuce of the 
:liB summer, it ia very bol; while on 
iDe moaniiina uie com oi wirier is oiieii severe. The rains, during the latter 
part of the year, na well as in the spring, ure copious; they are distiDgulihed 
aa the Ibrmer and the latter ruin { Iheii importance to agriculture, partictt 
liiriy Uie laat, appears from the etprcBsion (Prov. ivL 15) ; tJio king's ■■ ft. 
vour is aa a eland of the latter rain." 

8. During the aummer months there ia no min, but the dewa are heavy, 
and serve to refresh the thirsty vegetation. Their iertiltzing influence is 
referred to in Scripture as a symbol of tho divine blessing; "1 will be as the 
dew nnto Israel" (Hos. liv. S.) 

9. In the latter part of summer, the east wind from the desert withers op 
the herbage, and its effects are often referred to in the Bible: "Shall it not 
utterly wither, when the east wind tonciietb it?" (Ezak, ivii, 10.) These 
easterly winds, now called Levanters, lidve always been daogarous to mari- 
ners: "Thou brcakest the ships of Tur'shish with an east wiad." (fs. 

10. Agriealtore was Iha chief employment among the Hebrews; Mosea 
made it the basis of tbe civil constitution of Israel, by dividing thu land 
among the people, In early times, tlje most distinguished individuals vrar« 
cultivators of the soil. King Saul himself tilled liis own ground (1 Sam li. 
5), and Elisha was called froni the plough to the ofEce of a prophet (1 KingB 
lis, ID.) As towns and cities beguii to multiply, many of the Jews devoted 
themselves to handicrafts and trading; but agriculture continued, at all 
liniee, to be the basia of the national prosperity. 

Salt? 7. Describe tlie climate of Palestine. The rains, &.c. How are 
they dixtinguiahed ? S. What is said of the summer months? The dews, 
di.c.7 9. What occurs in the latter part of summer I What is said of its 
eficclsl Of the easterly winds? 10. What was agriculture! What did 
Moses make it ? What is said of Saul ? Elisha 7 What occnried wltn 



THE TWELVE TRIBES, 169 

11, The Land of IetilcI wua u pnstornl, as well as fanning countrj, and 
the Mcful domostic animals were numaroua : "Tho psslurea aro clothed 
with flookBi Iho valleys also are covered witii eorn." (Pa. in. 13.) Be- 
eidea sheep and oxen, the inhnbilants had asaea, geata and camola. Tlie 



and oxen oFBa'shaa. 

13. The Jewa had but few hoises, and, indeed, they were tbrbiddcn lo 
multiply the breed. (Deut. ivii. 16.) Solomon, however, had 40,000 Btalla 
of horaea for liig chariots, and 13,000 horaomen. (1 Kinga if. 36.) Ho had 
itromedaries also. The children of Reuben, Gad, and Manaa'aeh, took 
oO,ODQ camela from the Arabs. (1 Chroa. v. 31.) Those animala were used 

ridden by persona of aoperior rank. (Judges s. i.) White aasBg were held 
in particular esteem, and were supposed to boalow dignity on the rider. 
[Judg. V. 10.) 

Map Ka. 9. — Where ia Bethaaida in PerffiaT Near wliat sea is it? 
Point out the wildcrncaa of Judea. On which sida of the Dead Saa is it ?— 
Mop No. 8.— Point out the Kishon river. The plain of Je»reel or Esdrae- 
lon extends along this stream ; it woa partly in leaadiar and partly in Ma- 
naaseii. Where is the plain of Sharon 7 Tbe Valley of Iha Jordan I How 
many miles is it, by (he scale, from (he Sea of Chioneroth or Galilee to 
the Dead Sea ? Wliere is the Valley of Salt 7~Map No. 10.— Where is the 
VeleofRephaim? Tho Vale of ElaJi ? 

H ^ THE-TWELVE TRIBES, 

^^ WITH THE TOWNS NOTED IN OLD TESTAMBNT TIMES. 

1. When the Israelites had conquered ihe land of Canaan, Jo- 
shna divided it by lot among the twelve Iribea. These were the 
descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob, viz. BeuTjen, Sim'eon, 
Le'vi, Judah, Dan, Naph'tali, Gad, Ash'er, Is'sachar, Zeb'tiion, Jo- 
Eeph,and Benjamin. 

2. Two of these tribes gave no name to any lot or inheritance, 
namely, Levi, whose descendants were the priests of the nation, 
and Joseph, whose portion was divided beween his two sons, 
E'phraira and Manas'seh, whom their grandfather had adopted 

SQen. xlviii. 5); and these two tribes toM the places of Levi and 
osepli. 

towns and cities began to multiply? 11. Describe tho Land of Lirael, 
What animala had the Jews 1 What is said of tha cattle fed on Boshan and 
CarmelJ 13. What is said of horses? Of Solomon? The children of 
Ri'uben, &.C.? For what purposus were camels used 7 What is said of the 
ass 7 White OBsea 7 

Q. 1. What occurred on Ihe conquest of the Land of Canaan? From 
IB twelve tribes descended ( 2. What tribes gave no name to 
What la said of Joseph's two sons 7 3, What is said of tin 




J 




170 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

3. The Le'vitca or children of Levi were set opan by MoGes at 
the ministers of religion, and also as the instructors of tlie people. 
For iheir support they had the fiist-fruits, and (he tenth of the 
produce of (he land. They were distributed over the country in 
foity-eieht cities, that were assigned to ihem for iheir residence. 
Six of these cities were appointed by Joshua as cities of refuge, to 
which the skyer, that killed any perstm unawares, might flee. 
(Josh. XX. 7, 8, 9.) 

4. In apportioning the territory of the tribes, one-half their 
number were settled on the sea-const, the remainder lay inland. 
Asher was tlie most northern, and Judah the most southern tribe. 
The tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, resided 
east of the river Jordan, in the territories of Og, king of Ba'shon, 
and Si'hon, king of the Am'oriles. 

5. REDBENliyonlhBeutsideoflhcDeidSc&iindttioricer Jordui, and 
north of Iho river Ar'non ; its Ipnitorj' Waa raltbrntcd (or the muititude of 
cuttle, ehcep and ga9.ts it aupported. Hesh'bon, s strongly fortified town, 
WHB the cspilul of (he Am'ocitea ; its Reh-pcxils nre alluded to in Sol. Song 
vii. 4. Mfd'ebu was noted in the wan of David (I Chron. zix.); Ar'oer, 
Di'bon, and Kcd'emotb, are all mentioned in Joeh. iiii. ; and Be'ier, in DeuL 
iv.43. 

6. In G*D wara Ja'beah Gil'ead (Jaages iii.) and Ra'moth Gil'ead 
{1 Kingauii.)! both were noted in the wars of the Israelitea; at the latter 
Ahab, king of Israel, was slain. Maliana'im was the place where Jacob 
saw tbe hoet of ongtle comiog to meet iiiin. (Gen, xxxii. 2.) At Fenu'el 
or Peni'el he saw (Sid bee to lace, and there his name waa chan|fed lo Israel. 
(Gen. mil. 30.) At Sue'eolh he took up liia residence, on his retuntftoin 
Fa'dan A'ram. (Gen. miii. 17.) 

T. Near Zai'elan or Zor'than the braien veasela were eaat, by order of 
Bolomon, lor the temple. [I Kings vii. 46.) Miu'nith was noted for its 
wheat (Ezek. xxiii. 17) ; Rab'bath Ani'mon, a fortiBed eitj, was the capitjil 
of the Am'oionitEB ; while Jo'ab was bEsicging- it, Uri'ah, the husband of 
Batb'abeba, was treacheroualy slain. (2 Sara, xl IT.) 

8. In Makasbeb bkiond JoaOAN was the town of Dan, in early tiDics,the 
moat northern in tbe land of Israel, aa Beer'aheba was the most aanthom, 
hence Iho phraae, from " Dan oven onto Beer'aheira," was iiaed to doDatn 
tbe whole extent of the country. It is mentioned in the life of Abrofaam. 
(Gen. liv. 14.) Here Jerobo'am eet up one of his golden calvea. (1 Kings 
xii.39.) 



Levites ? What had they for their support 1 How were they distributed ? 
For what purpose were sii of these cilica appointed ? 4. How were the 
tribes settled I Which was the most northern tribe T Tlie most soutiiern? 
Where did the tribes of Reuben, Gad, &.c. reside? 5. What is said of Reu- 
benl Forwhatwasiteelcbratcd? What is said of Heahbon? Medeba,&:o.? 
6.Forwhatwere JabcsbGilGadandRamotbGileadnDtt'd? What oMarred 
ntMahanaimJ At Penuel! AtSuccotbJ 7. What waadonc atZaretanor 
Zarthan? MinnithT Ralbath Ammon, A.c.7 8. What is said of the 
town of Dan 7 Where is it mentioned! What was aet up there 7 9, What 



THE TWELVE TRIBES. 171 

rolb.aDil Ed'ret veie cttios of Ihe kingdom of Baahan ; at the latter, tliR 

Sigaolic king, Og, was defeated by the Israelites, before tliey erossed over 
ordati. 
ID, The tsrritarf of AsHUt was the most northdm in Israel. In ita 
boundariea were incladod the PhcBnic'ittQ cities of Tyre, Sidon,Bnd Acchy, 
whose inhabitants tlie Ash'erilea ware unable to expct Amongst the ollitr 
towns were Mls'replioth-ma'im, Hel'kBb, Ach'sa^ih, Beth'-iehob, and Zar'i'- 
phath. At the latter tbe prophet Elijah dwelt, while tliore was a &miae iji 
the Land of Israel ; and heie he restored the widow's son tc life. (I Kings 
ivii. 9—22.) 

II. Id Zxbitlon was Gath-he'pl'^i'i ^^ native place ofthe prophet Jonah. 
(S Kings liv. 33.) Bethu'lia was the town that was besieged bj Holofer'- 
nes, general of the armj of Nahuchodoa'nsor, king of Assytio, and delivered 
in the imnnei related in the Book of Jn'dith, eh. vii. Jok'neam or Jok'ne- 
am of Cannel, was a city of the Lo'iitea. (1 Chron. vi. 6S.) 
19. At Abel-Beth-ma'achah, in Napli'tali, the rebel She'ba was besieged 

S' ' Joab. (3 Sam. xi. 15.} Ha'zor was the losidence of king Ja'biii. 
ar^osheth was the town where Sis'cra lived, who commanded the army of 
Ja'bin. (Judges iy. 2.) Ko'desh-Naph'lali was tho rcsideneo of Ba'rak. 
t Judges iv. 6.) 

13. In Is'sACSAR was Megid'do, on the river Kl'shon, famous for the batUea 
loDght in the eitensjve plain near it : here tbe army of Ja'bin was de- 
stroyed by Ba'rak (Judges iv. 15); Ahaii'ah died of the wonnda received 
in balllB against Jehu (3 Kings ii. 37), and JosiuJi was defeated and alaiTi 
by Pha'rat^-Ne'cho. (2 Kings uiii. 39.) 

14. Shu'nem was the place where the prophet Elijah restored to life Ibe 
■on of tlie Shu'namite woman. (3 Kings iv. 35.) At Do'than, whitlier Jo- 
seph had repaired to seek Iiia brethren, he was sold bj them as a slavo 
to the lah'maelitB merchanta. (Gen. xxxvii. 28.) A well, with a. marble 
cover, supported by pillars, is traditionally pointed out as the "pit" into 
which Joseph was cast. 

Mop No. 8— What tribes lay oq the aaa.ooaat 7 What three lay west of 
Jordan,but did not extend to the sea? What tribes east of Jordan 7 Point 
out Reuben. What river Ibrmed its southern boundary 7 Western 1 Point 
outHeshbon. The other towns. Where is the tribe of Gad 7 Whatriver 
on the west I What nation on the caat? Wliere ia Jabcsh-Gilead 7 Ra- 
moth-Gilcau, and the other towns) Point out Manasseh boyond Jordan. 



lay east T What country east 7 Where i< 



Dan? Geshur? T'- other towns? Where is Ashor? 
towns mentioned in the text. The PhiBnician ciljea. CabuL This waa a 
district which Salomon gave to Hiram, king of Tyre, tor the servicea which 
he had rendered him in building the temple. Where ia Zobulon ! What 
sea bounds it on the west 7 Point out Gath-hepher. The other towns. 
Where is Issachar 7 Where is Megiddo? Shunem 7 Dothan? Megiddo? 
This town stood on (he western side of the plain uf Jezreel. 

ia said of Geshur 7 Argob, Astaroth and Edrei 7 What occurred at tlie 
latter 7 10. Whet is said of Asher 7 What Phainician cities did it include 7 
What is said of them I What other towns 7 What la said of tlie lattar, &c ' 
II. Who «aa a native of Gath-hepher 7 What ia said of Bcthulia, 4,c.7 
13. What took place at Abel-Beth-MaachahT What waa Haior7 Haro. 
shsth7 Kcdesh-Naphtalil 13. What iasaidof Megiddol What accorred 
[e? 14. Whiti3aaidofShunem,ic.7 Of Dothan? 




J 



SACRED GEOGRAPHy. 



THE TWELVE TRIBES — [continue 



'"^^^1 



r 

^^^1 1. In MiNABSEH west of Jordan wub Dor, a Beapurt, once Ihe Bent of s 

^^f CuuiiitiBh king. (Josh. li. 3.) At Jci'reol there was a palace of the 

^^ kingB of larsel, where the impioUB Joz'ebel wai killed. (2 Kings ix. 33.) 

I Tifiaii was the capital of laracl, beniro the building of Samaria. En'dor 

waa the place to wliioh Saul went to consult a woinan who hud a ^miliar 

spirit. (1 Sam. Kiviii. T.) Oph'mJi wax the native town of Gideon. (Judges 

VI. II.) Be'zek was a oltj of Uie Cinainites whera 10,000 of thorn were 

alaln, and Adoni.be'iek, tbeii king, waa taken prisoner. (Judges i. 4.) 

Q. In ErHniiH waa Samaria, (be capital of the kingdom of Israel, Ibanded 
bj Omri, B. C. 919 (1 Kings xvi. Hi) i it waa deatrojed hy the Assy I'iuis, 
bnt waa gobBoqauntlj rebuilL Sbc'chem or Si'cbcin waa a verj ancient 
citj ; here Abrabajn erected an allar (Gen. xi\, 7), and bore Jacob and his 
jam ily resided. (Gen. xuiii. 18.) At Shi'Iob (lie tabernacle was set up ( Joeli. 
xvlii. 1], and remained until the time of Eli, a period of more than 300 
yeaia, alter which it was taken hy the Phjlia'tinss. 

3. At A'bcl-meho'lali the prophet Eliiha waa boin. Jop'pa waa the chief 
seaport of the laraeUtos; from honca Jonah took abip to eo to Tsr'shisit. 
(Jonah i. 3.) Tim'nalh.io'rah waa the inheritance given to Joshua ; and here 
he died and was buried, (Josh. niv. 30.) Raniatha'im-zo'phim. or Ra'mab, 
waa the birth-place of Samuel (I Sam. i. 1—30) ; there he dwelt (vii. 17), 
and there he anointed Saul to be king of Israel, (x. 1.) 

4. The territories of Dan and Simeon were, at hrst, a part of Jadab, but 
its portion being found larger than waa needed, its western diBl/icta were 
therelbre set apoj-tfortho residence of the other two tribes. The portion of 
Dan being of small dimcnsionB, induced the tribe lo semi out some of its 
people in search of otlier settlementa (Judges xviii.) ; they accordingly took 
l.a'ish, a city near the source of (lie river Jordan, and changed its name lo 
Dan : it waa long the most northern town in Israel. 

5. In Dan were the Pbilia'tine cities of Ash'dod, Ek'roo, and Gath. lb 
Aah'dod the ark was conveyed by the Fhilis'tinea, after the; had captured it 
atlhebattkofEbene'icr. Itiscallcd Aio'lusin theNewTestamcnt. Ek'ron 
waa a strong city on the coast ; it was given by Joshua, first to Jndah, and 
aAerwards to Ehin ; but the Israelites did not obtain posseBsiuu of it until 
the time of Judas Maccabffi'ue. The ark waa brought hither from Ash'dod, 
but it was speedily removed, through fear of divine vengeance. 

B. Gath wasthe native town of Goli'atl), whom David killed; it was taken 
b; the latter, after he became king, but was subsequently rebuilt by his 
grandson, Rebobo'am ; it was hnaily laid waste by Haz'aej, king of Syria. 
Aj'alon was one of the scenes of a : -' — ' — '- j-j :- '--i 






ecordcd in Joshua x. 



Q. 1. What was Dor? What is said of Jezreel? TimJi ? Endor? 
OphrahT Bciekl 2. What issaid of Samaria? Shechem 7 Whoreaided 
there? What is said of Shiloh? 3. Who was born at Abel-mehohih 7 
Whatissaidof JoppaT Timnath-serah ? Kamathaim.iophim ) 4. What 
is said of Iho territories of Dan and Simeon? Of the portion of Dan? 
What city did they lake? To what was its name changed, ic? 5. Name 
tho Philistine citiea in Dan. What is said of Aebdod, &c. 7 OfEkion, &o.i 
6. What is said of Gath ? Of what waa Ajalon the scene? 7. Where wtro 



THE TWELVE TEIBE8. 



I^^^ 



[3, 13, when, in a battle bolwecn the Israeliten und the live kings ortheCa'- 
naonites, " (he sun etood Blill, anil tile moon stayed, until tlie people hail 
avenged themselves upon their eneinica." 

T. In SiHEOH weie Gafiix and Ae'kelon or AyoaJon, ciliea of tlie Philifi'- 
tioes. From the first Sunson carried awa; the gates of the city ; aikd, when 
lie fell into the hands of the Fliilis'tines, tliej' deprived him of )iia sight, and 
set him to grind ia the priaon-houae at t^a'za, dec (Judges xvi.) Aa'kekm 
was tliH birth-place of Hemd the Great : it was famoas in the lime of the 
Crusades. Zik'lag was given lo David bj A'ohish, king of Gatb, when ho 
.lad to llie Phiitstines for fear of Saul. (1 Sam, xxvii. G.) Ge'rar was the 
residence botfi of Abraham and Isaac. (Gen. ii. I.; iJivL 6.) 

B. At Beer'sheba, also, Abraham and Isaac both resided, and here the former 
made a treaty with Abiin'eleuh, king of Ge'rar, which was cniifirmed witli 
ati oath ; whence its name, which signifies the " well of the oath." (Gen. 
ixi. 31.) A town wsa alterwarda buUthere, which was considered tlio moat 
southern ia the Land of Israel 

9. Jer'icho, in the tribe of Berjahin, was the first conqaestaf the laraetiteii 
oiUr they liad croaied llie Jordan ; its walls fell miraculously to the ground, 
tvhen it uaa captured and destroyed. It was subsequently rebuilt, and bo- 
raine a great city. At Gil'gal the Israelites encamped, alter tliey passed 
the Jordan ; there they set up tlie twelve stones which they took out of the 
tnidstof the river, as a monument (Josh, iv, SO.) 

10. Gib'eah, called Gib'eab of Saul, was the residenca of Saul, king of 
Israel Gib'son was a royal city of the Ca'naanitea. The inhabitants 
having deceived Joshua bj an artifice, had their lives spared, but were con- 
demned to be the howors of wood and drawers of water ki the Israelites. 
Mere, at the command of Joshua, " the sun sbrad still in the midst of 
heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whale day." (Josh. i. 13, 13.) 

11. At Beth.elJacob saw his lirst vision. (Gen. ixviii. 19.) Jerobo'am here 

the children who mocked Elisbi! (3 Kings ii. 23, 34.) Between this placi- 
and Ai or Hai Abraham first lived after bis return Itata Egypt. (Gen. liii. 
:i.) At Nai'otli SoIdiugI and the sons of the prophets dwelt ; and here Davici 
withdrew from Ssul. (I Sam. :di. IB, 19.) 

IS. An'athotb was llie birth-place of the prophet Jeremiah. At Ra'moh 
lie was released by the Chalde'ans, when they brought him prisoner from 
Jerusalem. (Jer. x1. i.) Bahu'rim was the place where B)ii[n'ei cnrsed 
l>avid, and threw sIonHs nt him. (3 Sam. xvL 5, 6.) At Zc'lah Saul was 



Map JVo. 8.— Point out Matinsseh west of Jordan. What river fnrmod its 
"astern boundary? The soulliernl Point out llie towns mentioned in the 
text. Where is Ephraim? What tribe bounded Ephraim on the north? 

What alter oe 

Who roaided at Gernr ? 8. What is said of Beerslieba, Slc. I What does 
lite name signify 7 9. What is said of Jericho I What did the laroelitea 
■lo at GilgnlT ID. What was GibcahT Gibeon ? What did t)ie inhabi. 
tents do7 To what were they condemned? What was tliis place? 11. What 
!,< said of Beth-el 7 Ai or Hai ! Who dwelt at Naioth, &n. 1 13. Whi 
born at Anathothi Where was he released by the Chaldeans 1 What 
^ ■ - ■ ■ J Who was buried at Zclah ? 




lat I 




SACRED GEOGRAPHT. 

What tribe, .outh T Eaitl Where » San 

Point out Dun. Simeon, What tribes lay e. 

What slroam formed part of the soulhorn bounaarj ot Binioon ( romi out 

the towns in Dan. The towns in Simeon. The cities of the Philiatines. 

Where is the triboof Benjamin T What tribes lay north I South ! Boat? 

Weatl Point out Jericho. The other UiwaB. — Map No. 10. — Fointout 

Anilhath. Ramah. Bahurim. Zclah. 

THE TRIBE OF JUDAH, 

WITH THE TOWNS NOTED IN OLD TESTAMENT TIMES. 

1, JuDAH was distinguished above all the other tribes of Israel. 
It led the van of the coagregation, in the march through the de- 
sert, and was the ficst appointed to expel the Canaanites from the 
Promised Land. It was also the native tribe of David and Solo- 
mon, as well as of our Lord, and lo it was made the prophetic 
Somise, " the sceptre shall not depart from Judah until Soi'lon (the 
essiah) come." (Gen. xlii. 10.) 

S. Jerusalem, the capital of Israel and afterwards of Judoh, was aitn- 
■ted in the district called the Land of Mori'ali ; it lay within the tribe of 
Benjamin, but Judah acquired it by conquest. The city was built on Akra, 
Mori'ab,aud Zj'on.tlirce hills of moderate elevation. The JewscaUed it the 
Hoi; City, and the City of God, and it is still known, in the East, by tlie 

3. It is supiKxed to have existed aa earlj as tlie time of Abrahani, and wu 
one of those towns from which the Israelites eould not drive out tbe Jeb'a- 
■iles, the original inhabitants : the latter boasted that their lame and blind 
could defend its jbrl ; but it was taken by David, who made it his residence 
(3 Sani. V. 6, 7], and called it by his own name. 

4. This city comprised, in early times, three divisions, vii. Sakm (the 
Lower or Old Town), atlerwarda called Akra; Zi'on or the city of David, 
and the Temple. Bez'etha (tlie New Town) was not built unUl ailer the 
time of our Saviour. All these divisions were separated fi-om each other 
by waits and towers, and the whole was encompassed witli a high and 
strong wall. 

5. The hills on which the city stood were separated by deep valleys from 
the surrounding heights. East of the city was llie Vale of Jeljosh'aphit ; 
south and Boutiiwest werethe valleys ofGi'hon ai ' "* ■ 
part of this valley, called To'phet, some of the 
sacriticed children to (he idol Mo'loch. (Jer. ' 



the aoathorn side of tt 






0, and tl 



lolatrous kings of Judal 

31.) The btook Ced'roi 

'ah or Gi'hon ol 



n of 



3. From whose time is it suppoeed lo have ciisted 7 Of what did the Jeho- 
eiles boastJ 4. What did the city comprise? Name the divisions, &a. 
What is said oflhem? 5. What is said of the hills J What was east of 
ihccilyT South and southwest? What is said of the brook Cedron, tc.T 




6. Tho chief ornament of moient Jeniaolem wae the temple of Solomon; 
It iraB built OQ Mount Mari'iili, und wae i mngnificenl ediRce ; it was en- 
cumpassod by apacious courts, and was adomod with rich ornaments of 
gold, silTer,and brass. In ths innennosl pa.rt of the temple waa the auicta- 
sry, including tlie Holy of Holiea, bo called because it contained the Ark 
<n the Covenant, and was regarded in a peculiar aensa bb the dwelling of 
the Moat High. Thia temple waa deatroycd by NebuchndnGz'zur, but it waa 
rebuilt by Ibe Jewa when they returned from Babylonish captivilj. 

7. Zi'on, the city of David, was on Mount Zi'on, (be highest part of Jem- 
solem ; it waa the best fortified and strongeat section of tbe city. It con- 
tained David's hooBo or palace, the queen'a house, Solomon's house or pa- 
lace, called the House of the Forest of Lebanon, tlie House of Iha Mighty, 
and other buildinga. East of Zion lay the king's garden, mentioned Jer. 

S. North of Jerusalem was the lock of Rim'mon, whero the remnant of 
the Benjamites, after the destruction of tlieir tribe, abode four months. 
(Judges u. 47.) Southwest of the city was tho pillar which Absalom 
reared up for himaclf, and called it afler hia own name. & Sam. xviii. 18.) 
In the same direction was tho stone called Ebon-e'ler, wltich Samuel set up 
IQ remembrance of the deliverance of the Israelites from the FhilistiacB 
saying, " Hitherto hath the Lord helped us." (I Sant. vii. IS.) 

9. Belh'lehem, or Beth'lehem Ephra'tah, was the native town of David ; 
hence it was often called the city of David; here, "in the fiilnees of time," 
■he Saviour of men, his desceodant aecordinv to the Seah, was bom. Near 
tbe town were the three poola called the i^untaina of Solomon. On the 
road to Jcmaalem was the tomb of Rachel, Jacob's wife. (Gen. ixxv. 19.) 

ID. He'bron, twenty-two miles south of Jerusalem, is one of the oldest 
cities in the world. On the plain of Mam're, in the vicinity, Abraham fed 
his Hocks, and here he bought a field, in which waa a cave where he might 
bury his dead. (Gen. xxiii.) He'bron was David'a first capital; he reigned 
here upwards of seven ycara before he took Jerusalem. (3 Sam. v. 5.) 

II. Teko'ah waa tlie native town of the prophet Amoa ; he was at first a 
herdsman. (Amos i. 1.) To Bolh'shemeab the Phihs'tines sent the Ark 
of the Covenant, which they had captured fi-om the laraelilca. It was then 
removed to Kir'jath-je'arim, and remained there twenty years ; afterwards, 
lo (he bouse of O'bed-e'dom) and thence to Jerusalem, where it was placed 
in David's palace, and finally in Solomon's temple. 

19. Adul'lam was a city of Ca'naan, whose king was conquered by the 
laroelitcs. Near it waa a cave, in which David concealed himaelf. (I Sam. 
xiii. I.) At Mare'sliah an Ethiopian army, of a million of men, under 
Ze'rad, was defeated by Asa, king of Judah. Ijl Chron. xii, ID.) 

13. At E'phea.dam'niin the Philistines were encamped when Goli'ath 
doSed the host of Israel in the adjacent Vale of E'lah. (I Sam. xvli. 1.) 
Beth-hac'eercm waa noted forita vineyards; it is mentioned in Jer. vi. 1. 

6. What was Solomon's temple, ico. 1 Describe the temple. What did its 
innermoat part contain T By whom was it destroyed? What did it contain? 
S. What lay north of Jerusalem? Southwest 1 What lay in the same 
direction ? 9. What ia said of Bethlehem ? Who was bom there 7 What 
was near the town? On the road to Jerusalem? 10. What is said of 
Hebron? The plain of Memre, &c? What was Hebron? II. What is 
™d of Tefeoah 1 Betlwhemesh 7 To what pkcus waa the ark afterwards 
removed? IS. What is said of AduUam ? Marcbhah? 13. What is said 
of Ephes.damiiiim ? For what waa Bcth-hatyyitetti iioVail 'Wn-aX ija^ 



176 



SACEED GEOGRAPHY. 



I'al-per'azitn David dartstcd Uib Fiulis'liiiGB, BOon aCler he was anointfd 
king of Uracl. (3 Sam. v, 20.) 

14. En-eedi, ot liie cilj of palm.trcea, wu colebrated for iU vineyard". 
and its cunpliire or oyprees trees. (Sol. Soag i. 14.) The slronglialds of 
En'^i, in wLich Divid hid Mmseirfroin Saul (1 SBtn.xxili.Sg), were pro- 
bably cavm ill tlie vicinity. At Mn'on tlie chuilisti Na'biil, the first husbaii<l 
of Ab'isiil, reeided, though hia p< 



to the t 



v.a.) 



Map JVn. 8.— What Iribo bounded Judoh on the north 7 Whst tribes on 
the west? What sea on the eoat J What countries on the Boulh 7 Point 
nut JeruBiIem. Bethlehem. Hebron. Tckoah. EoUisbemcBli, Adullam. 
Mureihalt. En-gedi. Maon. — Jtfop JVo. 10.— Whero is the Rook of Rim- 
mon7 The Pillar of AbsalomT The stone called Eban.«ior 7 Foantains 
of Solomon 7 The tomb bfRichel 7— afan JVo, 1 1 — Point out tJio Luid of 
Moriah. Snlem. Zbn. The Temple. Paint out the Vale of JehoahaphiL 
Valley of Gihon. Valley of Hinnom. The Brook Cedron. Stream of Shi. 
ball or Gihon. Lower Fountain. WcU of Job or Enrogel. 



GALILEE ANP SAMARIA, 

wmi THE TOWNS NOTED IK NEW TESTAMENT TIUEB. 

1. The kings of Syria divided the land of Israel west of the 
Jordan, in!o the provinces of Galilee, Samaria, and Judea. The 
country east of that stream was called Pene'a (beyond). These 
divisions were adopted by the Romans, and were in use in oar 
Saviour's lime. 

2. The province of Galilee included the territories of Ash'er, 
Is'sachar. Naph'lali, and Zeb'ulon. It comprised some of the moat 
fertile and populous districts in Palestine, and was divided into 
Upper and Lower Galilee. The forqier was called Galilee of the 
Gentiles, from its population being partly of heathen origin. 

3. The in habits Ota fipoka a corrupt dialect j and hence eoald bo immp- 
diatcly reeognised. The apostle Peter was detected by his speech. (Mark 
xiv TO.) Among these ^ple.boweycr, our bleBsed Lord choBB his diaoiplni 
and he leaidcd bd long in their country, that he was himeelf styled a CHli- 
loan. (Malt. nvi. 69.) Many of his miraolea were wrought there, and 
Ibither he directed his disciples to repair to moet him, after the Tesuireclioo. 
(Matt, xxviii. 7—16.) 

piaceat Baal-porarim? U. For what was En-gedi celebrated 7 What is «aid 
i>f its stnmgholdi 7 Of Maon 7 

Q. I How did the kings of Syria divide the L»na of Israel west of Jor- 
dan 7 What was the coontry east called 7 By wham were thsBe divisions 
ndoptod. &e.7 S. What did Galileo include' What did it comprise' 
How waa It divided 7 What was the former called 7 3. What is said of tin 
iiihabilanls ? The Bpontle Peter 1 Who were chosen from amonest these 
pvi<,i\t 7 What is said of our Lord 7 What were wrought there f 4, What 




GALILEE AND SAMARIA. 1T7 

4. Capcr'naum was an important town ; it was often the residence of our 
Lord ; hence it is called his own city. (Matt. ix. 1.) Here he performed 
many miracles, and in its neighbourhood he delivered the Sermon on the 
Mount; yet its inhabitants "repented not," and therefore their city was 
included with Chora'zin and Bethsa'ida, in a fearful denouncement. (Matt 
zi. 21 — ^24.) Caper'naum was also the residence of the apostle Matthew. 

5. Tibe'rias was once the capital of Galilee ; the lake on which it stood 
was sometimes called the Sea of Tibe'rias. It was rebuilt by Herod An'tipas, 
on the site of a more ancient town, and was named by him in honour of the 
Emperor Tibe'rias. After the destruction of Jerusalem, it was noted for its 
Jewish college. 

6. Ca'na, called Ca'na in Galilee, was the town where Christ performed 
his first miracle (John ii.) ; it was also the residence of Nathaniel. Na'in 
was the place where the Lord restored to life the widow*s son. (Luke vii. 15.) 
At Naz'areth he resided with Joseph and Mary until he commenced his 
public ministry; hence he was styled Jesus of Naz'areth. 

7. Bethsa'ida of Galilee, so called to distinguish it from another town of 
the same name in Peree'a, was the residence of the disciples Andrew, Philip, 
Peter, James, and John. Ac'cho was called Ptolema'is, in the time of Christ ; 
it was, on account of its fine harbour, a town of importance in the time of 
the Crusades. It was visited by the apostle Paul, when on his way from 
Tyre to Jerusalem. (Acts zxi. 7.) 

SAMARIA. 

8. Samaria, the smallest division of Palestine, derived its name 
from the city of Samaria. It lay south of GaHlee, and between 
the Mediterranean Sea and the river Jordan. Samaria included 
the territories of Ephraim and the western half-tribe of Manasseh ; 
it comprised some of the finest portions of Palestine. 

9. When the ten tribes were carried away captive by the Assyr'ians, the 
Land of Israel was left nearly desolate, but was soon repcopled by heathen 
colonists, and such Israelites as returned from the adjacent countries. These 
mixed races were called Samaritans ; they adopted the religion- of Moses, 
but intermingled it with idolatrous rites and ceremonies ; hence they were 
regarded by the Jews with extreme aversion : the latter would not allow 
them to worship at Jerusalem ; the Samaritans, therefore, built tliemselves 
a temple on Mount Grer'izim, near She'chem, and worshipped there. 

10. Samaria, the chief city, was, in early times, the capital of the king- 
dom of Israel ; it was destroyed by the Assyr'ians, but it was afterwards 
rebuilt Herod the Great improved it, and called it Sebas'te. It is now 
a mean village, but contains many fragments of ancient buildings, among 
others, the walls of a noble church erected on the site of the alleged prison 
of John the Baptist 

is said of Capernaum ? What is it called ? What was delivered in its 
neighbourhood, &.c. ? 5. What is said of Tiberias ? By whom was it re- 
built, &c. ? For what was it noted 7 6. What is said of Cana ? Nain ? 
Nazareth, &.c. 7 7. Who resided at Bethsaida of Galilee ? What is said 
of Accho ? By whom was it visited ? 8. What is said of Samaria 7 De- 
scribe its position. What did it include 7 Comprise 7 9. What occurred 
when the ten tribes were carried away captive 7 What is said of the Sa- 
maritans ? How were they regarded by the Jews, &c.7 10. What is said 
©f the city of Samaria ? By whom was it destroyed ? Who improved it ? 

M 



f 

p • 

I 



8 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

11. Caixip't, in the time of Uie Ramuiit llie chief town of Ssmaria, was 
iginall; a aiaiill Greek colony ; it derived dl it* importance fWnn Hcroij, 
ID marie it a. renowned city and aeaport. Here Sl Fetei sonverted Come- 
B,tlie Roman contarioD^iLnd Jiere also 8t. Paul deiended liimielf ■gainel 
[he Jews nod their orator Tetlul'lus. (AcK xxiv.) 

.r, previouBly oalled She'chcm &nd Si'chem, Blood between MoQnt 
i!:'biil and Mount Oer'iiiin. Near the city wis Jacob's Well, where oni 
Lord held the memorable oonvBrBation with the woman of Samaria. [Jolm 
iv.) The Emoerur Vespa'sian greatly improrcd the town, and called il 
Neip'olia {the New City), which hw been since corrupted into Naplous. 

la Anlip'atriB wmniuncdaftcrADUp'alor.lhofalherofHerod. To this 
place SL Paul was brought by the Roman Boldiori, on his way to CiCBiire'B. 
(Aetixiiii. 31.) Lyd'di was ahirgo town, in New Testament times; there 
SI. Peter miraculouily healed ^ne'iB. (Acta in. 33, 34.) j^non, near to 
Sa'lim, 18 mentioned u a plaee where John was baptizing:, " becaase there 
was much water there." (John iil S3.} 

14, Jop'pa, DOW Jaffit, ia thirty.sii milca northwest of Jenualom ; it is 
one of the moat ancient towns in the world. The apoalle Peter roaided for 
Home time ul Jop'pa, and bad (here the rision that led lo the preaching of 
the Gospel to (he Gentilea. In tlie same place ho raiaed to life Dorcas, a 
woman " fiill ofgood works and alms-deeda." (Acts ii. 40.) 

Mop JVo. 11. — Where ia Galilcel Dppar Galileo? Lower GalileeT 
'■'■lat district occupied [lie eoaal of Galilee? What river separated Galilee 
nPer«aJ What province lay aoulh of Galilee? Point oulCapemamn. 
leriaa. Cana. Naiu. Nazareth. Betbsaida. Point out Saniaria. What 
vince lay north 7 South? Eaat? Whateeawesl? Where is the eily 
Samaria! Sychar? Mount Ebal? Mount Geriiim 7 Jacob's Well J 
Anlipalria ? Ljdda ? Joppa T 



JUDEA AND PER^A, 




1. JvDEA was the most distinguished, as well aa the large 
[irovince in Palestine ; it comprised ihe territories of Judah, E 
JBinin, Dan, and Simeon. The interior was tugged and r 
lainous. but, on the coosi, the land was more level and fertile. 
The whole province was noted for its palm ti 

What was it then called ? What does it now contain 7 11. What is aaid 
of Cffisarea, &c. ! Who did SL Peter convert J Against whom did SL Paul 
defend himself 7 12. What is said of Syehar T What look place at Ja- 
cob's Well? What is aaid of Vespasian, iic. 7 13. After whom wa« Anti- 
patris named 7 Who was brought to Ihia place 7 What ia said of Lydda, 
&C. 7 Of MaoD ? 14. What ia aaid of Joppa7 Who resided Ihere, &,c. 'I 
Whom did Peter raise to life 7 

Q. 1. What wag Judea? What did It compriac? What ia said of the 
The coast 7 For what was the province noted? S. Whatiesaid 




3, Jerusalem, as it existed in the time of out Saviour, was the 
city built by the Jews who returned from Babylon ; but neither 
the city nor the temple iippronched their first magnificence until thu 
reign of Herod, wljo began about the year 10 B. C. to adorn thi; 
former with many spacious buildings, and repaired the latter from 
its very foundations, in a substantial and splendid manner. 

3. Bci'elhii or the New Town was huiU by Agrippo, the granilnon of 
Ilerod ; !□ his litne the city ia eiipposed to have attuiried its greatest extent 
and popnljlion : it wax upwards of liiur miles in circuit, uid bad &oni 
100,00(1 to 15(1,000 inhabikinta. 

4. AiUDDg tbe plmcea In Jcrnaalcm noted in oar Saviour's hiitarjr, was the 
temple, in whieb, when only twelve yeura of age, he sat in the niidst of the 
doctors, "both hearing them and iLiking (Jiem questions" (Luke iL 46); and 
here also he east out those that boueht and sold in it. (Matt xxL 13.) Near 
the sheep or beast market was the Pool of Betlien'do, where he healed the ' 
lame man on the Sabbath day. (John y. 3.) 

5. On the cast side of Zion waa the Foot of Sil'oam, in which the blind 
man, being directed by Ciirist to wash, received his sight. East of the 
city was tfie garden of Gethscm'ane, where our Lord WOH bttrayed. (Malu 
xivi. 36.) Westward wos Cal.ary, where hs waa crocified (Luke ixiii, 33), 
and near to it was the gulden containing the Re)iulcl]re In which his body 
was (aid. (John xix. 41.) Southward was the Potter's Field, called Accl'. 
dama, or the Field of fflood.* (Acta i. 19.) 

S, In Salem or Akrawas the Fortof Anli'oehaa, built by Anti'ochusEpi- 
(ih'anEB, kiug of Syria. Fort Antonia was a strong castle, whore, iu Roman 
limes, a iegion was stationed. In Zion or the Upper Town waa Herod's 
hoBse.a very splendid atracturc. Eastward of the city were Beth' phage and 
Both'any; at the Brst Christ commenced his triumphal entry into Jerusa- 
lem j at the other, where Mary and Martha resided, iie raised Laiarua from 
the dead (John xi. 43) ; and near it he ascended into heaven. 

7. The city of Jerusalem was taken and destroyed by Titus, A. D. 70. 
Fart of it waa rebuilt filty or sixty years afterwards; and in the fourth cen- 

of Jerosalemi Of HerodI 3, Who built Bozelha? What was the slate 
of Jerusalem in his lime ? 4. What places in Jerusalem were noted in ouf 
Saviour's history? 5. What lay on the east side of Zion 7 E^st of the city ! 
Wastwarit 7 Southward T G. What was in Salem J What is said of Fort 
Antonia T Herod's house? What was eastward of the city? What is 




a. Bethli 



: miles south of Jeruaalcm, is meniomble for the birih 
of oar Lord and Saviour (Mnlt. ii. ; Luke ii. 7.), 41104 jears afte 
of Iha world ; it ia now viailed cliirflj for Ihe aake of Ihe conieut built hj 
Ihp EmprcHB Helena, over a Bubtsrianciui grotto, where is ahoirti a marble 
liDiin, said to be the oiungei in wJiicli tlic infant Saviour v/tn laid. 
9. Jer'icho, the citjof pnlm trees, wtia, under the Bomiinn, onit oTllic 
'[irincrpsl townB in Pueetine, uid the rebiilsnce of Herod the Great. Zac'. 
L-Jieue, Ihe chief of ihe publicann, lived bere. (Luke xii. 1 — S.] Ncur 
Ihe city, Jems bcalcd two blind men. (Matt. ii. 30.) At £m'>n&as our 
Tiqrd BDUcared, ullcr his resurrection, to two of hia diseiplos. (Lnkc xiiv. 
13.) 

J 0. At Jut'tah, in the hill country, t]ia parents of lokn Ihe BaptiEt arc 
supposed to have resided. (Luke i. 39.) Ephraim was Ihe town wbere 
Christ lived, for a lime, for the sake of BBourity. (John xl 54.) Arimathe'a 
was the residence of Joseph, who begged offilatc the body of onr Lord, 



II. PEBB'Awaa the eastern province of Palesline; it comprised, 
in its enlarged sense, the districts of Gauloni'lis, Batan^'a, Per»'a 

'BBid of Bethplmge? Bethany? 7. When was Jernsoiem taken, &c, by 
Titus? What took place filiy or siity years afterwards J In the foorlh 
ctntury ? Wliat has taken place since that time I What is said of Jeru- 
salem ? e. What is said of Bet hie hem ? For what is it now visited? 
9. What is sjiid of Jericho? Who lived here ? What oecurred near tlw 
eity? At Emmaua! 10. Wlio are supposed to have resided ul Juttali? 
What [> Mid of EpUroim? Arimnlhca? 11. What was Fcra-a f Wli»l 



LAND OF THE PHILISTINES. 181 

Proper, Iturae'a, Abile'ne, Trachoni'tis, arid Aurani'tis ; the last 
two lay altogether east of Palestine, and the next two were only 
part in Pene'a. 

12. The Decap'olis was a' league composed often cities, whence the name; 
they were all in Perse'a except Bethshe'an or Scythop'olis, which lay in Sa- 
ma'ria. The inhabitants were chiefly Greeks, who received various im- 
portant privileges from the Romans. Multitudes of people came firom these 
citios to our Lord, at the commencement of his ministry (Matt. iv. 25), 
and in some of them he performed several miracles. 

13. In the vicinity of Gad'ara, called the country of the Gadare'nes by St. 
Mark, and of the Gergese'nes by St Matthew, our Lord met and healed 
** two possessed with devils." (Matt. viii. 8.) Ciesare'a Philip'pi was at 
first called Dan. Our Saviour visited and taught in this place, and here 
he gave the memorable rebuke to Peter. (Mark viii. 27 — 33.) 

14. Bethsa'ida was surnamed Julias : in a desert place belonging to this 
city, Jesus fed the five thousand. (Luke ix. 10 — 14.) Mag'dala and Dal- 
manu'tha were small towns near the southern extremity of the Sea of Gali. 
lee : to the first named belonged Mary, called Mary Magdalene. (Mark xv. 
40.) Dalmanu'tha is mentioned by Mark, viii. 10, and Mag'dala by Matthew, 
XV. 39. At Bethab'ara beyond Jordan, " where John was baptizing" (John 
L 28), it is thought he baptized Christ 



Map No, 9. — ^What province lay north of Judea? What sea east? West? 
Country south ? Point out Jerusalem. Jericho. The other towns. Point 
out PeraBa. What provinces lay west ? What country northeast ? South- 
east ? Point out Gaulonitis. Batancea. The other districts. The cities of 
the Decapolis. (The names are underscored; in the Map.) Where isCsBsarea '^ 
The other towns ? — Map No, 11. — Point out Bezetha. The Temple. Pool 
ofBethesda. Pool of Siloam. Gethscmane. Mount Calvary. The Potter'R 
Field. Salem or Akra. Fort Antiochus. Antonia or Anthony. Zion. 
Herod*s house. Bethphage. Bethany. 



LAND OF THE PHILIS'TINES. 

TYRE AND SIDON, SYRIA, ETC. 

1. The Land of the Philis'tines extended about forty miles 
along the coasts of Dan and Simeon ; it was divided into five 
lordships, which were named after the five chief cities, Ga'za, 
As'kelon, Ash^dod, Ek'ron,and Gath. These cities were sometimes 
called the Pentap'oHs of Palestine. 

did it comprise ? What is said of the last two ? The next two? 12. De- 
scribe the Decapolis. What were the inhabitants, &c. ? What is said of 
the people from those cities ? 13. What took place in the vicinity of Ga- 
dara ? What is said of Coesarea Philippi ? 14. What was Bethsaida ? 
Magdala and Dalmanutha? What is said of Bethabara? 

Q. 1. Describe the Land of the Philistines. How was it divided, fiLC, ? 
16 






SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 



2. Tha PhilU'tinee were defended from Miz'raim (Gen. i. U); they 
ome, probably, from Egypt, expelled Ihc A'vim, and settled in their place. 
They were d, warlike peD[Je, and leveral limea oppreeged the larBelitea 
gTiEVauiiIj; captured tlio Ark and defeated Saul. Aflerwards they were 
repeatedly overcume by Datid, and tliii'ali, king of Judah, took miHt at 
their towDH. (3 Chron. uvi. S.) They have long ceased lo eiiat »« a nation, 
thui (Qlfilling (he prophecy ; " The remnant of the Philis'tinCB shall pciiah, 
■aith the Lord God." (Amoi i. 8.) 

TYRE AND SI'PON OR Zi'doS, 

3. Tyre and Si'noN were rich commercia! cities, that lay within 
I ihe bounds of the tribe of Asher, but were never conquered by the 
I irraelites. Their territory was the Phcenic'ia of the Greeks and 
I Eomiins. In the Old Testament il is called Si'don, and also Tyie 
' and Si'don. The New Testament name is Syrt^Phtenic'ia, 

4. Tyre and Si'don were each gOTcrned by (heir own kin^s. Hi'ram.king 
of Tyre, was the fKend of both DaTid and Solomon, and Eth'baal, king of 
Sidoti, was the father of Jez'ebel, (he wife of Ahab. (1 Kin^ ZTJ.Sl.) In 
the leign of Zedeki'ah the kings of Tyre and S'idoD Bent ambaBeadora lo 
Jeruaalem lo obtain aseietance against Nebachadnez'zar. (Jer. xxrii. 3.) 

5. Si'don was the oldest town on tho coaat of Syria : in Joshua's time il 
L was called Great Zi'don. (Josh. li. S.) Aller a long period of prosperity, 
I it was, aa predicted bj the prophet Ezekiel, destroyed by the Persians ; it 
I was afteiwarde rebuilt, but nevei regained its former importance, and is now 
I A small, unimporlant (own. 




ifTrre. 

n colony, whence it 
(Isa. liiii. 12.) It became the emporium of the a 
time of her greatest aplendotir, Isaiah speaks of Tyre aa the " crowning 
city, whose merchants are princes, whose trafBckera are the honnurable 
of the earth." (uiii. 8.) The description given by Eiekie! fxivii.) of the 
trade ofTyre, its vast eitent, and the variety of the commodilies eraplajed 

9. I^rom whom were the Philistines descended T What were they, &0.?. 
What afterwards occurred 7 What is said of their national exietencef 
3. Describe Tyre and Sidon. What is said of their territory, &c? 4. Of 
IhcirgoYcmmentT Of Hiram? Ethbaal ? What was done in the reign 
ofZedekiah 7 5. What is said of Sidon 1 Of its destruclion T What took 
iflerwardsT 6.,What waaTyre? What did il become? In wbll 
termedid Isaiah speak of Tyre? What is said of the dcseriplion given bj 




SYRIA. 183 

7. This city was taken, after a siege of thirteen years, and destroyed by 
Nebuchadnez'zar, king of Babylon. It rose afterwards to wealth and dis- 
tinction, but its subsequent history is not recorded in Scripture. Tyre is 
now a small fishing village, and its condition corresponds most remarkably 
with what was foretold by Ezekiel. It has become 'Mike the top of a rock, 
a place for the spreading of nets.'* (xxvi. 4, 5.) The only remains of the 
ancient city are some broken walls, columns, and arches. 

syr'ia, 

8. Syr'ia was called at first A'ram, from being settled by the 
descendants of A'ram, the son of Shem. It was an extensive re- 
gion, and included Pa'dan A'ram and some other countries, as well 
as Palestine ; but the latter is always mentioned, in the Bible, as 
a distinct territory. Syria comprised several small kingdoms, such 
as Syria of Damas'cus, Syria of Zo'bah, of Ish-Tob, ot Ma'acah, 
of Ha'math, and of Re'hoD, which were almost constantly at war 
with the Israelites. 

9. Nearly the whole of Syria was subdued by David more than 1000 
years B. C, but it regained its Independence, and was again conquered, first 
^ the Assyrians, then by the Persians, and next by Alexander the Great. 
The Greek successors of that conqueror were the Seleu'cidas, who endea- 
voured to force the Grecian idolatry upon the Jews, but were manfully 
resisted by the latter under the command of the Mac'cabees. In the time 
of our Lord, Syria was a Roman province, having An'tioch for its capital. 
Judea, and the other districts of Palestine, were its dependencies. 

] 0. Damas'cus is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is mentioned 
in Scripture as early as the days of Abraham, whose servant, Eliezcr, was 
born there. (Gen. xv. 2.) It was besieged and taken by David, and after, 
wards by Jerobo'am. It was captured by Tig'lath-pile'ser, 740 B. C. 

11. It is noted as the place where Paul received his sight, after the vision 
which he saw in travelling thither ; and from the wall of the city he was 
let down in a basket, when his life was in danger. The street called Straight, 
in which he lived (Acts ix. 11), is still shown by the inhabitants. Near 
Damas'cus are the rivers Ab'ana and Phar'par, which Na'aman, the Syrian, 
preferred to all the waters of Israel. (2 Kings v. 12.) 

12. At An'tioch the apostle Luke was born ; and there the followers of the 
Redeemer were first called Christians. (Acts xi. 26.) Hcrbon or Chalybon 
was noted for its wine. (Ezck. xxvii. 18.) Tiph'sah, on the Euphrates, 
was the boundary of Solomon*s kingdom in that quarter. Seleu cia was a 
noted seaport, from which Paul took ship for Cyprus. (Acts xiii. 4.) Tad'- 
mor in the Wilderness, the Palmy'ra of the Greeks, was built by Solomon. 
(1 Kings ix. 18.) Ha'math and Zo'bah were towns noted in the time of David. 



Ezekiel ? 7. Of its capture and destruction ? To what did it rise ? What 
is it now ? With what does it correspond ? 8. Describe Syria. What did 
it comprise ? 9. By whom was it subdued ? Again conquered, &c. ? What 
is said of the Seleucidae ? Of Syria in our Lord's time ? 10. Describe Da- 
mascus. What is mentioned of it in Scripture ? By whom was it besieged ? 
Captured? 11. For what is it noted? What is still shown? What are 
near Damascus? 12. What is said of Antioch? Helbon? Tiphsah? 



164 SACRED GEOaRAPHY. 



pa'dan a'ram. 



13. Pa'dan A'ram (the Plain of Syr'ia) was the Mesopota'mia 
of the Greeks : A'ram Nahara'im (Syr ia of the Rivers) is the He- 
brew name for the same region. It lay between the Euphrates 
and Tigris rivers, and was the native country of Abraham. 

14. Jacob resided in Pa'dan A'ram, with Laban, and it is believed that 
the wise men who came from the East to worship Jesus, were Mesopota'- 
mians. Ur of the Chaldces, the birtli-place of Abraham, is supposed to have 
l>cen in Pa'dan A'ram. At Ha'ran, Te'rah, Abraham's father, died. (Gen. 
xi. 32.) In the New Testament this town is called Char'ran. (Acts vii. 4.) 
It is now known by its first name. 



Map No. 8. — Point out Dan. Simeon. The Philistines. The five cities. 
Point out Phoenicia. The city of Tyre. Sidon. Accho. This place was 
afterwards called Ptolcmais. — Map No. 6. — Where is Aram or Syria? 
Helbon? Tiphsah? Tadmor? Zobah? Hamath ?— J»faj> JVb. 2.— Where 
is Antioch ? Scleucia ? — Map No. 6. — Where is Padan Aram? Haran? 
Tr? — Map No, 8. — Point out Damascus. The river Abana. Pharpar. 



16 



ARABIA, 

INCLUDING AM'aLEK, AM'mON, MO'aB, e'dOM, MID'iAN, ETC. 

1. Arabia is an extensive region which lies south and east of 
the Land of Israel. It comprised, in early times, a number of little 
States, of which Am'alek, Am'mon, Mo'ab, E'dom,and Midian lay 
nearest to Palestine. In the western part of Arabia the Israehtes 
sojourned for forty years ; and here those wonderful miracles, the 
passage of the Red Sea, the supply of quails and manna, and the 
giving of the law on Mount Sinai, were performed. 

2. The Israelites called Arabia "the East Country" (Gen. xxv.6), 
and its inhabitants "the Children of the East;" and the latter are also 
spoken of, in Scripture, as "the mingled people" that dwelt in the 
desert. (Jer. xxv. 20 — ^24.) The first settlers of Arabia were the 
descendants of Cush, the son of Ham, and from them its southern 
division was, for a time, called Cush or Ethiopia. 

3. The Arabians of the present day are the offspring' of Ishmael, the 
son of Abraham and Hagar, concerning whom the prediction, " He will be 
a wild man/* &.c. (Gen. xvi. 12), has been fully accomplished. His descend- 

Seleucia? Tadmor? 13. Describe Padan Aram. Who was born in it? 
14. Who resided in it? What is believed? What is said of Ur? Of 
Haran ? 

Q. 1. Describe Arabia. What did it comprise ? What occurred there ? 
2. What did the Israelites call Arabia ? Its inhabitants ? What is said 
of the first settlers ? 3. Whose posterity are the Arabians ? What was the 



anU are nir« literally wild irion, living by plunder, reaiding in lonts, and 
TOBmiag Iree and unanbdiied over their vut wndy deaerts. 




I'cltin Ihc desert anulh of the Land of Canaan; they 
attacked tlic Isniclitca at Kcpli'idim, where Joshua defeated tliem ; lonj; 
afterwardB they were routed by Gideon, and then by Saul. After Heiekiih's 
lime, notliing whatever is known of thorn, aa a natioo ; thus fulRlling the 
denunciation of the Lord ; " I will utterly put out the rememhranee of 
Ann'aleli from nnder heaven." (Eiod. xvii, 14.) 

5. The Am'moniteb and Iho Ma'Aarres, the deseendimtB of Lot, Abraham's 
licphcw, inhabited part of the country that lay east of Palastinc. Thoy 
were generally hostilo to the Israelites, and oppressed them on various 
iipcasious. They were both conquered by David (3 Sam. viii. ; lii. 31), but 
uflerwarda Uiey regained tlieir independence. Rab'balli-Am'mon and Rab'- 
hath-Moab, the capitals of the Am'roonites and the Ma'abitee, were botli 
noted ciliea. 

6. The Am'moniles occupied tlie lands of Reuben and Gad, when those 
tribes were carried into captivity; afterwards they became gradually iuler- 
mingled with the neighbouring nations, aud have long ceased to eiist. Thp 
:Mo'ahites lay sooth of the Arn'monites, and east of the Red Sea. Their 
country was noted for its rich soil and its abundant cro[)a. It was invuded 
by Shalmane'zer, king of Assyr'ia, and subaequently by Nebucbadnei'zar, 
who carried away the inhabitauts captive. 

7. Many of the Mo'abites returned from captivity along with Iho Jews, 
rubaill their rninod citiea, and remained independent until tlicy were eub. 
dued by the Mac'cahees, B. C. 78, Mo'ab became with the Romans, on 
account of its fertility, a favoured district ; but its rich soil has long been a 
hoirea waste, and is now the prey of the Bedouin'a. Thus is fulfilled the 
j>rophecy, " Behold the daya come, aailb the Lord, that I will aend into 
.Mo'ab wanderets, that shall cause him to wander." (Jer. xlviii. 12,) 

prediction coticerning Ishmael, ite. 1 i. Where did the AmalEkites dwell I 
By whom were IbEy defeated, &.c 7 Describe their subsequent lata. 
3. What ia said of the Ammonilos and MoabitesJ By whom were Ihcj 
conquered? 6. What did the Ammonites occupy! What afterwarda oc. 
curred ? Describe the position ofthe Moabitcs. Their country, &.C By 
whom wore they invaded ? 7. What is said of the return from captivity ? 
What did Moah become, &c. 7 Subsequently! What is fulfilled ? 8. What 



186 jlACREDGBOGRAFHY. 

6. E'txiH. McoNT SliK or Idhui'a, was tba counliy of the E'don 
pottcrity of E'«u, Jncob'a elder brother. It lay south uftlie Deud Sea, and 
wa« first inhabited by the Ho'|jtes, who were cipelied by the cliildren of 
E'buu. The E'domitet were flftBtantly lioalilo In their brethren of laraet, 
■nd always rejoiced at and Idok advantage of their calamities. 

9. Tliey wore rendered tributary by Darid, iJiu" fulfilling the prediction, 
"the elder ihall lerve the yoHneer." (Gon. iiv. 23.) Subnequontly they 
molted from Israel ; and, when Juctah was carried away captive by Ncbu- 
cbadnei'zar, they cooqucred the sonthem pari of the country belanging to 
that tribe, and kept poBBeBsiun of it until the time of John Hyrca'niiB. Fur 
their selfish conduct to Uieir brethren, Ih^ Lord had declared, " Thou shall 
be deeolale, O Mount Svir, and sU Iduiue'a" (Ezek. xiir. 1 5), " and there shall 
not be any remaining of the heuae of E'sau;" (Obad. i. 18), prophecies 

' which have been fiiUy acoompliihcd. 

10. Bo'lah, tlieir noted capital, was taken by Amazi'ah, who changed its 
name to Jok'lheeL (3 Kings tit, T.> It uas once a ^reat commercial em- 
porium, and almost riTalled Tyre. It was long forgotten, but its aingiilnr 
pmition and appearance have latterly attracted viailora. It ia now known 
by il> l:!reck name, Fe'lra. E'xion.ge'ber and E'lath were noted seaports 
on the eastern gulf ofthe Red Sea, whence the fiecta of Solomon and Hirsui 
sailed to Ophir and Tarsbish. 

11. The Lakd o? Mid'ian lay partly east of E'dom and partly along the 
east coast of the Red^a: it was jamous for its camels. The Mid'iDmtos 
were dueecndants of Abraham and Ketu'rah : they were early a commercial 
people, and traded to Egypt in spices, balm. Sec. Moses, after he fled from 
Egypt, resided here forty tears, and kept the flocks of his latlier-in-law, Je 
thro, {iriest of Mid'ian. (Exod. iiLl.) 

12. The Mid'ianilas joined with Mo'abin seducing Israel lo sin, for which 
they were severely chsslised. Afterwards, in conjunction witli the Aniol'c- 
kites, they reduced them to bondage, but on tlie defeat of their great army 
by Gideon (Judges vii.), the remnant of these people became incorporated 
witii the Mo'abitcB and E'domites, and Mid'ian ceased to oiist as a nation. 

13. The Linn oi" Ul, in which Job resided, was doubtless a rich pastorol 
eotmtry (Job L 3) : it ia supposed to have comprised Tarious independent 
tribes, as Jeremiah speaks of all the kings of Uz. (Jer. xxv. 90.) Ke'dar 
and Nebai'oth lay south of Uz : the people of tlie former arc mentioned as 
archers (Isa. xxi. IT), and both were rich in flocks and herds. (Iso. Ix.T.) 
Sab'Uh, Ha'ior, Se'leph, Te'ma, and Hav'iluh warn difiCricta in Uie central 
and eoptern parts of Arabia, of which but little is known. 

14. De'dan and Ra'ahib were the easternmost districts of Arabia ; tbeir 
Inhabitants early engaged in traffin, and arc mentioned in Scripture in con- 
nection with other commercial States. (Eick. iivii. 33.) SiiE'Bt,lhe qooBn 
of which visited Solomon (I Kings x. I), lay in the moat fertile port of 

iseaidofEdom, fee.! Its position 7 First inhabitants ? The Edoraites? 
9. What is said ofDavid 7 What prediction was fulfilled 7 What occurred 
Bubsequenlly 7 What was the ofFect of their selfisli conduct? JO, What is 
BaidorSt)ah7 What were Ezion-geber and E]ath7 11. Describe the po. 
sition of Midi an. For what was it famous? Wbat were the Midianites? 
What is said of Mobbs7 IS. With what people did the Midianites jran? 
What occurred aflerwards 7 13. Describe the Land of Uz, &c. Kodar and 
Nebaiolb. Sihtah,&,c. 14, State llie positiigii of UedaimndRaamah. Bhebo. 
What ia said of Seba, &c.7 Haiarmavelii ? 



EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC. 187 

Arabu : its merchants traded in gold and inceiise. [Ian, li. 6, ; Jer. vi. 30.) 
Se'ba and TJ'zal were diBtricls in Ilia eamo ragion ; the fiirmcr ia often 
mentioned with She'ba. In classioal geography the people uf both these 
countrica are included under the name of Sat^'ons. Ha'iarma'vcth lay 
along the shores of the Arabian Sea. 

JHajiiVo. 6. — Pomt out Arabia. What sea bounds it on the west? Wlial 
river northeast? Where ia Amoiek J Ammon? Moab? Edom! Mi- 
dian T Land of Vt, 1 Kodar 7 Nebaioth 7 Sabtah 7 Hazor 7 Seleph 7 
TaniB7 Havilnh? Dedan 7 Baiimah7 Sheba! Seba 7 Ural 7 Haiar- 
maveth? Point out the wildornesa. This region, probably, lay east of Ilio 
Land of Israel, as the wind out of the wilderness is also caUed tlie Eaat 
^Vmd. (Hosea liii. 15.) 



EGYPT, ETHIO'PIA, ETC. 

1. Thb Lwto of EavpT was settled by Miz'raim, the son of 
Ham (Gen. i. 6) ; hence the Israehtes termed it Miz'raim, and 
sometimes " the Land of Ham." (Ps. cv. 23.) The Arabs now 
call it Mazr or Mizr, an abbreviation of the Hebrew name. 

2. Egypt was visited by Abraham 1920 B. C, on account of a 
famine in the Land of Canaan (Gen. xii, 10) ; and a similar cause 
led afterwards to the settlement in it of Jacob and his sons. (Gen, 
ilii. 13.j Though the country was preserved from destruction by 
the inspired wisdom of Joseph, yet his brethren, the Israelites, were 
cruelly oppresged by the Egyptians ; but Moses was at length 
enabled to deliver them from bondage. 

3. From this period we rood no more of Egypt in the Scriplnros, until 
the lime of Solomon, who married Pharaoh's daughter. (1 Kings iii, 1.) 
In the reign of bis son Rehobo'am Jerusalem was captured by the Egyptian 
king Shi'ahak (1 Kings liv. 35) : aubaequently, the two nations became 
allies, and, when harassed by the intasions of the AsByrians, the Hebrews 
often looked to the Egyptiana for help (3 Kings xvil. 4 ; xviiL 31), thoagh 
warned by the prophet not "to atrEngthen themaelvea in the etrenglh of 
Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt," (laa. xm. U.) 

4. In these eipeotationa Ihey were generally deceived, and heayj jndir- 
ments ace denoonccd against the treachery of Egypt (Ezek. xiii.), which 
have been signally fnl£lled. "There shall no more be a prince of the Land 
of Egypt," ia the doom pronounced (Ezek. xii. 13) about 573 B. C, and from 
that period until the present day, that country has been ruled entirely by 
foreigners, and haa never had a native prince. 

5. Tlie Nile is the only river in Egypt ; and it was the largest known lo 
the oncienta : it is alluded to, in Scripture, as " the river" (Gen. xli. I ), and 

Q. 1. By whom was Egypt settled 7 What did the Israelites term it? 
What do the Arabs call it? 3. What is aajd of Abraham ? Jacob 7 Jo- 
seph? MoBca? 3. What ia said of Egypt 7 What took place in the reign 
of Rehoboam T What did the Hcbrewa do aubaequently, Slc. 7 4. What 
was tl,e result? What judgmcnta have been fullilled? 5. What is said 



I liUty t 



SACRED GfiOGHAPHV. 



alBo «8 the " flo»d ofEeypL" (Amoa viii. S.) Ita inuiidnUone lilffneed Ter- 
lilily and nlenly ovit llio lond, while their fiiilure occaaioncd fniuine sod 
liiMtPHB. 1'lie prophcla olU n foretold a dccrcBse of tlio uauui supply uf wtter, 
K» judgment iipoH Egypt, fur il« wiokedneBB. (Isb. xii. 5.) Among the 
l^Liga on tlie bulks of lliiB stream Moks wu hid by hia mother, in on 
nrk of bulruahra, from the onielty of the EgyplinDB, but was dboorered by 
tlie daughter of Phncaoh,who bruught him up ns licr own son. (E^od. ii.) 







6. The southern division of E^ypt, llic Tlicba'ia of tile GieeliB, WW 
called, by the Hebrewit,Path'roe, and its inhabitants, the Pathru'sim. In Ibis 
diatrict stood the city of No, cslUd, in Scriplarc, " populous No" (Nahoui 
lit. 8) ; it waa the rcnoWDed Thebes, the city of an hundred gates. Sye'ne, 
now AsBouan', is Btili,BB it was in the day a of the pcephcta, llie moit Boathnn 
town in Egypt. 

7. In Lower Egypt stood Sin or Pelu'siura ; a atrongly fortiGed city, and 
called, in Scripture, " the strength of Egypt" (Ezek. ixi, 15.) Pi'tbom 
and Ranrn'ses or Ram'csea were tbc Ireaaure-ciliea, built by tlie Israelites. 
(Ei. i. n.) On or Beth'-ahemeah, the Heiiop'olis of the Greeks, waa a 
largo eity, not far from Cairo. Joacpb married the daugliter of the priest 
of -On. (Gen. xli. 45.) PItib'eaelh ia mentioned Ezek. ui. IT, and Ha'nea, 
laa. XII. 4. Goahen, the rich pastoral diatrict in which the laraelites first 
dwelt, lay in Lower Egypt, along the eastern bank of the Nile, 

a Tahap'aneaorTah'panheawaa a resort for many of the Jews, afler the 
deitruetioQ of Jeruaalem by Nebuchadncz'zar. (Jer. iliil. 7—9.) Zo'an was 
the place where Moaes wrought miiaeles in the presence uf Pharaoh. (P>. 
liivii. IS.) Noph 01 Memphis, once the capital of Egypt, ia now, at pre- 
dicted by the prophet, "waste and desolate," (Jer. ni. 19.) 

9. Alexandria, eo renowned for its commerci^ is alluded to only in the 
New Testament: some of tlioae who disputed with Stephen were Aleian. 
drians. <Actsvi.9.) Apol'los, the osaociate of Paul, waa a Jew of Altuon. 

[<f the Nile? Of its inundations? What did the prophets foretell 7 Who 
was hid among the flags on the bonks of the Nile? 6. What was the 
■outhern division of Egypt, ice. called 7 Wliat city was in this dislricl ? 
7. What ia said of Sin J Pithom and Raamaea 7 On 7 Phibeaelh 7 Ha- 
' Goshen? 8. Tahapanea? Zoan ? Noph? 9. Alciandrin? Who 



ETHIOPIA. 180 

dria (Acts zviii. 24), and it was in a ship of Alexandria that the apostle 
sailed from-My'ra to Italy. (Acts xxvii. 6.) ' 

ETHIO'PIA OR CUSH. 

10. The term Ethiopia is used in Scripture to designate Cush 
or Southern Arabia, the region that was settled by Cush, tlie 
son of Ham, and it is thought, also, to signify Babylon as well 
as India. Both the territories now known as Nu'bia and Abyssin'ia 
were Hkewise called Ethio'pia. 

11. The latter is the country of Queen Can'dace, whose treasurer 
was baptized by the apostle Philip. ^Acts viii. 36.) Her king- 
dom,' it is believed, was theMer'oeof tne Romans. That part of 
Africa is well watered by the Nile and its branches ; hence the 
prophets (Zeph. iii. 10; Isa. xviii. 1) spealc of the rivers of 
Ethio'pia. 

12. The Ethio'pians are mentioned, in Scripture, as ** men of stature" 
(Isa. xlv. 14) : some of the classic writers speak of them in the same way, 
and modern travellers have noticed tribes, on the Upper Nile, remarkable 
for tlteir height. These people are enumerated, with other nations, as allies 
of the Egyptians (2 Chron. xii. 3). 

13. Seba, mentioned in connection with Ethio'pia (Isa. xliii. 3), is sup- 
posed to have been a district on the river Nile. LiKdim (Isa. Ixvi. 19) and 
Chub (Ezek. xxx. 6), were probably in the same region. The Lu'bims and 
Suk'kiims were, with the Ethio'pians, the auxiliaries of Shi'shuk's army when 
he invaded Judah. The first were doubtless the Le'habim or Lib'yans of 
Cyrene, now Barca. The other is conjectured to have been a Nu'bian nation, 
near the Red Sea. The Naph'tuhim dwelt west of the Land o£ Egypt. 

14. PuL, spoken of by Isaiah (Ixvi. 19), was a district in the vicinity of 
the southern boundary of Egypt, An'ajuim was probably the country of the 
Ammo'nians, now the oasis of Siwah. Put or Phut was one of the sons 
of Ham ; his descendants were the Maurita'nians and Numid'ians ; they are 
mentioned by the prophet Nahum (iii. 9), as helpers of Nineveh, and by 

Ezekiel (xxvii. 10), as soldiers in the armies of Tyre. 

• 

Map No. 6. — Point out Egypt or Mizraim. What bounds Egypt on the 
north ? On the east ? What is the Scripture name of the stream that flows 
through it ? Where is Pathros ? No or Thebes ? Syene 1-—Map No. 7.— 
Point out Goshen. Sin or Pelusium. Pithom and Rameses or Raamses. 
On or Bethshemesh. Noph or Memphis. Phibeseth. Hanes. Tahapanes. 
Zoan. — Map No. 6. — Where is Ethiopia ? What sea lies eastward ? Point 
out Seba. Ludim. Chub. TheSukkiims. Where is Lubim or Lehabim ? 
Naphtuhim ? Pul 7 Anamim ? Point out Put or Phut 

were Alexandrians ? 10. For what was the term Ethiopia used ? What 
was it thought to signify ? What territories were likewise called Ethiopia? 
1 1 . What is the latter ? What was her kingdom believed to be ? By what 
river was it watered, &c, ? 12. How are the Ethiopians mentioned in Scrip- 
ture, &c. ? How are they enumerated ? 13. What is said of Seba ? Ludim ? 
The Lubims and Sukkiims ? What were the first ? The other ? 14. What 
is said of Pul ? Anamim ? Put or Phut ? For what are they mentioned 
by the prophets ? 



SACKED GEOGRAPHY. 



THE EAST. 



1 NAR OR BABVLO 



^ 



f 

^^H 1. The East is a general term, with the sacred writers, for all 

^^^1 the countries that lay eastward of the Land of Israel. SomeU'mes 

^^H It ap[)lied to Ain'mon,Mo'ab.Ke'dar,Uz,&c.,but more especially 

^^H to Shinar or Babylon, Assyria, Elam, and the other regions bt.'- 

^^H yond the Euphrates. 

i 



It 



% The Land of Shi'nar wqp the scene of some of the earlieft 
recorded events. Here was built the Tower of Babel, anH here, 
the language of the children of men was confounded. In thi; 
days of Abraham the king of Shi'nar was one of the confederatt 
- princes who invaded Canaan. (Gen. xiv. 1.) It was one of the 
moat fertile countries in the world, but now, as foretold by Jere- 
miah, it is " become a desolation among the nations." (Jer. 1. S3.) 

3. This rogion oomprired Bnbe!, Babylonitt or Chfclde'a, Bnd jwobobly, 
Bt firil, Bome portiona of the ndjaoent terriloriea. In Scriplure it ie gene- 
rally cHlied Gabj^on. It wne iiilereccled by llie Euphrates, and bounded, on 
the east, by tho Tigris river, uid was watered by nunietoua canala ; hence 
it was said "to dwell upon many waters" (Jer. li. 13) ; and Isaiah called it 
the "desert of the sea" (xxi. I), probably because during lbs inundation of 
it> rivers the Bnitace of the country resembled a sea. 

4. Babylon was, for many centaries, a mere province of the AsByr'ian 
empire, but it attained to independence, and became a powerful monarchy. 
Its first king, mentioned in Scriplure, is Bcro'dach Bal'adan, who sent let- 
ters and a present to Hezekiah. (2 Kings xx. 13.) Subsequently Babylon 
was again brougbt under the power of Aesyr'ia, but, afkr a period, Nabo- 
potaz'ior rendeied it once more independent, when it beeame the greateit 
empire of that time. Nabuchadnez'zar, t)ic succeasoi afNabopolai'jar, coo- ' 
■juered Judea, destroyed JcruBalem, and carried anay the pooplo captive. 

5. With the impious Belshai'mr, the grandson of Nebnehadnex'iar, the 
Babylonish monarchy came to an end. On the last night of his reign be 
gave a splendid feast to his conrt, in the midst of whicli tiie seene of the 
hand-wntingonthe wall, as related Dan.v.S — 35, took place. The city was 
then taken by the Medes and Pereians. From that period Babylon suob 
rapidly into decay, and for many ages thia once proud city has remoiiied in 
the condition predicted by tlie prophet: "Babylon shall become heapsi an 
aatonishmenl ; without an inhabitant." (Jer. li.37.) 

Q. 1. What is the East I How ia the term sometlmea applied T More 
eapecially 1 3. What was the Land of Shinar, ftc. 7 What is aaid of its 
king? What was thia country 7 3. What did it comprise? How was it 
intersected 7 Bounded, &.C. 1 What did Isaiah call it 1 4. What is nid of 
Babylon 7 Its first king me utioned in Scripture? What occurred subse- 
quently, ju:. I Wbatiasaid of Nebuchadnezzar ? 5. Willi whom did the 
monarcliy end 1 What took place on iJie last night of his reign ) Wlwl 



ASSHUR OR ASSYRIA. 



191 



G. The city of Bobj'lon was built bj Nimrod, whero the toWBr of Babel 
etood. In Scri|iture it is Ciilted tbe "ladj of kingdoma," "given to plea. 
BoTfls" (Isa, ilvii. 5—8), "the beauty of liio ChaldeeB ciccllency" {Ibb. mii. 
19), and Is always s|ioken of as a proud and JmuriouB city. 

7. When at the height of its power, Babylon was the centre of a Tist 
commerEe. It Is styled il " land of Iraffit," '■ a cily of merchants." (Eiek. 
ivii.1.) Its matiuftteturcB were douhllefis noted at a very early period, oa 
IB read in Joshua of a"goodly Babylonish garment." (Joah. v^'- "^ "• 




^^—ten^j 



8. Near the city of Babylon was the Plain of Dura (Dan. iii. 1), <f 
ihe golden image of Nebuchadnei'zar was set up, in the lime of Daniel, to be 
worshipped ; which Sha'drach, Me'Bhach,&nd Abed'-nega relusing to do, they 
were cast into a fiery furnace, in the midst of which Ihey were mostmiraCD. 
ly preserved. (Dan. iii. 21—27.) 



AssyR'i 



t. Aasti'uR or Abhyr'u lay nonheast of Shinar, and was one of 
fir3»eetiled countries in the world. Nin'eveh, its capital, waa 
founded by Assh'ur, the second son of Shem. (Gien, x. 11.) It 
become n great empire, and its monarcbs conquered the kingdom 
of Israel, and carried away the ten tribes into Cftplivity. 

10. Nothing ia said of Asayr'ia, in Scripture, from its Erst settlement 
until Ihe time that tho prophet Jonah visited Nin'eveh, S25 B. C. (Jonah 
i. 3) ; about fifty years afterwards, Pul rendered the kingdom of Israel tribu. 
Wry. (a Kings xv. 19.) His successors, Tig'lath.pile'ser aud Shalmane'rar, 
executed the threateniugs of tho Lord against the rebeliioua house of Israel. 
(IChron. V. 9G; 3 Kings ;(vii. G.) Jadah, in tho reign of Hezekiah, was 
throatetied by Sennach'erib, but the latter was thwarted in bis purpose in a 
iniraculous manner. (S Kings lii. 35.) 

waa the &te of Babylon fhnn that period 1 6. When and by wham wiks 
Babylon built? What was it called in Scripture 7 7. What was Babylon 
when at tho height of its power? What is said of-its manufactures 7 
e. Whet ia said of the Plain of Dura 7 Of Shadrach, Meahach, and Abed- 
neeo' 9. What ia said of Aaahur? Of Ninereh 7 What did il become? 
When did Jonah visit Nineveh? What is said of Pul? His auccca- 



192 SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

11. The Assyr'ian empire, styled by God himself " the rod of mine anger** 
(l8a.x. 5), having fulfilled the purposes of the Almighty in the chastisement 
of the apostate Jews, was, in accordance with prophecy (Isa. xzx. 31 ; Mi- 
cah V. 6 ; Zeph. ii. 13), itself " beaten down" and destroyed. This event 
occurred about the year 607 B. C, when the Mcdes and fiabylonians cap- 
tured Nin'eveh, and partitioned its territories between them. 

12. Nin'eveh, the capital of Assyr'ia, was built on the left bank of the 
Hid'dekel or Tigris river ; it is called, by Jonah, ** an exceeding great city 
of three days* journey" (Jonah iii. 3) ; and profane writers describe it as 
equalling Babylon in size and splendour. Its wickedness occasioned the 
mission of the prophet, which produced a temporary reformation of the 
inhabitants ; but succeeding prophets speak of the Ninevites as a proud 
and cruel people, and denounce fearful judgments against them, which have 
been long ago accomplished. 

13. Nothing now remains of this great capital except some' huge mounds 

Sf rubbish, which lie opposite to Mo'sul, thus verifying the prediction of 
!ephani'ah ; " He will make Nin'eveh a desolation, and dry like a iiilder« 
ness." (Zeph. ii. 13.) The small village of Nu'nio is on the site of the 
ancient city, the name of which is, no doubt, derived from the latter. 



Map No. 6. — Point out Ammon. Moab. Kedar. Uz. Shinar. Baby- 
lonia or Chaldea. The city of Babylon. Assyria. Klam. The Euphra- 
tes river. The Hiddekel or Tigris. The city of Nineveh. 

— 19 

E'LAM, ME'DIA, ETC. 

1. E'lam was named from E'lam, the son of Shem ; it lay east 
of the Tigris river, and was a very early established kingdom. 
Chedoria'omer, its first known sovereign, lived in the days of 
Abraham. (Gen. xiv. 15.) Elam was the Scripture name for Per- 
sia, before the time of Daniel, but afterwards it became a mere 
province of the empire founded by Cyrus. It was the EJpoaa'is of 
the Greek geographers. 

2. The Elamites aj-e enumerated by Ezra (iv. 9) among the people of the 
Persian empire ; by Isaiah, as archers, with chariots and horsemen (xxii. 6), 
and by Jeremiah and Ezekiel, as a nation destined to be visited by the ter- 
rible judgments of God. (Ezek. xxxii. 24.) In Acts ii. 9, E'lamites are 
mentioned as being present at the miraculous occurrences of the day of 
Pentecost, 

•sors ? Of Judah ? 11. What was the Assyrian empire styled, &,c. ? What 
took place in accordance with prophecy T When did this event occur, &c.? 

12. Etescribe Nineveh. What is it called by Jonah? What did its wicked- 
ness occasion, &c. ? How do succeeding prophets speak of the Ninevi§b ^ 

13. What is said of the remains of Nineveh ? The prediction of Zephaniah ? 
What stands on its site ? 

Q. 1. What is said of Elam? Of Chedorlaoraer ? What was Elam? 
2. What is said of the Elamites by Ezra? By Isaiah? Jeremiah and 
Ezekiel? Where were Elamites present ? 3. What is said of Shushan? 



E1.AM, MEDIA. ETC. 193 

3. Sbu'shan, Ihe capital of E'lam, stood on the rirer U'lii. the Chaaa'pea 
of the Gieeka. Daniel rcaided at Shn'ahon, " which is iii the province of 
Eloin." (Dan. viii. S.) It was once Ihe capital of the pEraian empire, and 
Ahssae'ruB, the monarch meutiooBtl in Bather (i. 1), reigned there. 

4. The renowned Cjrus became king of both E'liun and Mc'dia, and 
fanndod t)ie Persian empire. He ia called, in Scripture, " the shepherd and 
tlio anointed of the Lord" (Isa. iliv. 38; ilv. 1), and became a. chosen in- 
atrumenl, in the hand of JehavaJi, to liillil various important propheciea. 
Cyroa restored the caplitily oftlie Jews, permitted them to rebuild the city 
and temple of JeiuBaleni, anil returned to them the sncied vesnia that had 
been carried awaj bj Nebuchadncz'zar. 

5. Ahoaue'ruB, Arlaiori'ca, Dari'na, and a aecond Artaiers' 



succesaora of Cyros mentioned in Scriplme. The first was probably Cani- 
by'see, the connuerar of Egypt. Arlajerx'ea is colled, in profane history, 
i^mcT'dis, the Magian ; by hia decree the building of t)ie ti 



uapeoded. (Ezra iv. 34.} Dari'ua, Burnamed Hystas'pea, waa 
uie nrai reraian uinnarcli who invaded Greece ; in bia reign the leinpte was 
oamplelod. (Ezra vi. S.) The aecond Artaxcri'ca, called Longim'anus, 
ftom the length of iiis hands, ia supposed to ho the Ahnsue'rua to whom 
Gather was queen. 

6. Ma'oai or Me'bia lay east of Assyria, and was, for a kaig 
period, one of its provinces. On attaining to independence, Me'dia 
became a leading State in western Asia, and its people were etn- 
ployed as instruments in executing the Divine decrees against 
Babylon {Isa. iii. 7J, which were fully accomplished in the de- 
struction of that wicked city. Cyax'ares, who conquered Bohyton, 
in conjunction with Cyrus, his nephew, was king of Me'dia; he is 
called, by Daniel, Dari'us the Mede. 

T. Ha'lahnnd Ha'bor.hy the river of Go'zan, and the cities of the Medc!^ 
us mentioned (S Kinga ivii. Q) aa placea to which the ten tribes were 
iarried away capUve ; but tbey cannot now bo identified. Me'dia became 
a Poraian province; the inhabitaiita, homever.long continued to bo a distinct 
people. JowB ftom Me'dia ate enumerated (Acts ii. !>) aa among- those wlio 
were with the apostles on the day of Pentecost. At Ecbal'ana or Ach'nie^iu 
the records of the kingdom were kept. (Eira vi. Q.) 

8. Goa and Ma'goo, Go'mer, Togar'mah, and ihe Nohth, are 
alluded to, by the Hebrew writers, aa regions very remote, and 
inhabited by warlike nations, riding on horses and striking terror 
into the surrounding countries by their numbers and fierceness. 
They are also described as eager " to take a prey, to carry away 
silver tmd gold, to take away cattle and goods, lo take a great 
spoiL" (Ezek. xsxviii. 13.) 

What wns it once T 4. What is said of Cyras 7 What ia he called In Scrip, 
tore 7 What did ho become I How did Cyrna fiivoar the Jcwa 7 5. Who 
are the sucoessorsofCyrus mentioned iti Scripture! What ia aaid of the 
first 7 Artoier^tca ? Darina 7 Tho second Artaireraea 7 6. What ia aaid 
ofMadai or Media 7 For what purpose were the Medes employed 7 What 
is aaid of Cynxares' 7 7. What is said of Falali, Habor, 4,c, 7 What did 
Media beoiinit 7 Wlial is said of the .lews froiri Media 7 8. What is said 
17 N 



^ 



IM SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

9. These dcBCtipliona have been thnught In applj to BomG of the tiibei 
ofCcnlrBl Asia ; but the esrij inhabilanta of the regions Bust and soath of 
the Black Sea, who neie alwaj^e noted fbi tbe numbcTB of tbeir horses, and 
their piedatorj habits, are bclicTed to bo the nations moant bj the inspired 

10. Gog and Ma'gog were probably Scythian tribes, Go'inor comprised 
•ome of the Celtic nations. Togar'niah was a district not fiir from Mount 
Ararat : in tbe samo region were llie kingdoms of Ar'arat and Min'ni, as 
well as Me'shecli, Tu'bal.and Kit ; adjacent were Hul and Ge'lhcr ; westward 
were Ash'kenaz, Ri'phath, and Ke'dar. Lud was the ancestor of the L;- 
disns. The Grci-k colonics of jEo'lia, lo'oia, and Do'ris were probably in. 
daded in Iho Ja'van of the Hebrews. 

11. Tar'suish and O'phir were celebrated regions, often men- 
tioned in Scripture ; but they are now both unknown. The firet 
was noted for its ships, its merchants, nnd its commerce ; and the 
other for iia gold, which ia alluded to in many places in ihe Old 
Teslament. (Job xxxviii. ]6; Ps. slv. 19.) 

13. Solomon obtained gold, almug IrceB.and precious atones from O'phir. 
(1 Kings 1. 11.) Some suppose thnt it was in southern Arabia; others, in 
India, Suma'tra, and Sola'la, in Africa. Tar'sbisb is believed, by different 
authors, to have been Carthage in Africa, Taites'sns in Spain, Tarsos in 
Citicis, as well as the whole of Africa, except Egypt and EUiiopia. Silver, 
iron, tin, and lead wore brought to Tyre from Tarshieh. (Eietnvii. 12.) 

13. There arc two different voyages to Tar'shieh described in the Old 
Testament, one by the Mediterranean, and the other by the Rpd Sea. ])y 
the latter, which occupied a period of three years, "gold and silver, ivory 
■nd apes and psacDcliB" were inq>ortad (9 Chron. ix. Si}; and it seems to 
bave been, in every respect, the same as the voyage to O'pbb. 

U. The navy built by Sokimon and Hi'ram at E'zion-ge'ber (1 Kings ix. 
ZB), as also that of Jehosh'aphat (3 Chron. >x. 36), was composed of ships 
of Tar'ahish. The vessel in which Jonah sailed from Jop'pa, on the Medi- 
lerroneun Sea, was destined for Tar'shish, and seems to have been ■ regu- 
lar passage ship : " so he paid the faro thereof," &c. (Jonah i. 3.) 

Map Ko. e.— Point out Elam or Persia. The Ulai river. The city of 
.Shoshan. Sablecha. This country was settled by one of the sons of Cush. 
Where is Madai or Media? Ecbatana or Acbmelba? At a vague and 
indefinite distance h^ond the foregoing regions Iho ends of the eorlh were 
supposed to eiist. The term is frequently mot with in Scripture. [Zedi. 
ii. 10; Acts iUi.47.) Where is Gog? Magog? Gomer? Togarmah ? 
Mei^ech? Minni? Tubal,&c.7 MountAraratT Hul? Gether? Asbkenaz? 
Riphath ? Lud T 

' of Gog and Magog, &.C. 1 How are Ihey described ? 9. To whom hare 

those descriptions been thought to apply? Whom ar 

ID. What were Gog and Magog probably I Gom( 



;n thought to apply? Whom are they beliet 
■nd Magog probably J Gomer? Togarmah, &,i 
Whot kingdoms were in the same region ? What were Tarshish a 



ir what was the first noted I The other ? 13. Wliat did Solo- 
mon obtain from Ophir 1 Where was it supposed to be ? What is Tarabiah 
believed to have bcenl What was broaght to TVre from Tarshiah! 

13. What is said of the two voyages to Tarshish ? Of the Red Sea voyage 7 

14. Of the navy ofSolomon, &c.7 The vessel in which Jonah sailed 7 




ASIA, ETC. 

I The term Asia, as now understood, was not used by the in 
spired writers. The Asia mentioned in the New Testament, was 
the Roman proconstilship of Asia, of which Eph'esua was the i 

capital. This is the region alluded to 1 Car. xvi. 19; "The ' 

churches of Asia salute you." It was the principal scene of the 
missionary labours of St". Paul, where he and his fellow apostles i 

established the *■ Seven Churches" enumerated in Rev. ull. 

2. The cities in which they were founded were Eph'esus, i 
Smyr'na, Fer'gamos, Thyali'ra, Sar'dis, Phikdel'phia, and Laodi- | 
ce'a. These cities are all, now, with the exception of Smyr'na i 
and Philadel'phia, either greatly decayed or in ruins, and the j 
churches, once so distinguished, have hardly an existence. A few 
Christiana, mostly of the Greek faith, are still to be found in Smyr'- 
na, and some of the other towns. i 

3. Eph'eauB, eo noted in Sincieat tiinea tor its splendid temple ofDigi'na, ' 
la now B. moan Torkish village. The tio&pel wsa introducBd there, by tbc J 
apostle Paul, about A. D. 54. It was also vieiled bf Apgllos, and was the .{ 
jiioae where OBceipli'oiiu showed tindriesfi to Paul. (2 Tim. i. 1 S.) It is 
eharOTid with a falling oS from the faitli, and is threatened, in consequence, 
that lU candlestick shall bo removed out ofita place. (Res. iL 5.) 

4. Bmf r'na is the only one of the dtiea, of this part, of Asia, noted in 
ancient timef, that ie now important. The church at this place is cam. 
mended, in llie address to the eeven churcheti, and id promised "a crewn of 
lift," {Rev. iL &— 1 0.) The martyr Polycarp, who wae put to death during 
the persecution of the ChristiaQB by Marcus Aurelius, about the yeai A. B. 
169, was bishop of Smyrna. 

5. Per'gamos was once a renavoed city, and was faraoua For its library. 
The Gospel waa ertablialied here, but it was soon corrupted by the heresy 
oCthe Nicota'itanes, fur which tlie church was reproved, and urged to re- 
pent (Rev. ii. 1 4 — IG) 1 it is still a considerable town, situated amongst the 
Tuius of the ancient city, and has a small Christian community. Tro'ai 
and As'sos, in the vicinity, were lioth visited by the apostle Paul. Not 6r 
distant waa Thyati'ra, the birth.placo of the pious Lyd'ia. (Acta ivi. 14.) 
The church here was cenaured on account of the prevalence of ftlso doc- 
trine. (Rev. il. 20.) Thyati'ra is now a pow village. 

6. Sar'dis, the ancient capital of Lyd'ia, was once a very important place; 
it became aChriBtion city, but its works were (bund not "perfect before God." 
(Rev. iii. a.) Philadel'phia aleo, in Lyd'ia. is commended in the Revelation 
for its diligence and patienEo, and eneouraged fay gracious promises of M. 

ft. 1. What is said of the term Asia ' Of the Asia mentioned in the Now 
ToaUment, &e. 7 What was established here 7 2. In what cities were thay 
founded 7 What are these cities now? What are atiU to be found I 
3. What is said of Ephcsus, &.C. 7 4. Of Smyrna 7 The ehureh there T 
The martyr Polycarp ! 5. What is said of Perganios 7 What ia il now 7 
What is Siiid of Troas and Aaaos7 Of ThyiUJra7 G. What is said of Sm- 



i 



^ 




SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

vins protection. (Rcv.iii.7— 10.) It Uat prCBenl s town of Bome note: parr 
of ll D populilioa ore UJjriBtianB. Loodiee'a, in Phtj-g'ia, was once cele- 
brilod lor its mugniGctinae, but ia now a heap of ruins ; in the Revelaliona 
it ia rDbukcd tor its lukewarmndsa in tbo cause of the Gospot, and i« caun. 
•eUed to raforra. (iii. 15— IB.) 

7. Milo'tu* and Triigjl'lium were viaited bj the aposllc; at the ibrmer 
he gathered the elders of Epb'eBun together, eihorlcd them to diligence and 
Wstchfulnesi, and bade them larewtJl. (Aclsix.17— 38.) I'here, on one 
ocoosion, Paul Idft TropL'imus sick. (3 Tim. iv. 20.) Cni'dns be passed 
on his vof ago to Rome. (Acts iivii. 7.) The cities of Pal'sra, My 'ra. 
Atlali 0, Per'go.Biid An'tioch, in Piaid'ia, were also riuited bj Paul ; in tJio 
latter lie preached a mcmoraljo diicourse, butthe Jews stirred up the people 
Bg;iiinBt him, and forced him lo leave the plans, (Acts liii. 14— 5D.> 

S, At Ico'nium, the chief city of I.ycao'nia, a district ia Fhrj'gis, the 
Gospel was preached by Paul and Barnabas, and with great success, al- 
Ihougfa they were afterwards obliged to leave the city niao, Ihrougb the hos- 
tility of the Jews, and proceed to Lys'tra and Der'be. At Ibe latter Ge'ins, 
tlie fellow traveUcr of Paol, was born. (Acts m. 4.) 

9. Lfs'lra wasthc nativetownofTimoth; : here the aposlle miracolonsly 
cured a uiiin who bad been a cripple from his birth, which, when tlie people 
saw, Ibey called Paul and Barnabas gods, and could hardly be restrained 
li-om worshipping them ; but being iualigaled by certain malicious Jews, 
thej alterwsrds stoned Paul, and left him for dead. (Acts xi*. 8— IS.) 



10. Colos'ee or Colos 



Cbriatianity w 



indHie 
tablished. 



ip-olis wore cit 
Epaphraa is i 



s in Phryg'iB,in which 
-■^ -d (Col. i. 7;iT. 
hare great mtl 



^ 



IS, 13) as pastor of the church of CoWsc, and hi 
for Ihem that are in Hiccap'ol 

11. Gala'tia, a provinca adjacent to Phryg'ia, was twice visited by Paul ; 
the first time in company Willi Silas and Timothy. Here he introdnced the 
worsbipofthe Redeemer (Gal. i. 6— S; iv.l3); he also addreased an epistle 
fl-om Rome to the Galatians. 

IS. Pon'tuB, a province on the Eux'ine Sea, was the native country of 
Aq'nila, with whom Paul abode in Cor'inth (Acts iviii. S), and who after- 
wards became one of his companions. The apostle Peter addressed his first 
epistle to the people of Pon'tna, as well as to those of Gala'tia, Cappado'cia, 
Asia, and Bithyn'ia. (1 Pet. i. I.) 

13. Cyprus, once an important island, ia, t.y snme, supposed to be the 
Chittim or Kittim of the Old Testament , but others bclieTC that the terai 
was applied po as to include the coasts and islands of Greece, ItaJy and 
Macedonia. The Christian religion was estabUshed in it at an early period. 

14. Paul and Bainabas preached the Gospel in Cyprus. In Pa'phos, its 
chief city, the former converted the Roman deputy, Scr'giua Pau'lua, and 

disT Of Philadelphia! Laodicea! 7. Milctns, &c.J What occurrsd si 
Miletus) What iasaidofCnidua? The cities of Patara ? Mvra! At 
talia, Slc. T What did Pad do at Anliucli 1 S. What is said of Iconinm 7 
Of Paul and Barnabas? Stala the result. 9. Who was born at LyBlra! 
Whst was done by Paul ? What then took place ? 10. What is aoid of 
ColoBse and Hierapolis ? II. Of GtJaUa ? 12. What was PonlUB! Of 
whom was it the native countr; 7 To whom did Peter address his Grat 
episUe? 13. What is the island of Cyprus supposed lo have been, &c. T 
■4. Who preached the Gospel in Cyprua ? What occurred at PaphoaT 



What is B) 






Of the I 



GREECE, ITALY, ETC. 197 

■truch the sarcsrer El'jnias wjtli blindne^iB, because he opposed the convcr- 
uon or the magiitralB. (Acts xiii. 7— II.) Of IhU ialund was Joses, but- 
named BdrnB.bas, who, having lutid, sold it and brought the money nad liid 
it Bt the Qposlles' feet. (Acts iv. 36.) Many of the brelhrso reaorted hither, 
in tinie of persecution, from Palestine. (Acts li. 19.) 

Map JVo. 3. — Point out Myaia, Lydia. Curia. These provinces, with 
lliB western port of Fhrygia, comprisod the Asia Prooonaulaiis of the Ro. 
mana— the Abii of NowTeatamenL Where iaSnytno,? Epheaua? Per. 
garaos! Thyatini? Tioea 7 Asaos! Sardia? Philadelphiii ' LaodicoaT 
Point out Milelua. Trogyllium. Cnidua. Palan. Myro. Attalia. Petga. 
Anliooli in Pisidia. Iconium. L^atra. Derbe. Coloaae or Colossi. Hiera- 
pplip. Point out the Ptoriace of Galalia. Pontua. The ieland of Cjpruf. 



GREECE, ITALY, ETC. 

1. Greece or Gre'cia was caJled at first Ja'van, by the He- 
brews. It is mentioned in Isa. kvi. 19; Zeck. ix, 13; Dan. 
viii. 21 ; and is supposed to have Bignified not only Greece Proper, 
but also Thcs'saly, Macedo'nia, and part of Asia Minor. EH'ahati, 
a country with which the Tyr'iana traded (Ezek, xxvii. 7), was 
probably Hel'las, or perhaps E'iis, in the Peloponne'aus. 

2. In the time of the apostles, Greece was divided into ihe pro- 
vinces of Acha'ia and Macedo'nia. The first comprised Greece 
Proper and the Pelopoime'sus, and the other, Macedo'nia Proper, 
Thes'aaly and Epi'rus. These regions were visited by Paul, and 
other apostles, and they established the Gospel in several cities. 

3. Neap'olia was the Siat city in Macedo'nia visited by St. Pant (Acts xvi. 
11): froraNieop'oliahewrolotheEpistJatoTilns. (Titiii.ia.) At Philip'p' 
he founded a cliureh, to which he dedicated an opiatle from Rome. In this 
city Paul and Silas were put in prison, but an earthquake occurring- white 
they were conliiied, the prison doors were opened. The apostles altcrwarda 
converted the jailer and his family. (Acta ivi.) 

4. Thessaloni'ca was the birth-place of Arislar'chas and Secun'dua, com 
panionsofPaulinhislravela. (Acta ii,4i nvii.iJ.) To the church in this 
city Paul addressed two cpiallea. Here Lydia of Thyati'ra was bapliied, 
with al! her hoUBchold. (Acts ivi. 14.) Bero'a or BerffiO, which Uy south- 
west of Theasaloni'ca, g-avo birth lo Sop'ster, anotlier of Paul's companions. 
(Acta Kx. 4.J The Bere'ans ore commended, by the apoatle, for their dili. 
genco in searching Ihe Scriptures daily. (Acta iviL 11.) 

Q. 1. What was Greece called at lirat? What waa it sapposed lo have 
Bignified 1 What was Eliahah T How waa Greece divided in the lime of 
Iha apostlea 1 What did the first compriae ? The other 1 By whom were 
thase rogiooB visited ? 3. What is said of Neapolia T Nicopolis ? Philippi? 
What occurred to Paul and Silas there T 4. Who was born at Thcssalonica? 
t'le cliuroli tliere 7 Wlio was baptized Ihcru 1 
• ■ ■■ Bereana commended ? S. When. 



i 



IBS 8ACEED GEOGRAPHy. 

5. The TtnowneJ cHj of Athens noa rjailed by S(. Paal sbaul the year 
A. D 53. It was ramoua for its arta, literaturo, and learned men ; llic Utter 
were constantly employed in disciiaaioiis with cacli oilier, while the resl of 
tire people' 




Ttas Apcnlla Pi 



6. Hare Paul'a "spirit woa stirred in him, when he saw the city wholly 
firen to idolatry." Though the Athenians worshipped iniiny goda ">d 
foddeBsee, yet he (bund an altar inscribed "to the unknown God," (Acta 
TVii. 93,) Mari.hill was a rocky height, whore the celebrated court of the 
Areop'nguii wai held. To Ihia place Paul woa brought, as " a setter forth of 
Btrange goda," when, boldly standing up, ho reproved the Atlieniana for 
their idolatry, and preached to UieiD Christ and the rciurroction, 

7. From Athens the aportle proceeded to Corinth : he resided there 
eighteen montha, and Ibunded a church, to which ho afterwards wrote two 
epistles. At Cen'chrea, one of the ports of Corinth, he embarked for Syria. 
The pions Pbebe was a servant of the church at this place. (Rom. xri. 1,] 

8. The islands in tlie Mge'aa and lo'nian seas, as well as the almoat 
insular regiona of southern l3reece and Italy, were called, by the laraeliles, 
the "Isles of the Seu." and the "Isles Ujat are in the Sea," and they are 
doubUesa the same as llie "Isles of the GenUles" (Gen.i.5) ; while those mors 
remote, comprising Sicily, Malta, and the Balearic Islands, were probably 
the "Isles afar o^." They seem to have regarded as insular all regions 
separated from them by the sea, or to which they went by water. 

9. Crete, now Candia, waa once an important island, and contained a hun- 
dred large cities; its inhabitants were spoken of unfavoorably by ancient 
writers, "and this witness is true," says SL Paul, (Titus L 13.) Salmo'. 
ne, a city of Crete, is mentioned Acts icxvii. T, aa arc alao Fair Harcns, 

did Paul visit Athena 1 For what was it famous T How were its learned 
men employed 7 The rest of the people 7 6. What is said of Paul 7 De- 
scribe Mars-hill. With what was Paul charged I What did he then do 7 
7. To what place did the aposUe proceed from Athens ? What did ho 
found T Where did he embark for Syria 7 8. What were the islands ia tbo 
JBgtan and Ionian aeaa called by the Israelilea T The mere remotsT 
What did the Israelites regard as insular 7 9, What is aald of Crete T Its 
iiihabilants 7 OrSalmone, &.c. ? The island of Clauda 7 What occurred 



GREECE, ITALY, ETC. 19(j 

Lase'a, and Phcni'ce. (xivii. 8—13.) The ialmd of CUu'da or Gau'loe 
waa passed by SL Paul, in hia voyage to Ital^, On the island of Mel'ila 
Ihe apoatle was ahipwrtcked, and there tlie tuiraola of the viper fiiatening 
on hia hand, without injury, oecutrtid. (Acta ixviii. 1 — S.) 

10. Samothra'cia or Samolhrace [Acta ivi. 11), Mitylo'ne or Lea'bos (ix. 
14), Chi'os (II. IS), Sa'niOB (u. 15), Co'oB or Cos (ixi. 1), Rhodea [itri. 1), 
and Pat'mos, are mentioned in the nurralive of Paul's travels ; they are all 
iduida in the Mga'aii Sea, and were, in aiicjent times, fertile and populous. 
To Fatmus the apostle Jnht; was banished b; the Roman emperor Domit'ian. 
(Rev. i. 9.) I'here he wrote the Book of the Revelations. A cave, in which 
he ia said to have lived, Is still shown by the inhabitanta. 

11. Italy waa but imperfectly known to the Jews, until after 
thay were conquered by the Romans. In early limes it was pro- 
bably included in the region which they called Kit'tim or Chit'tim. 
In the New Testament it is mentioned in Acts xviii. 2 ; xsvii. 1 ; 
Heb. xiii. 34. 

13. Rome, in New Testament limes, waa the capital of the civilized world. 
It was a corrupt and wicked city. A church waa established in it, by tlie 
aposllea Peter and Paol, and there they both aufiered macljrdom in the reign 
of Nero, A. D. 66. PreviouB to hia death, Paul resided in Roma about 
two years, preaching and teaching the Word. Syr'acuao, in Sicily ; Rhe'- 
giura, in tiie aouthern part of Italy ; Pute'oli, near (Japlea, and Ap'pii Fo'runi 
and the Three Taverns, in the vicinity of Rome, were places which the 
apostle Paul paased through, on his way to tlie Roman capllol. 

13. Illvb'icdh lay along the east coast of the Adrlat'ic Sea; it ia the 
region alluded to b; St. Paul (Romans iv. 19), whete he says that he 
preached the Gospel from Jerusalem "round about unto lllyr'icutn." Dal. 
ma'tia, its southern district, is the country to which Titua went and 
preached the Gospel, when he left Paul at Rnme. (2 Tim. jv. 10.) 

14. Ctu'ne or CvBENAicA was a diatrict of Lib'ya, some distance west, 
ward of Egypt ; it is now a part of Bar'ca. It is several timea alluded to In 
the New Teatamcnl. Simon, a man of Cyre'ne, bore our Saviour'a cross 
to the place of eiecution. (Mall, x.ivji, 32.) From "the parts of Libya 
about Cyrene" came also devout Jews to celebrate the feaat of Pentecost. 
(Acta ii. 10.) Lu'ciua, of Cyro'ne, was a proaober at Antioch. (Acts 

Map No. 5. — Point out Greece. Macedonia. The Peloponnesus. Nc. 
apolia. PhilippL Theaealonica. Bene a. Athena. Corinth. Cenchrea, 
The ^gean Sea. Ionian Sea, Island of Crete. Salmone. Fair Havens. 
Lasea. Phmnice or Phenlce. Gauloa or Clauda. Melito, — Map. No. % — 
Where isSHmothraciaorSamotbrace? Mitylcne or Lesbos 7 SamosT Coos 
orCus? RhodesT Patmoa 1 Point out Italy. lUyricum. Rome. Syra- 
cuBo. Rhcgium, Puteoli. Appii Forum. Cyrene or Cyrcnaica, 

othracia, Mitylene, &.c. T What are 
apostle John banished 7 What did 
newriletnerel What « stiil anown 7 II. What is said of Italy 7 In 
what was it probably included? 12. What was Borne 7 By whom was 
the church established there 7 What ia said of the apostles Peter and Paul 7 
Of Paul 7 Of Syracuae 7 Rhegium 7 Puteoli 7 Appii Forum, Jto. I 

13. What is said of Illyricum 7 Dalmalia? 14. What ^ '" ' 

Vrbirti»»a|dofth ■ - " '^^■■-- ' -^^■—^- 1 



^" am 



SACKED GEOGHAPHY. 



k GEOGRAPHY ILLUSTRATING OUR SA- 
VIOUR'S MINISTRY. 

1. Jests Chhist, our Lord and Saviour, was bom in the lime 
of Her'od, king of Judea, in the twenty-suvGnth yeai of the reign 
of the Emperor Auguslua, and four years before tlie conunence- 
meni of the common era. 

2. His parents, Joseph and the Virgin Mary, resided in Naz'a- 
reth, in Galilee ; but ihey were obliged to repair to Beth'lehem, 
Joseph's birth-place, in order to be taxed ; and there the Saviour 
of the world was bom, and laid in a manger, because there wafi 
no room for them in the inn. (Luke ii. 7.) 

3. Varloua distinct prophecies proclaim tbe time when the Messiah ehuuld 
come The announcement made by Ihe.angel Gabriel (o Miry, bis mother, 
(Luke i. 35), as well sb that of LiiB angel that appeared to tlie Bhepherds at 
nigbl [Lukoii. 11), suiBciently Icatifj to tbo divine nature of bia pereon 

i. On Ibo eigblh doy after bia birth the youthfiil Joaua waa circuiQciaad, 
iiocordiiig lo the law of Mofies, and on the forlielh day he waa preacntod in 
(he temple, wbcn Ibo agtid and devout Simeon pronounced him to be "a 
lig'ht to lighten (be GeDlilea, and the glory of Israel" (Luke iL 32.) 

5. The coming of the Divine iniant naa aiio hailed by the wiae men from 
the East, whoso joumey to Jamsalem and sabflequeul inquiriea troablod 
Her'od, and being determined to deatroy him, he cruelly ordered all the 
children in Bsth'lehem, under two jaarB of age, lo be put to death ; but Jo. 
seph, forewarned of tbe danger, fled to Egypt, with tbe virgin and ber child, 
and on hie return, e.t\et tbe death of tbe tyrant, wcot and reaiJed, aa before, 
at Nai'arelh. (Matt ii. 1—23.) 

6. We have no farther account of tbe earlier ycara of Jesus, aave that he 
"grew and waied atrong in spirit," &e. (Luke ii. 40). When twelve yBara 
of age, the ramarksble scene in Ihe Temple at Jeru'talenj, recorded Luko 
ii. 46, occurred ; after which be returned into Naz'areth, with his parents, 
" and waa subject unio Ibem," (ii. 52.) 

7. At the age of thirty (Luke iii. 33) Jesus waa baptized by John in the 
river Jordan, when the Holy Ghoet descended "like a dove upon him, and a 
voice came from heaven which eaid 'Thou art my beloved Son.'" Hla 
inmiatry is supposed to have lasted about three yeara, during which time 
he taoglit higlier ideas of God, a purer system of morsJs, and nobler views 
uf man and his destiny, than had yet been presented to the world ; be also 

Q.1. In whose time was Dur Lord bom 7 3. What is said of hia parents T 
Ofhiebirtb7 3. What do varicua prophcciea proclaim? What does the 
nnnouncemcnt of the BDgela teuti^T 4. What oecurred on the eighth day 
of his birth ? On tbe fortieth ? 5. What is said of the wiae men ? Of 
Herod T Of Joseph 7 6. What is said of the earlier years of Jeans ? 
7. Whsl occurred when he had arrived at tbe age oflliirty? How long did 
hii ministry last ? What did Jie teach 1 What did ho perforin ? B. What 



DUE SAVIOUR'S MINISTRY. 201 

pcrTormed numeiouB acts nf gnodneas nnd mercy, healed Uie Bick, cured the 
doaf and Ibe Ume, and gave aiglit la tlie blind. 

8. Some lime after the commencement of hia minialrj.Christchose twelve 
diBCiplea ae asaialanla in Mb gresl work of teaching and regenerating maa- 
kiod. Their nam ea were Simon Peter, and Andrew hia brother; Jajnei, 
the BoQ ofZebedee, and John hia brothers Fhilipand fiarthol'amEw; Tbooiaa, 
and Matthew the pablican ; Jumea, the aoncf Alphe'ua, and Lcbbe'Ds, whoaa 
BUmame wna Thndde'ua ; Simon Zelotes, and Judas lacar'ioL 

9. Ailcr his haptiani Jcaua waa led by the apirlt into the wildcmeas, being 
Ibrly days tempted of (he Devil, and did eat nothing, He repelled, how. 
ever, all the arts of the tempter. (Luke W. 13.) He then departed for GsUi- 
leo, and come to Naz'aralh and taught in the aynag-ogue, but tlie people 
thruat liim' out of thoir city. (Luke iv. 1 G— 29,) Thence ho went to Cana, 
where, being invited to a wedding, he perfbimcd hie lirat recorded miracle 
bj turning water into wine. (John ii. T — 9.) 

10. AHer a abort ala; at Caper'naum, he visited other pkccs in Galilee 
and taught in the Bynagoguea, Jesos then went up to the Feaat of ihe 
Paaaover at Jeru'salera A. D. 30, where he ejpelled the dealers in ahoep, 
oien, Slv. from the conrla of tho lemple, (John ii. 12—95.) Departing, 
after a time, from Judea, be journeyed northward to Galilee, through Sanii- 
ria. At Jacob's Well, near Sy 'char, be held the noted conversation witli the 
Samaritan woman, andinuny of tlie people of Sajna' ria believed on him. 
(John iv, 9,) 

11. Arriving at Cana, be healed the nobleman's son, who was sick at 
Capernaum. (Juhn iv. 51.) ProcAding thither he (aught in the synagogue 
aa one having authority ; there he also cast out an unclean epirit, and he^ed 
Peter's wife'a mother ; after which be preached throughout all Galilee and 
cast out devils. (Mark i. 14—39,) 

12. On going lo Jerusalem, to his second PasBover, A, D, 31, Jeans cured 
the lame man at tho Pool of Bethesda, on the Sabbath. (John v. 8.) Snb- 
aequently he delivered tho Bublime discourse called the Sermon on the Mount 
(Matt. T. 1 — 16), after which he healed the Centurion'a servant, and raiaed 
the son of the widow of Nsin to life, (Lulie vii. 1 — IS.) 

13. Christ afterwards takes another journey through Galilee, attended by 
hia disciples and several piona women ; oroBsca tho Sea of Tibc'rias ; etiltB 
the tempest (Molt, viii. 18—37), and arrives in the country ofthe Gergeae'nes 
or Gadare'nea. where he cast devils out of two madmen : he (hen recrosaea 
the sea, to his own city (Caper'naum), and reatorea to life Jai'rua's daugh- 
ter, (Matt, U. 35.) 

Map No. 9, — Point out Nazareth, Bethlehem. Belhabara,, (This was 
the place where our Lord waa baptized,) The Wilderness of Judca. (Here 
lie was tempted.) Mount Quaranlania. (This is aaid to be the mountain 

is aaid of the disciples T Name (hem. 9. What occurred after our Lord's 
baptism? What took place at Nazareth? At Cana 7 10, What is said 
ofCapernaum, Slc. ? Of Jerunalem ? What occurred afterwards at Jacob's 
Well ! 11, Whom did Christ heal at Cana I To what city did he then 
proceed? What took place there? Afterwards? IS. Whom did Jesus 
cure at the aeeond Paaaover 7 What did he do subsequently 7 Whom did 
he heal and raise to life I 13. Whither did Christ afterwards journey? 
What aca did he cross? At what country did he arrive? What miracle 
id he perform there ? At Capernaum ? 




J 



802 SACKED GEOGRAPHY. 

fnini vihoae ninimit tho Dovil shawed Chrljit utl the kiogdams of Ihe world, 
([luko iv. 5.) Point out Cann. C4ticrniiuiD. Galilee. Sanisria. Jb™Ii'» 
Well, Sjchar. Naiii. Mountain uflhe Biaititndei. {Here Chriat delivured 
hi> divine sermon.) Tho country of the Gadsrenea ot Oergesenes. (Tliis 
wu tho Icrnlory iroimd the oily of Gadara.) — Map. Nell. — Whera ia 
UiG Tool of Bulhesda 7 






GEOGRAPHY ILLUSTRATING OUR SAVIOUR'S 

MINISTRY— [continued.] 

1, Abodt thii time, A. D.33, John tbo Baptist wai beheaded by Her'od, 
hriuch Jema hearing oi; retires to n deaett place near BetliBi'idi, in Perai'a. 
Ilaltitudes flook toheai him. There he mirscutousl; fed the 5000. (Mali. 
Sb. 19, 30.) From this place he aent his diaciplea to crois the Sea of Tibe- 
rias, while he went up into a mountain to pmy. During the night, "Jesus 
went unto (hem walking on the aea." When near the abip, Peter, gx>iug' 

and saved liim. ' (Mattiiv. 31.) 

9. About the time of his third Passover, the Kedeemer withdrew to the 
borders of Tyre and Sidoo, ond cast fcrth the devil out of IheSvro-Phfonie'Un 
woman'a daughter (Mark vii. 35 — 30] ; rototning thence he passed through 
the CDUHta of tho Deeap'olis ; feeds the 4CUKI ; Iheuce embarking- on the £a 
of Tibe'rias, he landa near Dalnianu'Uia,Voni whieb place he wont to Beth. 
sa'idu, where he reatareB a blind man's sight. (Mark viii. 5—23.) 

3. Proceeding northward, to CieBare'a PJiilip'pi, Christ acknowledges 
himself to be the Measi'sh, and rebukea Peter. (Matt. ivi. 13—33.) Six 
days aflerwarda he ascends Mount Tabor, as is supposed, where his trans- 
figiiration took place. Deacending from the inannt he casts out a deaf and 
dumb spirit ; and at Caper'naum directs a iish to be caught, in the mouth 
of which a piece of money was found, which he paid to the collector as tri- 
bute. (MalL ivil. 37.) 

4. Our Savionr next went up to the Feaat of Tabernacles, at Jcru'salem, 
where he preached in the Temple (Jolm vii. 3 — 14), and restored the blind 
man to sight by directing him to wash in tho Pool of Silo'am. Leaving 
Jeru'saleiu he proceeds to Belh'any ; enters into the house of Martha and 
Mary, and commends the attention and choice of tlie latter. (Luke i. 33 — 
43.) 

5. Rclurning to Galilee, he instructs his disciples how to pray, and ntleia 
the Lord's Prayer. (Luke li. 1.) Subsequently he cured the woman who 
hid an infirniity for eighteen years, on the Sabbath day (Luke siii. 11—13). 
and afterwards, liavelling through Samaria, cleansed the ten lepers. (Lake 
ivii. 11—14.) 

Q. 1. Who was beheaded by Herod? Wliere did Jesns retire 7 What 
miracle did he perform T What did he then do ) What occuired during 
thenightl S. What miracle did Christ perform in Tyre and SidonT In 
tho DecapolisJ At Bcthsajda7 3. What occurred in proceeding north, 
ward 7 Six days afterwards ? What did our Saviour do on descending the 
Mount? At Capernaum? 4. Where did he nest proceed? What mira- 
olea did he perform there ) What ia said of Bethany ? 5. In what does onr 
Saviour inatruct his disciples ? What miracles does he atlerwarda [lerformT 



OUR SAVIOUR'S MINISTRY. 203 

6. A[ Jemealem, A. D. 33, ut Ihe Feaat of Dedicution, his diaoourffii in the 
lemple go incenEed the Jews, that the; took up Btones to etona him ; he there- 
fore retired be3iond Jordan, to the place where John had baptized. (John 
J. 92—40.) Returning, after a time, to Eelh'any, Christ raiacH Laa'arua from 
the dead. The Jews seeking to put him to death for this miracle, lie retirea 
toa ciljcatledE'phraim. (J^iixi.54.) 8oOD alierwardi, retnrnin? t<iwarde 
Jem'solem Ihroug-h Jer'icho, he restores two blind men to sight [Mult. xx. 
17 — 34), and conTerts Zaccbe'na the publican. (Lube xix. I.) Subw. 
quentlj, at Beth'any, he supe with Lai'arua, and is anointed by Mary. {John 
,H 1-13.) 

T. On the lollowiiig daj' Jesus rode into Jeru'snlpm, attended by a great 
multitude of people, who spread their garments in Ihe road, and cut down 
braoches of trees and strewed them in the way. Oo arriving at the Tem- 
ple, he cast out all that bought and sold in it, and overthrew the tables of 
the money change s and the tables of them that sold dovea, and the blind 
and the lame can e to him there and he healed them (Matt, xx 14) 




& At this tune the Jewish ule s plot au Sano a dest ne on and Ju 
iia agrees with them to betray him. The night before hia death ho ale the 
fbnrlh Passover witli his disciples, and instituted the Lord's Supper. He 
then retires to the garden at Gethaem'ane, wlieie he is arrested by hia ene- ' 
miea. Being carried belbre the Jewish priests, they pronounce him gnilty 
and deliver him over to the Roman magiatralcs, who alone had the power. 
at that period, in Judoa, of Ufe and death ; the Jcwa declaring, "His btood 
be on ue and on our children." (Matt. jiri. 1—75 ; iccvii. 1—25,) 

9. Condemned to die as a malclactor, he is nailed to the cross on Moont 
Calvary, and, in the agony of Ihia bitter death, praya tor the fbrgivenoas of 
bis executionera (Luke nxiii. 34), and with a touching act of filial piety 
commends his mother to his favourite disciple. (John xii. 37.) 



6. What occurred at Jerusalem, at the Feast of Dedication, &.C.7 Whom 
did Christ raise iVom the dead 7 What followed 7 What took place aAer- 
wards I Subscqucnlly 7 7, What did Jesus do on the following day T On 
arriving at the temple 7 What is said of the blind, &.C. 7 S. What ia said 
of the Jewieh rulcra ? Of Judas ! The night betbre his death 7 Where 
What is further related 7 9. What ia stated reepecting 




SALREJJ GEOGRAPHY. 

10, The evangiJiate relate, that &om the timB of noon tl 
darkened, nnd about tliree hanrs nflcrwoxda, Jbbuh, buvin^ cried with a 
tnad vnici', gam up llic ghdit. The mil of the temple, the; odd, was rent 
111 twain, t'riirii tlie tnp to lite botloio i rocks were rent, and the gravoa were 
iipened. The Centurion who wu proeeat directing tlie execution, e>- 
daimed, "Truly this WHS the Son of God." (Matt xirii. 45— S4.) 

1). The bod]' of Jesus was takeo down from the crosa b; Joseph of Ari- 
malhe'a, and placed in a new aepulclire that was in a garden near to Mount 
Calvarj. (John xix. 11.) The Jewieli priests, remembeiing uur Lord's 
prophecy, that he should cise on tiie third day, set a guard, sealing up (he 
great atone that seenred the entrance. {MatL zivii. 57—66.) 

13. Notwithstanding lliese precautions, the prophecy was fiitlilied by bis 
rosutrection on tlie first day of the week; and lie appeared afterwards re- 
peatedly to his disciples, encouraging, consoling, and inatrocting them. On 
the focticth day alUi bis resurrection, vhile with them on the Mount of 
Olives or Ohvct, "be wu taken up, and a cloud recuivcd him out of their 
sight (Acta i. 1— 11.) 

Mop JVo. 9. — Where i> Belhsaida in Peraa? Sea of Tiheriaa 7 Tyre 
and Sidon 1 Decapolis? Dalmanutha? Cssareu Philippi 1 Mount Ta- 
bor 7 Bethany 7 Galilee 7 Samaria 1—Map No. 1 1. — Point out Jemaa. 
lem. The Temple, Pool of Siioam. Gethsemone. Mount Calvary, Point 
out the garden in which was the acpulchre where the body of Ctu-iet waii 



GEOGRAPHY ILLUSTRATING THE FIRST SETTI-.E. 
MENT OF THE CHURCH. 

L After the ascension of the Saviour, the eleven disciples 
relumed to Jerusalem, in order to begin their important mission, 
in obedience to the command of their Divine Master. " Go ye, 
therefore, teach aU nations, baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching ihem to 
observe all things whatsoever J have commanded you." (Matt. 
isriii. 19,20.) 

2, The first act of the aposlies was the selection of Matthias to 
fill the place of Judaa, the betrayer, who had committed suicide. 
(Acts i. 26.) On the tenth day after the Ascension, the day of 
Pentecost, the Holy Ghost came down upon the disciples, em- 
powering ihem to work miracles, and to speak tongues before 
unknown to ihem. 

our Saiiour'a death ? 10. What do the cvangeliBta relate? What did the 
Centurion eiclaira 7 II. What is said of Joaeph of Ariraalliei? Of the 
Jewish priesta ! 13. What took place notwithstanding 7 What occurred 
on the fortieth day 7 

Q. 1. What look place after the aaeension 7 2. What was Ihe^rst ael 
of the apostlea 7 What came clown upon Ihem 7 3. What did they do kt 



FtBST SETTLEMENT OF THE CHURCH. 205 

3. At that time they prencbed lo the deronl Jews sasembJcd at Jcruan- 
lem, addregsing Iheta in Iha UnguogCB of the diSerent counlrii^a frDiii 
whence the; oame ; at which they were all aiaazed, and gladly received tlic 
Word, and were baptiied to the number of three [houaand hiqIb. (Acta ii, 
1—41.) Thus was fcrmed the first Chrislinn church at JeruBalem, A. D, 
33, and Jamea the Lees or Just, the couain of our Lord, was cboaen as iti 
fimt preabylcr or bishop. 

4. The second church was establiehed at Antioch, in Sjtia. by those who 
fled thither aflcr Stephen's death; gnd there, about A. D. 40, the discipk-:t 
were first called Christians. (Acts li. 26.) 

5. The first disciples of oui Lord, as well as those aAerwards added to 
Uieir number, visited as misslcnaries nearl}^ ail the regiona of the earth 
then known. Simon Peter preached tlie Gospel in Paleetine, in the city of 
Antioch, and in Rome, whore he was crucitied A. D. 67. John the Evan- 
gt:liat preached in Palestine, and also in Asia Minor. In the reign of 
Domilian ho waa taken to Rome, and then exiled to the island of Fatmos ; 
bat roturned thence, and died at Bpbesns A. D. 1(10. James called the 
Greater, the brother of John, was put to death by Herod A. D. 44. (Acts lii.) 

6. Of the labours of the other apostles, bnt littlo is recorded In Scriptore. 
and what ia known of them is derived from other aoureea. Andrew, the bro- 
ther of Simon Feter, preached in Greoco, where he was cracilied A. D. 83. 
Philip preached in Alia Minor, and eujiored tnnrtjrdom at Hierapotii, in 

n.I*br;gia. Bartholomew preached in Arabia, Persia and Armenia, and 
I was put to death in the latter country. Thomas preached in Paithia, 
L Baotrls, and in India. Matthew the Evangelist preached in Persia, and 
^ -"id there a martjr. Lebbeas, the brother of James the Loss, called also 
de, preached in Syria, Me«apotaiDia,and Fersia, Simon Zelolca prenchetl 
n Egypt, Llbysiand Maaritanja. 

T. Paul, Burnamed the Apostle of the Gentiles, was bom of Jewish parentii. 
)f the tribe of Benjamin, at Tarsus, in Cilicia^ and inherited all the rigbtn 
if a Roman citizen. He was well instructed both in Hebrew and Greek 
earning, and was at first an implacable enemy of Christ When on a jour. 
' "imascus, A. D. 37, to persecute the Christians there, he wu 
sly converted, and iwcamo a moat ardent and powerfiil preacher 
if the Word, " and laboured more abundantly than alt the others" in con- 
'Erting the heathen. 

8. Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterru. 
~^,an, were the scenes of hia unwearied eiertions. In all his journeys hi' 

boured to establish new churches, and to oonlirra the faith of tJjoss already 
Dating. The churches of Fhilippi, in Macedonia, of Corintli, Ephesus 
■nd Galatia, bononred him a? their founder, and the epistiea tliat ho wrote 
to those that were in the chief oitiea of Greece and Asia Miuor, show tite 
Ml«rnal cara which he eiercised over them. 

9. After labouring ibr more than twenty years in the service of the 
FEedoemei, Paul went to Jernflalem, A. D. 60, with money that he had col- 

' How many were baptized ! What is said of tlie first church ? 
L 4. Where was the second church eetabliahed, &c. 7 5. What is aoid of tile 
" It disciples of our Lord, &C.J Of Simon Fcler ! John the Evangdist? 

mes tlio Greater 7 6. What is said of the other apostles 7 Where did 

Rmdrew preach, &c. ! Bartholomew 7 Thomaa 1 Matthew 7 Lebbeua? 
■*" n Zelotea J 7. What is said of Panl7 What occurred on a journey lo 

aKDS? 8. What counliiea ware the scenes of Paul's laboure! What 

b said of his journeys 7 The churdiea of Fhilippi, &e. 7 9. What occorri c' 
18 



SACRED GEOGRAPHY. 

leeled for tli, relief of oppressed Chriati»na in Paloatina, TUoto the Jews 
excited such a tumult against him, lliat Lyciac, the Romaji commiuidec of 
llie garriBon, was Ibrced lo inlerfere to save him from being torn to pieces. 
He wu then irreetcd Hud Bent, under a. guard of soldiers, LoCieiiareB, wbere 
he wue kept a. prisonoi Jbr two vcars by the Roman fOTemora Featos and 
Fell-. 

10. Having been illegally imprisoned, ho appealed, as a Roman Eitiieo, to 
CDsar, and waa sent to Rome. On the voyage thither he vaa sbipwrecked 
at Melita, and in.the spring of A. D. 63, armed at the capital of the civi- 
lized world. There he was kept as a prisoner, but gained over, notwith. 
■tuiding, many distinguished Romans to the Christiati fatlh. Paul was set 
at liberty A. U. St ; but the accounts of his farther travels in Spain, Maae- 
donia, and Greoce, are doubtful. In A. D. 6^ he returned to Rome, waa 
again arrested, and died the death of a martyr. 

11. Mark the Evangelist wu the friend and companion of the apoatle 
Peter, under whose direction he composed hia Goapel He preaohed at 
Alexandria, in Egypl^ and is regarded as its first bishop. He died ihece 
A. D. 63. Luke, the remaining evangelist, wrote tlie Gospel that is called 
br his name, and also the Acts of the Apostlss. He waa loog the compa- 
nion ofPsul, and joined in all his labours. While Paul was a priaoner at 
Rome, Luke preached the Gospel in Northern Alrica and in Eastern Europe, 
and at length Buffered martyrdom in Greece. 

IS. As early as the end of the jirat century, Palestine, Syria, Aaia Minor, 
Greecr, the istanda of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy, and the northern coast 
of AJVica, contained many Christian aocieliea. Their eccleaiasticul disci- 
pline was simple and conlotmable to their humble condition, and they con- 
tinned to acquire strength amidst all the persecutions that were raised 
Bgainat Ihcm. 

13. At the end of the accond century, Christiana were to be found in all 
the provinces; and at the end of the third century, one-half the inhabitants 
of the Roman empire, and of several neighbouring countries, professed 
Christianity. It waa at length completely toTerated by Ibo emperor Constan- 
tine, in the early part of the Ibutth century (A. D. 313), and thenceforward 
became the establiahed religion of the civilized vrarld. 

Map Nt, 5. — Point out Antioch. Point out the countriea and places con. 
nectedwiththelabourBoftheapoetlesPeterand John. OfAndrew. Philip. 
The oUier apostles. Of Paul. The place of his birth. Conversion. Im. 
prisonment for two years. Point nut the track of Si. Paul's voyflge. From 
what part in PalesLne did it commcneo! At what city in Phraiieia did the 
ship touch? In Asia Minor T In the island of Crete? Point out the 
island ou which the apostle was shipwrecked. At what city in Si<uly did 
he afterwards touch? What strait did he sail through? At what port in 
Italy did bo arrive? What town did he then reach? What city termi- 
nated the voyage ? Point out (he city where Mark preached, and of which 
he waa biahop. The regions where Luke preached. 

to the apostle A. D. 59 ? 10. What was the result of his illegal imprisotf 
ment? What occurred on the voyage? At Rome? What ia lartfaer 
ataledofPaul? 11. Whatissaid of Mark? Luke ? 19. What bad occurred 
by the end of the Erst ceotury, ii.c. ? 13. At the end of the second ? At the 
end of the third? When waa Chiistiuiity completely tolerated? 



CHRONOLOGY. 



1. Chrosology is the w 



; of computing and adjusting the 
It [LsceTtains when eveutB occurred, and assigns 
ct dale. Thus we learn from ii that the world was 
ars before CKcisl, and lliat the Rood took place 1(556 
leation ; and so of all other known and ascertained 
1 ia placed in connection with its proper period or 



K created 4004 y< 
W years after the i 

ijraar. 

^ 2, Of tho ImnBactions between the Creilion and the Flood, we know 
r nothing except from Scripture, and of annj of thoee whicli occurred after 
I'the Bond, and before the time .of Christ, we know nothing with cerl&int;, 
t -except from the same source ; but about SOO or 900 years before our Saviour's 
I time, a auocesBion of profkne historians arose, fi-om whom, espuciollj those 
[^-Of Greece and Rome, numerous facta in Chronology have beDD obtained. 

Eras, Epochs or methods of chronology have been adopted by 
•ns. Tlie Greeks reckoned time bj Olympiads of four yeara 
cing from tlio year TTS betbro ChrisL In marking: a date by 
is method, the year and OJympiad were both given ; for example, the year 
^«45 is the Brst ofthe (UGth Olympiad. The Romana reckoned time from 
le rounding of Rome, 753 years before Christ. Dates reckoned from tliii 
TO are designated by the initials A. U. C. (ah urbe condila ; that is, from the 
wilding of the city). The year 1845 is tho 359Bth year of the Roman 

i. The Clirislian Era, now in use amongst all Christian notions, was first 
I'introduced in the sixth century, but was not very generally adopted for 
Tiome centuries alter. This iK^ins 4004 years after (he creation of the 
E Vorld, and four years after (he birth of our Saviour. Dates reckoned back- 
are usually marked B. C, or before Chriet, but those reckoned for- 
iro distinguished by the prefix A. D., signifying Anno Domini, or in 
irofonrLord. 
i. Tho Mahomedans reckon timo from the Hegini, or flight of Mahomet 
o Medina, in tho year 622 after Christ ; but they use the lunar 
r of 354 days; so that thirly-two of our yeara make thirty-three of 

The year 1845 is the lH60th year of the Hegira. 
6. Many other epochs or eras have been need iu different countries, and 
■ '" ---•■• TheJewB,Egyplian»,Tyrians, Babylonians, Persians, 
nations, have each had their eras. The Hindoos and 
ml day have modes of reckoning timo which differ &om 
, each other, as well aa from our method. In the United States, public docu- 
ments, proelam aliens, &,c, have often, besides the dale in common use, the 
year of the nalinnal independence allaehed lo them. This ia eompnted 
from July 4, 1776, and hence may be reckoned a national era or chruno. 
loeiciU period. 




CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



Ckution Of rat Womj), 

Birlh of Nonh. _ 

The Flood or Dehige covers the whole earth. — Lsots about a jeni. 

iioat) quits Iha AtK ; aficra BUcrilicCB of thanhBgiving ; GoA appoitits 
the rainbow us D pledge that he will nevec again deatioj tlie e 
by the waters oFu Saod, (Gen. ii. It.) 

The Tower of Babel built; conJiuion of longoBgea; diapenioi 
mankind. 

Babylon founded by Kim rod j NineTeh founded by Asahnr; com- 
luencemeDt of the Assyrian monarchy. 

The Egyptian monarchy founded by Mizraim ; continaea 1663 year*. 

Age of Ninus and Semiramis, Assyrian monarclis. 

Sicyon Ibundcd — the earliest town in Greece ; tSidon founded. 

Birth of Abrnni, in Ur of the Chaldee*; 1993 Noah dies. 

Call or Akrau; ho leaves Ur; comes to Haran, where his father, 
Terah, dies, seed 205 years ; emJErntcs to Canaan, with Saroi his 
wile, and Lot nil nepiiew, end dwells at Shecbem. 

Abram removes to Egypt; returns the samp year. 

Abram defeats Cbedorlaomcr and the confederate kings ; rescues Lot. 

Birth oflshmael, the sou of Abram and Hagor. (Gen. ni. 16.] 

Deslruclion of Sodom, Gomorrah, &.<:. ; Lot retires to Zoar ; Abram's 
name ehanged \a Abraham ; Sarai'a changed to Sarah. 

leaac born at Beerehebaj 1871 offered up ns a sacrifice by his father. 

Birth of Esau and Jaeoh; 1831 Abraham dies. 

Argos founded by the PelaBgions, under Inacbus. 

Jaeob retires to liis uncle, Laban, in Padan Aram ; 1745 Joseph barn. 

Jacob returns Co Canaan ; resides at Shecbeni. 

Joseph sold bj his brethren; 17lS Isaac dies. 

Joseph raised to distinction in Egypt. 

Jacob removes to Eg^pt; 1689, his death; 1633 Joseph dies. 

HyksDs or sbepberd kings conquer Egypt ; they oppress (he Tsraelites. 

Ago of Job; 1575, birlh of Aaron; 1571, birth of Moses. 

Athens founded by Cccrope; 1531 Moses leaves Egypt 

Tyre founded; Gades foonded ; 1493 Thebes founded by Cadmui^ 

Moses returns to Egypt ; Eioilu* or Departure of the Israelitca from 
Egypt i cross the Bed Sea ; law given on Mount Sinai. 

Death of Aaron, aged 123 years; buried on Mount Hor, 

Sihon defeated at Jahaz; Death of Moses, aged 1 30 years; Og de- 
feated at Edrei ; the Isroelites cross Jordan ; capture Jericho; sun 
and moon stand still at the eomuand of Joshua ; 1445, 1444 the 
land ofCotiaan divided among the Twelve Tribes. 



k 



Bhuheinr How old was Abi 
How Innf did Alrahsm live 1 

.. Whereis Alhem? How 

Csdesl Thsbei>(enek)T Hnw 




CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



1413 Death of Joshua, aged lia jean; 14S3 Tribcof Benjamin deriroycd. 
HOB Age of Mino8,lhe Cretan lawgiver; HOS Othniel fital judge of larael. 
UOO Troy founded ; PelaBgians eipelled from Greece by the Hellenee. 
1365 Age of Seaoatrisjkingof Egypt; a groat conqueror; buUl magnificent 



1339 Amphietyonic counnil eatabliahed. 

1300 Voyage of tlie Argonaata fiom Aphetm, in Theaaaly, to Cotchia, nndei 
the command ofJaaonj Here lilea, Thosens, and his other compa- 

l.liSO Age of Mceria, king- of Egypt ; he causes lake IHoBfis to be dug, to 
I receive the aurplna waters of the Nile. 

13B5 Barak and Deborah defeat Jabin. 
1343 Age of Gideon; defeats the Midianitea and Moabites. 
1187 Jephtho, the tenth judge oflsrael, sacriiicea his daughter. 
" " ' "" ' red, after a siege of ten yeara ; j' 

ledes, Nef tor, UlyaaeB, Helen, I 
e, &c.; .^neaa sails for Italy. 
1156 Age of Eli; 1155 birth of Samuel ; 1150 Utioa, in Africa, founded. 
1124 /EtAlan colonies eatabliahed in Asia Minor. 

1107 Age of Samson : judged Israel twenty years i betrayed to the Phi- 
listines by Delilah ; buries himself under the ruins of the temple 
of Dagon, with a gre^t nunihei of bis enemies. 
1100 Salamia founded by Teucer. 

1095 Saul first king oflsrael ; 1085 Birth of David; 3063 slays Goliath. 
1055 Death ofSauf; snccession of David j I048crowned king of ail Israeli 

1047 takes Jerosalem from the Jebusites, 
1014 Settlement of the Ionian coloniea in Asia Mbor; AgeofHomer; the 
cities of Smyrna, Chioa, Colophon, Salamia, Rhodes, Argos and 
Athens afterwords contend for the honour of his birth. 
1037 The Moabites and Ammonites conquered by David. 
1035 Rabbath Ammon taken by Joab; Uriah killed at the siege. 
1033 Birth of Solomon; Age ofHiram, king of Tyre. 
1014 Death of David ; succeeded by Solomon ; Moat flourishing period of 

the kingdom of larael. 
1003 Temple at Jerusalem built and dedicated by Solomon. 
994 Dorians eatabliah colonies in Aaia Minor. 

975 Death of Sdoman; Rehoboam succeeds him; his tyranny cauacs a 
division of the realm into the kingdoms of juduli and Israel; Jero. 
boam king oflsrael ; Rehoboam king of Judah. 
STl SMshak, king of Egypt, plunders the temple at Jerusalem. 
907 Age of the poets Homer and Heaiod ; 900 Pygmalion, brother nf Dido. 
897 Ahab, king of Israel, slain ; Ahaziah, king cf Judah; Elisha taken 

up to heaven; 884 Jehu king of Israel. 
880 Lyeurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, 

a. Wbea wia JihIiub bora? Haw Jong alncelVo; wa> fnunited? Point ool Aphs- 
tB. On wbil Eiiir was LI ailualed ] ThiaiiEfi what bhb sad alialla. and nait whal 
i>lan(lididlheArE<ii>aiilBiBilaiithdIVDyagetnCnlehiiT Whcra wasCMcliiiT What 
iilta modem name! When i>lakeMcBn>! WHpre waiClica? How langriidTrnj ri- 




CHHONOLOGICAL TABLE, 



878 Cartilage founded by Dido, a Tyrian princese. 
. 827 Ethiopnin»coDquerEfjpt!8a5JoQaliviail6Nineveli;[IiBpeoplerepent. 
fflO Death of Sardanatialuai Firat Asijrian empire dealroyod; Median em- 
pire founded ; Kingdom orMawdoaia founded. 
BID Uiiiah, king of Judati, tiifcee iJie ciUm of the PhilietincB. 
BOO Pcraopobs built ; 776 Eia. of the Olympiads begins. 
773 Fu! invsdci larael. 

7S3 Rome ibundcd, April SO ; T43 First MeEsenian war laate 10 yearn. 
740 Damoreus taken by Tigloth-pileaer. 
73a SyracuK founded i 730 Tarentum founded. 

739 Samaria taken by Slmlmaneieti End of Iha kingdom of Israel ; Cap- 
tivity of the Ten Ttibes. 
713 Sennacherib tbrealenn Hezcklah ; liis army miracutouBly destroyed. 
685 Second Mesacnian war; laats fourteen years; Ira besieged elefen 

G57 Holofenies slain by Juditb, near Bethulia. 

GoO Naval'baUIa between the Corcyreana and Corinthians — IbelirBtBea- 
fight on record. 

641 Joaiah king of Jodah reforms abuaes; realorca tbe worablp ofGod. 

ti3D Gyrene fuuiided ; t>S7 Nabopolaizar king of Babylon. 

Ijtij Age of Pliaraoh Necho; Tyrians in bis service ijail round AMca. 

CU7 Nineveh taken by the Modes and Babylonians. 

tiU4 Age ofPittacus (general of Mitylene) ; Sapplio (Greek poeteas). 

594 AgeofExekicl. 

aOl Fylbian Games begin ; Ago afTbalea (pliiloaopher) ; JEsap (kbulisl). 

38B Nebuchadnvuar takes JiTusalcm ; End of the kingdom of Judah; Be- 
ginning of the Bnbylonish captivity; 573 Nebachudncziar lakes 
Tyre, afler a siege of thirteen years. 

iJ70 Voyage ofHonno tHong the west coast of Africa; about the same time 
Himiico sails to Britain. 

360 Union of tbeMedes and Persians; Cyaxarea king of the Medes. 

359 Persian empire founded by Cyrus ; Age of Anaximander, invenler of 
globea ai ' ' 



548 Cyrus defeats CrtEsua at Thymbra; Takes Sardis; Conquers Lydia. 
539 Messilia founded ; .4ge of Pytliogoras (philosopher] ; Anacreon (poet). 
538 Cyrus takes Babylon ; age of Daniel ; 535 Cambyaes conquers Egypt. 



I Age oTDariuB Hystaspcs; 518 End ofthe Babylonish captivity. 

516 Ageof ArlaxerxcB Longimanus or Ahasuerua; Queen Eathei. 

515 The Temple of Jerusalem rebuilt; .^10 Sybaria, in Italy, destroyed. 

309 Consular government eatahltabed in Rome. 

^04 Athenians burn Sardis; Age of Heraclitns (naluralisl) ; Democedea 
(plifaiciau) ; 500 Milcaians emigrate from Spain to Ireland. 

500 First Porsian war againalGreece;490BaltleofMarathDn; the Greeks, 
commanded by Miltiades, defeat the Peraiana, under Dates and Arla- 
phaneai 480 Xerxes crosses the Hellespoal at Abjdos; Invades 
Greece; Battle of Tliermopyle ; Naval battles of Artemisium and 



Kitiral Belhulia? Crmaer Mlnff- 



Ho» ion. dl 
.ipan/_4.i 



i> Thymhraf BaMiiT 



«iUa! 11^ 
Th^miopyl 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 311 

ac. 

SalaniiB; Age of ThcmisIocleB (Allieninn gtalBBCnan^j Anaxagoru 

(philGSopher) ; Pindar (poet); jEathjlm (tragic wtiler) ; Corinna 

[poetEBs), 
479 Baltlea of PIilBa and Mjoale on the Bsme day, 
470 The Athenians, undar Cimon, defeat Iho PorsianB, on tlie Eurjinodon 

liver, twice in one da;, first on water and then on land. 
4GS Third Messenian war ; lasU ten years. 
43T BalUe of Tanigra ; Age nf Ferlclea (Athenian Btutegunui). 
445 Age of Herodotua (histarian) ; Phidias (sciilplor). 
431 Fiiet Pelnponncsian war commeDces ; continaeB twentj-aeven years ; 

Age of Hippocratea (phyaician) ; Democratca (philoaophei, Sli:.). 
434 BcEOtians detbal the Albeniana at Delium. 
lOG Naval battle of £gos Putumos i Athenian fleet defeated by the Sp^. 

tans ; Age of Prolagoraa (pbilasopher) | Farrhasina (painter). 
401 Battle ofCnnaiBi Death of Cyrus the younger; Retreat of the ten 

thousand under Xenophon. 
400 Death ofSocrutea; 3UtiAgeofZei]xiE(psiDter]i Aiietippus (philosopher). 
31t3 Veil besieged hy the Romans for ten years. 
394 Spartans defeat the Thebans at Coroneea ; Falerii taken by Camillus ; 

age of the Cyrenaic philosophers. 
3ti3 Battle of (lie AUia; Gauls defeat the Romans; bum Rome; inhabitants 

By to Coire or Agylla j Gauls defeated near Gabii by Camillus. 
379 AgoQfP!alo[philoBophor); Conon [Athenian commander); Epaminoii. 

daa and Pclopidas (Thoban generals); Diogenes (Stoio). 
371 Epaminondas defeats the Spartans at Leuctra; 370 builds Mesaene in 

eig:bty-Gic days ; Founds Megalopolis ; Age of Eudoius (astronomer). 
3S3 Battle at Maji^eai; death of Epominondaa. 
360 Methonc captured ; Philip of Macedon loaes hia right eye. 
357 Fhncian war begins ; Lasts ten years ; 335 Alexander born. 
351 CaptnreofSidon by ArtaierieaOelms, 

343 Age of ArJBlotlH (philosopher) , Demosthcnea (orator) ; Phocion (Athe- 
nian general). 
338 BallleofCha;ronea; Philip defeaU the Athenians and their allies. 
336 Philip asaasainaled ; Archidamus, king of Sparta, killed in battle at 

ManduriiB. 
335 Aleiandor the Great deatroys Thebea ; 334 conquers Greece ; begins 

his Persian expedition ; battle of the Granicus ; 333 battle of Issus ; 

siege ofTyre; 332 conquers Egypt; founds the city of Alexandria ; 

visits the temple of Jupiter Ammon ; 331 crosses the Euphrates at 

Thapascus ; battle of Arbela ; &1) of the Persian empire; death of 

Darius Codomanua ; 3S6 Defeat of Purus by Alexander ; the latter 

allemards descends the Indus to the aea; hla admiral, Nearchus, 

narigatea a fleet from the Indus to the Tigris; Age of Apelles 

(painter); Antipater (Macedonian general, &.C.). 
333 Death of Alexander, May 31 ; his empire divided between Ptolemy, 

CasGaoder, Lyaimachus and Seleucus. 
a. Where wa. Plalaa ! Mycale? WlialMa lay betwcBn rhow plac**! Poiiil ool 



ID I BldonT CluerDi 



CHHONOLOGICAL TABLE 



350 Sunnitcs defeat tlie RominB ticat CaudJam; tlieir army pans under 

thcCaudino Fork*; A^ of Prailteles (soulptor) ; DemetriuB (orulor); 

PhnleriuB Theopompua (hialorLiiii) ; Apollodorns (poet). 
3]S SeleucUB tnkei Bnbylon [ dynnsly of the Seleucidffl hcgms. 
310 PytheiB, tbe navigitoi, wiili from Uadoa to Tliole. 
301 Biiltlcoflpsus, between Antigonue and Ptolemy, Seleiiciis,Lysiniacliiis, 

and CoBsander ; Age nf Zeno [philosnpheT). 
£93 The Sabiaes cooquercd by Cutiua Dentalua ; Age of Euclid (matbema. 

984 Tbe Pha^oB, or lieh^bolU. 
ae: The AcbBan League fon 

for mutual dalbnoo. 
280 Tbe Rotoani defeated at Pandoeia hj PyrrhuB, king of EpiniB ; Age of 

AnliochuB lat, Burnaiucd Soter, king of Syria. 
374 RomanadeteatPrirhun: 273, Conquer Samnium, after & TO years' wai. 
2G3 FiiEt Punic war bcgina; conlinuct Iwenty-six yeara ; 360 I>uillius ob- 

taiuB the first naval victory gained over the Carthaginians by tbe 

Romana ; 356 Regulua defeated by Xantbippua ; Age of Diodatiu. 

351 Age of Eralxiatlienei (inathemalician) ; CallimacbUB (poet). 
349 Aadrobal defeated at Panormus, in Sicily, by MetelluB. 

346 Araocea founds [ho Parthian tmpiro; Ago of Hamilcar, a noted Car- 
thaginian general, and father of Hannibal. 
943 The Romans defeat the Carthaginians at eea, near the iEgades islands; 

991 The Romans Uke Corsica and Sardinia. 

334 Tbe %iartan king CIcomenes III. defeated fay Anliponus DoBon ; Co- 
lossuB, at Rhodes, overthrown by an eaitliquake; Age of Apolloniiia 
(poet) ; PhiloiMBmen (Achiean general). 
. 31S Hannibal takes Saguntum; originates the second Punic war, wbich 
iBBts seventeen years; 318 Crosses (he Alps; defeats the Roroims, 
first on the river Ticinua, then en the Trebia ; 317 Battle of Trosi- 
menas— his third victory ; 316 Battle of CanniD— his fborlh victory; 
50,000 Romans slain ; Capua declares in his favour. 

312 Marcellua lakes Syracuse, after a three years' siege; death of Archime- 
des, the noted geometrioian. 

SDG Asdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, defeated and slain by the Romans 
— ■ -' - - ^ - .. -. ,jj ^^ • ■ 



Age of Syphai (Latin poet) ; Enoius (Latin poet) ; Massinisso, king 

302 Sicilv becomes a Roman province. 

301 Battle of Zama; Hannibal defeated by Scipio AfrioanuB; end of th« 

second Punic war. 
300 Romuu conquer Dlyricum; lOT, defeat the Maeedoniana at Cynoa. 

cephaliB ; 196 Hannibal banished from Carthage, 
190 ADtiocbus detbated by the Consul Actliue at Thermopyls ; Ago of 

Calo the elder. 
187 Scipio Asiattcua defeats Antlochus 1. at Magnesia ad Sipylnm. 
186 Scipio Africaniia banished to Liturnuin. 
183 Death of HoDnibol, in Bithynia, by poison, aged aiity-Gve. 




CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



8 Imorrection of Uie Macoabeea againEt AnUochus, king- of Sjria. 

8 PauluB ,4Jnilius dtfeats PereeuB ut Pydna ; MaGedonia becomes a Ro. 

man province ; Age of Hippaichua [philoaoplier) ; Polybius (hinlo- 
rian), &C. 
7 Epirua conquered by the Romans; 165 Age of Jodae Maccabeeus. 

9 Third Punic war begins; 14G Scipio deetrnys Carthage; Mummiiis 

dcEtrofa Corinth ; Agatharcliides (Greek geograplicr). 
7 Demetrius Nicator defeated at Damascus b; Alexander Zebina. 
3 NumanCia deatroyed by the inhabitants ; Spain beconies a Roman pro- 

TincBi The limgdom of Pergamus beqiieatbed to the Romans by 

Allalufl, its last king. 

1 TiberiuB Gracchus treicherously Blain at Fotetitia. 

3 Jugurthine war begins; lusts five years; 106 Jugurtha bclrayed by 
Bacchus to the Romans ; Armenia Majoi becomes a Roman province. 
5 Aristobulus crowned king of the Jaws; 106 Pompey bom at Rome. 

2 Marius defeats the Cimbri aod Tculooes at Aqute Sexts ; 101 defeats 

the Cimhii on the Raudian Plains. 
Birth of Juliua CieBBr, July IS ; this monUi was named aRer him. 

2 Bocchus sends Sylla a present of 100 lions i>ooi Africa. 

9 The iUithridatic war hegins ; lasts twenty-six years ; 86 Sylla defeats the 
consuls Carbo and Cinna; Meteltus (consul]; Sertorius (Roman 
general) ; 78 death of Sylla ; 76 CalagTitis besieged by Pompey ; the 
inhabitants, reduced to extremity, feed on their wives and children. 

5 Bithynia bequeathed to the Romans by Nicomedes. 

3 Sertorius asaaBsinated by Perpenna and others at Osca. 

3 Servile war begins ; Roman slaves revolt against their masters, imder 

Spaitacus; defeated, two years afWtwarda, by Pompey and Crss. 

2 Lncnllus deleats Mithridates the Great at Cabira ; 69, defeats Tigra. 

nes ; captures Tigranocerta ; 68, defeats Mithridates at Zela ; tiG, 
again at Nicopolia. 
7 Pompey takes Coracesium; 65, dethrones Antiochus Asiaticus. 

4 PoDlus annexed to Rome ; Death of Mithridates the Great. 

3 Palestine conquered by Pompey ; Catsiine defeated and killed at Pis- 

First triamviraleofCiEaar.Pompey and Crassus; Age of Catullus (poet) ; 

Cicero (orator) ; Sallust (historian) ; Roscius (actor), &c. 
7 Gaul becomes a Roman province ; 55 Cssar invades Britain. 
3 Craseus plunders the Temple of Venus at Ulerapolis ; his defeat and 

death, by the Parlhians, near CarrhiD. 

1 Siege and capture of Pindeniaaua by Cicero. 

Civil war between Cosar and Pompey ; 49 Ctesar crossea the Rubicon , 
takes Ariminum ; 48, defeats Pompey at Pharsalia, July 30th ; death 
of Pompey. 

7 Cbsot de&ats Phamaces at Zela ; writes from thence his &mous tetter 
of three worda, "Veni,y)di,vici;" 46 Victorious at Thapsus; Death 
of Cato ; 45 Battle of Munda ; the last in which Cosar commanded. 




CHKOKOLOGICAL TABLE. 



44 Cteaar killed in the Senote-hoDge, Moicb I5th, by BriituB, Cuasius, Sui. 
43 Anlcm; defeats Uie consul Panga, und is dejeateil (lie BBme day by 

Hirtius; Cicero murdered by order of Anton j ; Age of Varro (hiHto- 

lian an^ philoBopher) ; Diodunia Siculiu and PompciiiB (.liiBtDriaiis). 
43 Antony and Ocl&vius defeat Bnitiu and Caasiiu at Fhilippi. 
ai Herod, an Idumeati. placed on the Jewiab tbione. 
31 Naval battle at Actium ; OclariaB dcJcaCa Antony ; Endi Iht Common 

teealti af Rant. 
Death of Antony ar 
9 Raman ftnpWi brgiai. 
37 I'iUs of AugUBlus given to Oclavius; Aa^oBtan age; Virgil, Livy, 

Otid, PropertiuB (poets); Horace (historian); DionysiuB Halicaj- 

30 Roman utandarda taken from CroiEUB rCBlored to AugUBtuB, by Fbraates, 

kinBofPnrthia; death of Virgil. 

19 Koricum and Pannonia conquered by tile Romans ; Candaco, queen of 

Mcroe, in Ethiopia, blind of an eye, invadca Egypt, but is repelled. 
15 Ithietia and Vindelicia conquered by Drusus. 
6 ArcbelaiiB, aurnamed Herod, banished to Vienna, in Gaul. 

4 JisusCbilist, our Saviour, born lour years bcliire the vulgar era, Dec. 95. 

2 Murder of the infanta at Bethlehem, by order of Herod; bis death; 

ArcbelauB suocecda him. 

A. D., First year of ike Christian Era, 4004 j(orj after the Creation. 

3 Silk first iotroduced into Rome. 

E Procnrators or governors appointed over Judea. 

5 Christ, at twelve years of age, is three days in (he temple. 

3 AiminiuB or Herman, a German chie^ destrnye the arm; of Tbtdb ; 
this defeat cauaea a great sensation alRome; Ovid banished to Tomi. 
14 Aagnstos diea at Nolo, afUr a reign of forty-Rvc years; succeeded by 
Tiberius ; Age of Germanicus (Roman general). 

20 Jews eipclled from Italy by Tiberius ; 98 Age of Strabo (geographor). 
29 John the Baptisl commences preaching ; 30 Baptizes our Saviour. 

31 Our Saviour delivers the Sermon on the Mount. 

aa Feeds the 5UO0; his transftguration ; John the Baptist beheaded. 

33 Onr Saviour's death ; First Cbrialian Church at Jerusalem. 

37 Conversion of St, Paul; Death of Tiberius ; succeeded by CaUgula; 

40 the latter assassinated. 
41 Seneca banished lo Corsica; is recalled eight years aflcrwards; Age 

of PomponiuB Mela (geographer). 
43 Eipcdition of Claudius into Britain ; SI Caractacus, British king, taken 

' OB a prisoner to Rome. 
52 Paal visits Athens; 51 preaches the Gospel at Ephesus; Age of Pcraius 

(satirist); GO Lucan (poet). 

60 St. Pan] arreated ; G3 voyage to Rome ; 63 arrives in that city. 

61 Boadicea defeated by Suetonius PuulinUB at Camulodunum. 

68 Nero dies; Joscphua (historian) ; Pliny (natoraliat); Petrooiua (poet> 

69 Galba slain; Suicide of (Xho; Vitcll us slain. 



BiTDmiT Whsra 



CHKONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



70 Jeniaileni lakon and doslroyed by Titus, Sept, Sth; Agrioola'a fleet saila 
around Britain; Agiicola promotes uaeral arts among the Britons. 

76 Agricoia dofeala Galgacus at tlie Toot oftlie Grampian HiUa. 

79 Herculaneum, Pompeii, and other cities, overwhelmed b; an Eruption 
of Mount Vesuvius ; Death of the elder Pliny. 

ei Tituadieg,a^40i Age of MarUal (poet) ; Quintilian (rhetorician). 

96 Domitiao sloin; Age ofTacitus (liiatoiian] ; Juvenal (satlrisl). 
103 Dacia conquered by Trajan j 106 Ago of Pliny the youuger i Plutarcli. 
117 Death ofTrajan.nlSelinus, in Cilicia; auoceeded by Adriao. 
laO Wall built by Adrian across Brilain. 

139 Death of Adrian, aged 71 ; Antoninus (emperor) ; Ptolemy (geographer!. 

140 Wall built by Antoninus across Britain. 

163 Death of Polycarp the Martyr; Age ofGalen (physician). 
180 Marcus Aurelioa (emperor) dies at Sirmiuin. 

193 The Emperor Commodus data ; Pertinai aucceeda him. 

194 Severua dsfbals Niger at Issus ; becDmeg emperor. 

SIO Wall built across Britain by Severus; 318 Heliogabal us emperor. 
326 ArtaxerjscaruundsSdPersianeaipire; DynastyoftheSaasanides begins. 
238 Maximiuus killed by hia own aoldiers before the walla of Aquileia. 

This emperor was a monster of cruelly, and of gigantic siic and 

strength, being eight feel high. 
339 Sapor I. capluree the emperor Valerian, and Qays him alivo ; Odenalus 

king of Palmyra J Gallienus succi:eda Valerian. 
QG7 Odenatua diea ; Zenobia,hia wile.assumes thetltle of Queen oflhe East. 
370 Death of Claudius; Aurelian succeeds ; regards Zcnobia as a uaurper ; 

273 dcfeata her al Antioch and Emeaa ; 373 captures Palmyra ; takea 

Zenobia prisoner; puts Longinua, ber secretary, to death. 
S75 Emperor Tacltua; 2BU Emperor Prabus kilted, near Sirmium. 
38G Agu of the emperors Diocletian and Maiimianus. 

305 Both resign Ibeir authority to enjoy private life; the flrst retires to 

Salona, in Ulyricum, and the other to Loeania. 

306 Constantine the Great proclaimed emperor; 313 eelabliahea Chriatian- 

ity asthe religion of the empire; 315 defeats Licinius st Cibalis ; 

324, again at Adripnopolia ; 338 removes the government from Rome 

to Byzantium. 
338 Death of Constantine ; succeeded by his sons Cooetonlinus, Conslan- 

tiuB and Constans. 
348 Sapor defeats Coualantius at f^ingara; 350 CouBtanliua solo emperor; 

351 di>feats Magnentius at Mursa; 353, again at Mons Seleucus. 
360 Julian the Apostate (emperor) ; 363 dies ; Next year Juvicin dies. 
3GT Age of Ausonius (poet) ; 3T5 Emperor Gratian, 

379 Valens defeated by the Gotha at Adrianopolis. This was tlio moat dia. 

astroua defeat experienced by the Romans since the battle of Cannie. 

380 Age of SL Augustine, one of the fathers of the Church. 

395 Tfaeodoaius, emperor, divides the Roman empire between his sons Arca- 
dius and Honoriu^ into Eastern and Western. 



BONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



403 Slilicha derosted b; Ihe Goths nt Pallentm. 

4DT The Alans, Vaodalii nad Socvea inVBde Gaul and Spain. 

408 Alaric tukes Bonio lirslliniei 409, second Lime; 410, third time ; the 

city given up to plunder for aii dajs; Deith of Alatic ; Kingdom oC 

Burgundy founded. 
441 Age ofSl, Patrick ; 448 Roroana leavB Britain ; Neit year An^lea and 

Sixona land under Heagiat and Horaa. 
451 Attija defeated at Durocatataunuui ; 453 destroys Aquileia ; 453 Dies 
455 Rumo captured by Geneseric, king of the Vandals : Heptarchy cstab- 

4T4 lioniulua Auguatulua, last emperor of llie WoBt. 

4TS End ^ fht Boman Empirt. 

48B Odoocer, chief of Iho Huruli, becomes king of Italy ; Oalrogotha iiirade 
Ital^ and defeat Odoacer, 

49G Clovia the Great, king of France; Fondat ayatem begins, 

529 Age of Jastinian; Bi^lisariua [Raman general). 

63S Mahomel, aged 53, fliea from Mecca to Medina, irhieb forma Ihe fir^l 
year of Uie Hegira or Mahometan Era. 

633 Death of Mahomet; Abubeker, his auccesaor or first Caliph. 

G3G Saracens conquer Egypt ; destroy the Aleundrian Library. 

TI9 The Moors invade Spain ; 113 conquer the Visigoths. 

743 Charleraagna, son of Pepin the Short, born ; 768 crowned king of [he 
Franks j 774 crowned king of Italy i 800 crowned Emperor of the 
West, by Pope Leo IIL; 814 Dies. Charlemagne was the moel 
poweriiil Christian monarch of the middle agca : he was a renowned 
warrior : be also encouraged learning and religion, and colleclcil 
around him the most noted scholars of his time. 

S37 The Hoptareby united under Egbert, king of England. 

843 Kenneth Macalpine first king of Scotland, 

849 Alfred, king of England, bom; 873 ascends the throne; 901 Die?. 
This monarch rescued his country from the power of tlie Danes; en- 
couraged learning and reUgion ; enacted wiso laws, and laid th>: 
foundation of Ihe naval power of Britain 
1000 Brian Bom or Brian Ihe Great, king of nil Ireland. 
1066 Danes expelled from England ; 1095 Crusades begin, lost until 1270, 
1164 Getigis Khan, Tartar conqueror, boni; subdues China, and half Ihe 
rest of Asia, besides a portion of Eastern Europe; Dies A. D. 1327. 
lUa Henry 11. asaumes the tiUo of Lord of Ireland. 

^:^3.'i Tamerlane, Tartar conqueror, born; 1307 makes Samarcand his capi- 
tal; 1390 invades Hindoostan; conquers many countries in the East; 
1402 defeats Bajazct, Sultan of the Turks, at Anoyra or Angora i 
takes him prisoner, and, according to some accounts, conlinea liini 
in an iron cage. 
1453 Constantinople taken by the Turks, which ends the Eastern Empire. 




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